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Apparel and Footwear: The Black Consumer - US - August 2010

African Americans view fashion as a means to influence how they’re viewed by the world and express what they think of themselves. Rather than follow trends African Americans, especially young Black men, are the trendsetters—everything they’re doing is reflected in popular culture and is then adopted by mainstream society. This report will help marketers determine cultural and economic factors that impact purchasing behaviors and brand preferences among today’s Black shopper.

This report will examine how historical, cultural, marketing and lifestyle factors all affect the apparel and footwear choices of African Americans. This report will answer the following questions:

  • How are Black shoppers adjusting to today’s economic challenges?
  • Which demographic groups are the most impacted by the current economy?
  • What steps are they taking to stretch their dollars and maximize savings?
  • How has Black fashion and culture influenced the apparel and footwear market today?
  • How important is seeing Black models in publications and on the runway to African Americans?
  • Who are the major influencers in Black fashion today?
  • Are Black adults shopping online? What are they buying?

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Table of contents

  1. Scope and Themes

    • What you need to know
      • Definition
        • Sources
          • Consumer survey data
            • Consumer Expenditure Survey
              • Advertising
                • Abbreviations and terms
                  • Abbreviations
                    • Terms
                    • Executive Summary

                        • Black consumers of apparel and footwear
                          • Sneakers/athletic shoes
                            • Women’s apparel and accessories
                              • Men’s apparel and accessories
                                • Children’s apparel and footwear
                                  • Retail preferences
                                    • Attitudes toward fashion
                                      • Advertising and promotion
                                      • Insights and Opportunities

                                        • The evolving influence of hip-hop
                                          • Increased demand for plus-sized fashions
                                            • Blurring the line between adult and children’s fashion
                                              • Fashion magazines and blogs catering to Black women aged 40+
                                              • Inspire Insights

                                                  • Trend: Influentials
                                                    • What's it about?
                                                      • What we've seen
                                                        • Specifics
                                                          • Implications
                                                            • Trend: Diversity is all
                                                              • What's it about?
                                                                • What we've seen
                                                                  • Specifics
                                                                    • Implications
                                                                    • The Black Apparel and Footwear Consumer

                                                                      • Key points
                                                                        • Black impact on fashion
                                                                          • Hip-hop fashion—the 20-year-old “trend”
                                                                            • Hip-hop fashion in the 21st Century
                                                                              • Black consumers over-index in apparel expenditures
                                                                                  • Figure 1: Average annual expenditures, indexed to all CUs, by Black and other races, 2008
                                                                                • Black lifestyles and traditions drive apparel sales
                                                                                  • Black consumers over-index in nearly every apparel subcategory
                                                                                      • Figure 2: Average annual apparel expenditures indexed to all CUs, by Black and other races, 2008
                                                                                    • Black consumers spend more on daughters than sons
                                                                                        • Figure 3: Average annual expenditures on apparel, by Black and other races, 2008
                                                                                      • Category expenditures
                                                                                          • Figure 4: Average annual expenditures—Black CUs, by expenditure category, 2002-10
                                                                                          • Figure 5: Average annual expenditures, non-Black CUs, by expenditure category, 2002-10
                                                                                          • Figure 6: Average annual expenditures on apparel and services, by Black and other races, 2002-10
                                                                                        • Distribution of expenditures
                                                                                            • Figure 7: Average annual distribution of expenditures, by categories, by Black and non-Black CUs, 2008
                                                                                          • The fashion-conscious are becoming budget-conscious
                                                                                            • Men are less likely to change spending habits
                                                                                                • Figure 8: Changes in Black spending on apparel and footwear, by household income and gender, May 2010
                                                                                              • Those aged 35-44 are the least likely to reduce expenditures in discretionary categories
                                                                                                • Black households with children try to reduce spending more than childless households
                                                                                                    • Figure 9: Changes in household spending on apparel and footwear among Black households, by the presence of children in the household, May 2010
                                                                                                • Sneakers and Athletic Shoes

                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                    • Sneakers and athletic shoes are a fashion items among Black adults
                                                                                                      • Figure 10: Purchase of athletic shoes/sneakers, by race/Hispanic origin, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                    • Black shoppers purchase more sneakers designed for a specific sport
                                                                                                      • Figure 11: Type of athletic shoes/sneakers purchased in the past 12 months, by race/Hispanic origin, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                    • Type of athletic shoes purchased by Black consumers
                                                                                                      • Age is an important indicator of sneaker/athletic shoe preference
                                                                                                        • Figure 12: Type of athletic shoes/sneakers purchased, by age and gender, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                      • Income is only one factor in sneaker purchases
                                                                                                        • Figure 13: Type of athletic shoes/sneakers purchased, by household income, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                      • Brands preferred by Black consumers
                                                                                                        • Age is an influencer in brand preference
                                                                                                          • Figure 14: Top 10 brands of athletic shoes/sneakers purchased, by age, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                        • Regardless of income, Nike brand dominates
                                                                                                          • Figure 15: Top 10 brands of athletic shoes/sneakers purchased, by household income, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                        • The athletic shoe buyer and the media
                                                                                                          • Figure 16: Purchase of athletic shoes/sneakers, by consumption of Black media, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                      • Women’s Apparel and Accessories

                                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                                          • Purchase of women’s apparel or accessories
                                                                                                            • Decline in advertising and decline in purchasing
                                                                                                                • Figure 17: Purchase of women’s apparel or accessories by women, by race/Hispanic origin, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                              • The majority of Black women purchase their own clothes
                                                                                                                • Figure 18: Purchase of women’s apparel or accessories—Black shoppers, by gender, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                              • Black women aged 35-54 purchasing apparel more frequently
                                                                                                                • Figure 19: Purchase of women’s apparel or accessories—Black women, by age, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                              • Household income has an impact on apparel purchases
                                                                                                                • Figure 20: Purchase of women’s apparel or accessories—Black women, by household income, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                              • Type of woman’s apparel purchased
                                                                                                                • Shirts and jeans purchases rank high among Black women
                                                                                                                  • Figure 21: Type of women’s apparel purchased in the past 12 months—Black women, by age, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                • Dresses are most popular among Black women
                                                                                                                  • Figure 22: Dresses and skirts purchased in the past 12 months, by race/Hispanic origin, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                • Black women spend more on footwear
                                                                                                                  • Figure 23: Type of women’s footwear and accessories purchased in the past 12 months, by race/Hispanic origin, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                • Younger Black women purchase slippers
                                                                                                                  • Figure 24: Type of women’s footwear and accessories purchased in the past 12 months—Black women, by age, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                • Women with higher household income are more likely to purchase accessories
                                                                                                                  • Figure 25: Type of women’s footwear and accessories purchased in the past 12 months—Black women, by household income, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                • Woman’s apparel and accessories’ consumer and the media
                                                                                                                  • Figure 26: Purchase of women’s apparel or accessories, by consumption of Black media, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                              • Men’s Apparel and Accessories

                                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                                  • The importance of ‘cool’
                                                                                                                    • Purchase of men’s apparel or accessories
                                                                                                                      • Black men purchase less frequently, yet still have a major impact on style
                                                                                                                        • Figure 27: Purchase of men’s apparel or accessories—men, by race/Hispanic origin, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                      • More than two thirds of Black men buy their own clothes
                                                                                                                        • Figure 28: Purchase of men’s apparel or accessories—Black shoppers, by gender, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                      • Household income may not affect menswear purchases
                                                                                                                        • Figure 29: Purchase of men’s apparel or accessories—Black men, by household income, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                      • Black men with higher household income look for quality over fashion trends
                                                                                                                        • Figure 30: Attitudes toward fashion—Black men, by household income, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                      • Working aged Black men, aged 35-54 more likely to have purchased
                                                                                                                        • Figure 31: Purchase of men’s apparel or accessories—Black men, by age, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                      • Younger Black men are trendsetters and are more likely to keep up with fashion
                                                                                                                        • Figure 32: Attitudes toward fashion—Black men, by age, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                      • Type of men’s apparel purchased
                                                                                                                        • Underwear and jeans top men’s apparel purchases among all age groups
                                                                                                                          • Figure 33: Types of men’s apparel purchased in the past 12 months—Black men, by age, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                        • Black men with lower household income buy fewer jeans compared to those of more affluent households
                                                                                                                          • Figure 34: Types of men’s apparel purchased in the past 12 months—Black men, by household income, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                        • Type of men’s shoes and accessories purchased
                                                                                                                          • Figure 35: Types of men’s accessories and footwear purchased in the past 12 months—Black men, by age, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                        • Household income affects purchase likelihood in unexpected ways
                                                                                                                          • Figure 36: Types of men’s accessories and footwear purchased in the past 12 months—Black men, by household income, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                        • Men’s apparel and accessories’ consumer and the media
                                                                                                                          • Figure 37: Purchase of men’s apparel or accessories, by consumption of Black media, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                      • Children’s Apparel and Footwear

                                                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                                                          • Shopping with children
                                                                                                                            • By race/Hispanic origin
                                                                                                                              • Figure 38: Attitudes towards shopping and children, by race/Hispanic origin, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                            • Married parents are more likely to enjoy shopping with their children
                                                                                                                              • Figure 39: Attitudes towards shopping and children—married and unmarried Black adults with children, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                            • The children’s clothing and footwear shopper in today’s economy
                                                                                                                              • Black shoppers practice frugality regardless of household income
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 40: Changes in shopping habits when shopping for children’s clothing and footwear—Black adults, by household income, May 2010
                                                                                                                                • Households with two or more children economize differently than single-child households
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 41: Changes in shopping habits when shopping for children’s clothing and footwear—Black adults, by number of children, May 2010
                                                                                                                                • Choice of retailers for children’s clothing
                                                                                                                                  • Mass merchandisers are key regardless of income levels
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 42: Retailers where Black shoppers purchase children’s clothing, by household income, May 2010
                                                                                                                                  • Younger parents/guardians may be more brand-conscious
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 43: Retailers where Black shoppers purchase children’s clothing, by age, May 2010
                                                                                                                                  • Choice of retailers for children’s footwear
                                                                                                                                    • Online retail sites used far more frequently by higher-income households
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 44: Retailers where Black shoppers purchase children’s footwear, by household income, May 2010
                                                                                                                                    • Brands are important to Black parents/guardians aged 35-44
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 45: Retailers where Black shoppers purchase children’s footwear, by age, May 2010
                                                                                                                                  • Preferred Retailers for Adult Clothing

                                                                                                                                    • Key points
                                                                                                                                      • Younger clothing buyers look for brands
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 46: Retailers where Black shoppers purchase adult clothing, by age and gender, May 2010
                                                                                                                                      • Household income has little effect on top three retailer preferences
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 47: Retailers where Black shoppers purchase adult clothing, by gender and household income, May 2010
                                                                                                                                      • Preferred retailers for adult footwear
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 48: Retailers where Black shoppers purchase adult footwear, by gender and household income, May 2010
                                                                                                                                      • Black women are more likely to purchase footwear brands than men
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 49: Retailers where Black shoppers purchase adult footwear, by age and gender, May 2010
                                                                                                                                    • Attitudes Toward Fashion

                                                                                                                                      • Key points
                                                                                                                                        • Fashion, a visible means of expression
                                                                                                                                          • Clothing and footwear choices reflect more than necessity
                                                                                                                                            • Fashion choices tell a story
                                                                                                                                              • It is about brands and it’s not about brands
                                                                                                                                                • Influence of fashion magazines on purchasing
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 50: Attitudes toward fashion, by race/Hispanic origin, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                                                • Black consumer attitudes toward appearance and fashion
                                                                                                                                                  • History is a factor in attitudes toward appearance
                                                                                                                                                    • Absent in the fashion conversation
                                                                                                                                                      • Different generations exhibit a variety of attitudes towards fashion
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 51: Black consumer attitudes toward personal appearance and fashion, by age and gender, May 2010
                                                                                                                                                      • Gender may be more important than household income in some purchases
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 52: Black consumer attitudes toward personal appearance and fashion, by household income and gender, April 2010
                                                                                                                                                      • Regional fashion preferences may be based on additional factors
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 53: Black consumer attitudes toward personal appearance and fashion, by geographic location, May 2010
                                                                                                                                                    • Advertising and Promotion

                                                                                                                                                      • Key points
                                                                                                                                                        • Advertising spending on African-American media lower in 2009
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 54: Change in ad dollars spent in African-American-targeted media, by type of media, 2008 and 2009
                                                                                                                                                        • Category spending on African-American targeted media declines
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 55: African-American-targeted media spending among top 10 advertiser categories, Q4 2008-Q3 2009
                                                                                                                                                        • Black cable networks
                                                                                                                                                          • Reaching the shopper via Black cable networks
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 56: Top 25 cable shows in Black households, June 21-27, 2010
                                                                                                                                                          • Shoppers of women’s apparel and accessories
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 57: Purchase of women’s apparel and accessories in the past 12 months, by viewership of Black cable networks, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                                                          • Shoppers of men’s apparel and accessories
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 58: Purchase of men’s apparel and accessories in the past 12 months, by viewership of Black cable networks, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                                                          • Shoppers of sneakers/athletic shoes
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 59: Purchase of sneakers/athletic shoes in the past 12 months, by viewership of Black cable networks, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                                                          • Profile of the Black cable network viewer
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 60: Black cable networks viewed, by age and gender, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                                                          • Household income is not a factor in Black cable viewership preferences
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 61: Black cable networks viewed, by household income, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                                                          • Reaching the shopper via Black magazines
                                                                                                                                                            • Women’s apparel and accessories
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 62: Purchase of women’s apparel and accessories in the past 12 months, by readership of Black publications, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                                                            • Men’s apparel and accessories
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 63: Purchase of men’s apparel and accessories in the past 12 months, by readership of Black publications, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                                                            • Shoppers of athletic shoes/sneakers
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 64: Purchase of athletic shoes/sneakers in the past 12 months, by readership of Black publications, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                                                            • Demographics of the Black magazine reader
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 65: African-American magazines read in the past six months, by age and gender, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                                                            • Household income has a significant impact on magazine preferences
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 66: African American magazines read in the past six months, by household income, November 2008-December 2009
                                                                                                                                                            • Apparel and footwear ads targeting the African-American consumer
                                                                                                                                                              • Black models are largely absent in fashion advertising
                                                                                                                                                                • Magazine advertising
                                                                                                                                                                  • Magic of Macy’s
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 67: Magic of Macy’s, Macy’s print ad, 2010
                                                                                                                                                                  • Stacy Adams shoes
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 68: The Distinguished Gentleman, Stacy Adams print ad, 2010
                                                                                                                                                                  • House of Deréon
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 69: House of Deréon print ad, 2010
                                                                                                                                                                  • Bali Powershape
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 70: Bali Powershape®, Bali print ad, 2010
                                                                                                                                                                  • Television advertising
                                                                                                                                                                    • Old Navy
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 71: Spokesmodelquin Search “Vanessa,” Old Navy TV ad, February 2010
                                                                                                                                                                    • The Gap
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 72: Peace and Love, Common, The Gap TV ad, November 2006
                                                                                                                                                                    • Nike
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 73: Mars Blackmon & Michael Jordan: Nobody, Nike Air Jordan TV ad, February 1988
                                                                                                                                                                    • Blogs and websites devoted to Black fashion
                                                                                                                                                                    • Cluster Analysis

                                                                                                                                                                        • Well-offs
                                                                                                                                                                          • Demographics
                                                                                                                                                                            • Characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                              • Opportunity
                                                                                                                                                                                • The Classics
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Demographics
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Opportunity
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Fashionable Strivers
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Demographics
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Opportunity
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Cluster characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 74: Black apparel clusters, May 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 75: Attitudes toward fashion and appearance, by apparel clusters, May 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 76: Changes in shopping behavior, by apparel clusters, May 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Cluster demographics
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 77: Apparel clusters, by gender, May 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 78: Apparel clusters, by age, May 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 79: Apparel clusters, by household income, May 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Cluster methodology
                                                                                                                                                                                                • U.S. Black Population

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • U.S. population by race/Hispanic origin
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 80: Population, by race and Hispanic origin, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 81: Population, by race/Hispanic origin, 1970-2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 82: Asian, Black, and Hispanic populations, 1970-2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • U.S. Black population
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Black population by age
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 83: U.S, Black population, by age, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • U.S. Black geographic concentration
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 84: Black population geographic concentration, by region, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Black population by state
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 85: States with largest Black population, 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 86: States with the highest share of Black residents, 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Black metros
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 87: Metropolitan status of Black households, 2001 and 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 88: Top 10 metropolitan areas with the largest number of Black residents, 2006-08
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Black purchasing power
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Black income
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 89: Household income distribution for all households and Black households, 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Income of Black households versus total U.S. households
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 90: Share of Black households with incomes of $50K or more versus total U.S. households, 2002 and 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Purchasing power by race/Hispanic origin
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 91: Purchasing power, by race/Hispanic origin, 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 92: Top 10 states with the largest share of Black buying power, 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 93: Top 10 states, by rate of growth of Black buying power, 1990-2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Black households
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 94: Average household size, by Hispanic origin/race of householder, 2001 and 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Appendix: Trade Associations

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Companies Covered

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Abby z
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Aldo UK Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • American Apparel & Footwear Association (AAFA)
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • AOL
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Balenciaga
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Banana Republic
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bartle Bogle Hegarty (U.S.A.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bentley (USA)
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bloomingdale's
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Burberry (USA)
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Burlington Coat Factory Warehouse Co.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Calvin Klein, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Coldwater Creek (retail stores)
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Condé Nast Publications Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Converse, Inc
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Costco Wholesale Corporation
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Dick's Sporting Goods, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Dillard's, Inc
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Donna Karan International Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • FedEx Corporation
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Fila USA, Inc
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Gap (USA)
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Giorgio Armani S.p.A.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hot Topic, Inc
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • HSN-U.S.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • International Formalwear Association
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • JCPenney (department stores and catalog)
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Johnson Publishing Company, Inc
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • K Swiss Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kangol
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kmart Corporation
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Kohl's Corporation
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • La Redoute
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Lane Bryant stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Macy's, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Manolo Blahnik USA, Ltd.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mattel Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Montres Rolex S.A.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • MTV Networks
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • National Basketball Association
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • National Shoe Retailers Association, Inc
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nautica Enterprises Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Neiman Marcus (retail stores)
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • New Balance Athletic Shoe, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nike
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nine West USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nordstrom
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Old Navy
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Payless ShoeSource Inc
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • PayPal Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Polo Ralph Lauren Corporation
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Procter & Gamble Company (The)
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Procter & Gamble USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • PUMA AG Rudolf Dassler Sport
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Reebok International Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Saks Incorporated
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sara Lee Branded Apparel
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sears Holdings Corporation
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sketchers U.S.A., Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Target Corporation
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Sports Authority Inc
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Time Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Tommy Hilfiger Corporation
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Torrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • U.S. Bureau of the Census
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • United Parcel Service Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Vera Wang
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Victoria's Secret
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Walmart Stores (USA)
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Walt Disney Company, The
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Women's Wear Daily (WWD)

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Apparel and Footwear: The Black Consumer - US - August 2010

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