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Black Consumers and Dining Out - US - January 2015

“Black consumers spend a hefty amount of money on dining out. Although they are more likely to patronize chain restaurants, there is tremendous support for local mom-and-pop restaurants in their community, particularly those that serve ethnic dishes. Black consumers are expanding their palate to include a wider range of ethnic foods, which is likely to impact restaurants that serve traditional American dishes.”
– Tonya Roberts, Multicultural Analyst

Some questions answered in this report include:

  • What can marketers do to set themselves apart from the competition?
  • How receptive are Black consumers to ethnic foods?
  • What can restaurants do to attract Black consumers? Is targeted advertising still relevant?

It is estimated that in 2014, Black consumers will have spent over £40 billion on dining out. While dining out is one of Black consumers’ favorite pastimes, many eat out as opposed to cooking at home because it saves valuable time and is convenient. There are also some who have weighed the cost of buying groceries, and believe dining out can also be more cost effective, particularly since the vast majority eat at QSRs (quick-service restaurants or “fast food”), fast casual restaurants, buffets, and pizza restaurants. In fact, Black consumers are more likely than White consumers to dine at some of the leading chain restaurants.

This report examines Black consumers’ attitudes and behaviors toward dining out. The expenditure estimates in this report cover full-service restaurants, limited-service restaurants, and other limited-service eating places
 

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Table of contents

  1. Scope and Themes

    • What you need to know
      • Definition
        • Data sources
          • Sales data
            • Calculations
              • Consumer survey data
                • Abbreviations and terms
                  • Abbreviations
                    • Terms
                    • Executive Summary

                        • The market
                          • Figure 1: Expenditures and fan chart forecast of Black consumers and dining out, at current prices, 2009-19
                        • Market drivers
                          • Leading companies
                            • The consumer
                              • Attitudes toward dining out
                                • Decision factors for choosing restaurants
                                  • Dining out dayparts
                                    • Ordering and dining behaviors
                                      • Figure 2: Ordering food at restaurants behaviors in the past month, September 2014
                                    • Types of beverages consumed at restaurants
                                      • Figure 3: Beverages ordered at restaurants in the past month, by reason for ordering, September 2014
                                    • QSR, fast casual, pizza, and food trucks
                                      • Figure 4: Type of restaurants visited in the past month, by gender, September 2014
                                      • Figure 5: Top 10 list of fast food, fast casual, and pizza restaurant chains visited for any dining daypart, by race/Hispanic origin, April 2013-June 2014
                                    • Casual, family, and fine dining restaurants
                                      • Figure 6: Type of restaurants visited in the past month, by gender, September 2014
                                      • Source: Lightspeed GMI/Mintel
                                    • What we think
                                    • Issues and Insights

                                        • What can marketers do to set themselves apart from the competition?
                                          • The issues
                                            • The implications
                                              • How receptive are Black consumers to ethnic foods?
                                                • The issues
                                                  • The implications
                                                    • What can restaurants do to attract Black consumers? Is targeted advertising still relevant?
                                                      • The issues
                                                        • The implications
                                                        • Trend Application

                                                            • Inspire Trend: Moral Brands
                                                              • Inspire Trend: Life Hacking
                                                                • Inspire Trend: Help Me Help Myself
                                                                • Market Size and Forecast

                                                                  • Key points
                                                                    • 10-year expenditures growth forecast to yield a 68% increase from 2009-19
                                                                      • Figure 8: Expenditures and forecast of Black consumers on dining out, at current prices, 2009-19
                                                                      • Figure 9: Expenditures and forecast of Black consumers on dining out, at inflation-adjusted prices, 2009-19
                                                                    • Fan chart forecast
                                                                        • Figure 10: Expenditures and fan chart forecast of Black consumers and dining out, at current prices, 2009-19
                                                                    • Market Drivers

                                                                      • Key points
                                                                        • Black buying power grows in South as reverse migration takes place
                                                                          • Figure 11: Top 10 states or areas ranked by share of Black buying power, 2013
                                                                        • Higher population of single people, particularly moms, seek convenience and entertainment
                                                                          • Higher population of Millennials willing to spend a little extra cash to have fun
                                                                          • Segment Performance Overview

                                                                            • Key points
                                                                              • Limited-service accounts for lion’s share, though growth is slower
                                                                                • Figure 12: Expenditures of Black consumers on dining out, by segment, at current prices, 2012 and 2014
                                                                            • Segment Performance – Limited-service Restaurants

                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                • Limited-service forecast to grow by 31% by 2019
                                                                                  • Figure 13: Expenditures and forecast of Black consumers at limited-service restaurants, at current prices, 2009-19
                                                                                  • Figure 14: Expenditures and forecast of Black consumers at limited-service restaurants, at inflation-adjusted prices, 2009-19
                                                                                • Best-cast sales for limited-service could reach $35.8 billion by 2019
                                                                                  • Figure 15: Expenditures and fan chart forecast of Black consumers and dining out – limited-service segment, at current prices, 2009-19
                                                                              • Segment Performance – Full-service Restaurants

                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                  • 10-year sales gains projected to grow by 71% from 2009-19
                                                                                    • Figure 16: Expenditures and forecast of Black consumers at full-service restaurants, at current prices, 2009-19
                                                                                    • Figure 17: Expenditures and forecast of Black consumers at full-service restaurants, at inflation-adjusted prices, 2009-19
                                                                                  • Best-cast sales for full-service could reach $23.5 billion by 2019
                                                                                    • Figure 18: Expenditures and fan chart forecast of Black consumers and dining out – full-service segment, at current prices, 2009-19
                                                                                • Innovations and Innovators

                                                                                    • Brand extensions
                                                                                      • Expand with delivery and catering
                                                                                        • Customization
                                                                                        • Leading Companies and Marketing Strategies

                                                                                          • Overview of the brand landscape
                                                                                            • Figure 19: Applebee’s “Take Two Menu” TV ad, June 2014
                                                                                            • Figure 20: Chili’s “At Chili’s, Fresh is Now!” TV ad, October 2014
                                                                                            • Figure 21: Red Lobster “Celebrate What’s New” TV ad, November 2014
                                                                                          • Brand spotlight: McDonald’s
                                                                                          • Attitudes toward Dining Out

                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                              • Blacks want customization, variety, and ethnic dishes
                                                                                                  • Figure 22: Attitudes toward ordering appetizers/entrées/sides at restaurants, by gender, September 2014
                                                                                                • Blacks from the West more receptive to ethnic dishes, especially soul food
                                                                                                  • Figure 23: Attitudes toward ordering appetizers/entrées/sides at restaurants, by region, September 2014
                                                                                                • Mini desserts may be nice alternative for health-conscious Blacks
                                                                                                  • Figure 24: Attitudes toward ordering desserts at restaurants, by gender, September 2014
                                                                                              • Decision Factors for Choosing Restaurants

                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                  • Midwesterners take health into consideration, more so than South and Northeast
                                                                                                    • Figure 25: Health-related factors taken into consideration when choosing restaurants, by region, September 2014
                                                                                                  • Southerners much less concerned about sustainability, opportunity for marketers
                                                                                                    • Figure 26: Sustainability-related factors taken into consideration when choosing restaurants, by region, September 2014
                                                                                                  • Three in 10 prefer restaurants with advanced technology, especially Midwesterners
                                                                                                    • Figure 27: Technology-related factors taken into consideration when choosing restaurants, by region, September 2014
                                                                                                  • Midwesterners have keen eye on who’s doing what in Black community
                                                                                                    • Figure 28: Impact of being involved in the Black community has on restaurant consideration, by region, September 2014
                                                                                                • Dining Out Dayparts

                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                    • Dining out dayparts: Overall
                                                                                                      • More Blacks eat at QSRs for lunch, casual dining for dinner
                                                                                                        • Figure 29: Type of restaurants visited, by daypart, September 2014
                                                                                                      • Correspondence analysis yields distinctions by daypart
                                                                                                        • Figure 30: Correspondence Analysis of dining out daypart and type of restaurant, January 2015
                                                                                                      • Dining out daypart: Breakfast
                                                                                                        • Blacks eat breakfast at QSRs and family restaurants
                                                                                                          • Figure 31: Restaurants eaten at for breakfast in the past month, by gender, September 2014
                                                                                                        • Dining out daypart: Lunch
                                                                                                          • Men more likely than women to dine at most restaurants for lunch
                                                                                                            • Figure 32: Restaurants eaten at for lunch in the past month, by gender, September 2014
                                                                                                          • Dining out daypart: Dinner
                                                                                                            • Men eat at a wide range of restaurants, more so than women
                                                                                                              • Figure 33: Restaurants eaten at for dinner in the past month, by gender, September 2014
                                                                                                            • Dining out daypart: Late Night
                                                                                                              • Men are twice as likely as women to eat out late at night
                                                                                                                • Figure 34: Restaurants eaten at for late night snack/meal in the past month, by gender, September 2014
                                                                                                            • Ordering and Dining Behaviors

                                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                                • Food ordering behaviors
                                                                                                                  • Four out of five order food in person, Millennials more likely to dine in
                                                                                                                    • Figure 35: Ordering food at restaurants behaviors in the past month, by generations, September 2014
                                                                                                                  • Two in five order online, food eaten somewhere else
                                                                                                                    • Figure 36: Online ordering and dining habits in the past month, by generations, September 2014
                                                                                                                  • Blacks order from drive-thru, less likely to eat in car
                                                                                                                    • Figure 37: Drive-thru ordering and dining habits in the past month, by generations, September 2014
                                                                                                                  • Dining behaviors
                                                                                                                    • Eight in 10 Blacks do takeout, especially Baby Boomers
                                                                                                                      • Figure 38: Dining outside of the restaurant behaviors in the past month, by generations, September 2014
                                                                                                                    • Six in 10 Blacks dine in
                                                                                                                      • Figure 39: Dining at the restaurant habits in the past month, by generations, September 2014
                                                                                                                    • Majority of Blacks don’t eat in their car, most eat somewhere else
                                                                                                                      • Figure 40: Eating in the car habits in the past month, by generations, September 2014
                                                                                                                  • Types of Beverages Consumed at Restaurants

                                                                                                                    • Key points
                                                                                                                      • Soft drinks purchased with meals, specialty drinks warrant special visit
                                                                                                                        • Figure 41: Beverages ordered at restaurants in the past month, by reason for ordering, September 2014
                                                                                                                      • Men significantly more likely to order beverages at restaurants
                                                                                                                        • Figure 42: Beverages ordered at restaurants in the past month, by gender, September 2014
                                                                                                                      • Women more likely to drink tea and coffee when they dine out
                                                                                                                        • Figure 43: Beverages ordered at restaurants in the past month – with a meal/snack, by gender, September 2014
                                                                                                                      • Blacks stop at restaurants specifically for specialty drinks, very few only stop for soft drinks
                                                                                                                        • Figure 44: Beverages ordered at restaurants in the past month – as stand-alone, by gender, September 2014
                                                                                                                    • QSR, Fast Casual, Pizza, and Food Trucks

                                                                                                                      • Key points
                                                                                                                        • Men significantly more likely to eat at QSRs, fast casuals, pizza restaurants, and food trucks
                                                                                                                            • Figure 45: Type of restaurants visited in the past month, by gender, September 2014
                                                                                                                          • Blacks eat at fast food restaurants significantly more than Whites
                                                                                                                            • Figure 46: Frequency of visiting fast food and drive-in restaurants in the past 30 days, by race/Hispanic origin, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                          • Southerners more likely to eat at QSR, pizza, and fast casual restaurants
                                                                                                                            • Figure 47: Type of fast food, pizza, fast casual, and food trucks visited in the past month, by region, September 2014
                                                                                                                          • Blacks go to most QSR, fast casual, and pizza restaurants alone
                                                                                                                            • Figure 48: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants, by dining daypart, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                          • Blacks more likely than others to eat at McDonald’s
                                                                                                                            • Figure 49: Top 10 fast food or drive-in restaurant chains visited for any dining daypart, by race/Hispanic origin, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                          • Major differences in where Blacks dine, compared to other consumers
                                                                                                                            • Figure 50: Top 10 list of fast food, fast casual, and pizza restaurant chains visited for any dining daypart, by race/Hispanic origin, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                        • Casual, Family, and Fine Dining Restaurants

                                                                                                                          • Key points
                                                                                                                            • Men more likely than women to eat at sit-down restaurants
                                                                                                                              • Figure 51: Type of restaurants visited in the past month, by gender, September 2014
                                                                                                                              • Figure 52: Type of restaurants visited in the past month, by region, September 2014
                                                                                                                            • Applebee’s is the leading restaurant among Blacks
                                                                                                                              • Figure 53: Top 10 list of family or sit-down restaurant chains visited for any dining daypart, by race/Hispanic origin, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                          • Appendix – The US Black Population

                                                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                                                • Buying power
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 54: Buying power trends among Black consumers, 1990-2018 (projections)
                                                                                                                                • Black buying power is growing at a faster rate than that of White consumers
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 55: Changes in buying power, by race, June 2013
                                                                                                                                • Black buying power more than $1 trillion
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 56: Top 10 states or areas ranked by share of Black buying power, 2013
                                                                                                                                • Top 10 states with highest buying power represent two thirds of buying power
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 57: Top 10 states ranked by value of Black buying power, 2013
                                                                                                                                • Population statistics
                                                                                                                                  • Black population growing at a faster rate than Whites
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 58: Population by race and Hispanic origin, 2009-19
                                                                                                                                  • Black population growth slows
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 59: Asian, Black, and Hispanic populations, 1970-2020
                                                                                                                                  • Children younger than 18 account for 27% of Black population
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 60: Black population, by age, 2009-19
                                                                                                                                  • Geographic concentration
                                                                                                                                    • Majority of Blacks reside in the South; a different marketing approach may be needed
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 61: Black geographic concentration, by region, 2010
                                                                                                                                    • Population grows in the South, reverse migration may be occurring
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 62: Top 20 states or areas with highest Black population and percentage change from 2000-10, 2010
                                                                                                                                    • New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, and Houston are top Black metros
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 63: Top 10 cities with the largest population of Blacks, 2010
                                                                                                                                    • More than 80% of Detroit’s and Jackson’s population is Black
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 64: Top 10 cities with the highest percentage of Blacks [in millions], 2010
                                                                                                                                    • Gender
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 65: Men by race and Hispanic origin, 2009-19
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 66: Women by race and Hispanic origin, 2009-19
                                                                                                                                    • Generations
                                                                                                                                      • iGeneration and Millennials represent nearly half of Black population
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 67: Population of generations, by race/Hispanic origin, 2014
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 68: Distribution of population by race and generation, 2014
                                                                                                                                      • Marital status
                                                                                                                                        • Only one third of Blacks are married, compared to 50% or more of others
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 69: Percentage of married and not married people aged 18 or older, by race and Hispanic origin, 2013
                                                                                                                                        • Blacks twice as likely never to marry
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 70: Marital status of adults aged 18 or older, by race/Hispanic origin, 2013
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 71: Marital status of Blacks, by age, 2013
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 72: Marital status of Black adults, by gender, 2013
                                                                                                                                        • Parental status
                                                                                                                                          • One third of Black households are headed by women
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 73: Households type, by race of householder, 2013
                                                                                                                                          • More Black children born to unmarried women in 2012
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 74: Fertility rate, by race and Hispanic origin of mother, 2002-12
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 75: Percentage of births to unmarried mothers, by race and Hispanic origin of mother, 2002 and 2012
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 76: Households with own children, by race and Hispanic origin of householder, 2013
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 77: Who children live with, by race and Hispanic origin, 2012
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 78: Black households, by presence and ages of own children, 2013
                                                                                                                                          • Education
                                                                                                                                            • Majority of Blacks seek college, while others may be relying on entrepreneurship
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 79: Educational attainment of Blacks aged 25 or older, by age, 2012
                                                                                                                                            • Income
                                                                                                                                              • Blacks have lower household incomes, attributed to several factors besides occupation
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 80: Median household income, by race and Hispanic origin of householder, 2012
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 81: Household income distribution by race and Hispanic origin of householder, 2012
                                                                                                                                            • Appendix – Other Useful Consumer Tables

                                                                                                                                              • Race/Hispanic origin
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 82: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants – lunch, by race/Hispanic origin, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 83: Fast food or drive-in restaurant chains visited for dinner, by race/Hispanic origin, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 84: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants – snacks, by race/Hispanic origin, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 85: Fast food or drive-in restaurant chains visited for any dining daypart, by race/Hispanic origin, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                              • Gender
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 86: Fast food or drive-in restaurant visits, by gender, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 87: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants – breakfast, by gender, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 88: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants – lunch, by gender, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 89: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants – dinner, by gender, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 90: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants – snacks, by gender, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 91: Fast food or drive-in restaurant chains visited for any dining daypart, by gender, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 92: Frequency of visiting fast food and drive-in restaurants in the past 30 days, by gender, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 93: Family and sit-down restaurant visits, by gender, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 94: Dining companions at family and sit-down restaurants, by gender, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 95: Dining companions at family or sit-down restaurants – breakfast, by gender, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 96: Dining companions at family or sit-down restaurants – lunch, by gender, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 97: Dining companions at family or sit-down restaurants – dinner, by gender, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 98: Dining companions at family or sit-down restaurants – snacks, by gender, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 99: Total past 30 day expenditures at a fast food or drive-in restaurant, by gender, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 100: Whether money spent at a fast food, drive-in, family, or sit-down restaurant, by gender, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 101: Total past 30 day expenditures at a family or sit-down restaurant, by gender, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                              • Age
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 102: Fast food or drive-in restaurant visits, by age, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 103: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants – breakfast, by age, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 104: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants – lunch, by age, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 105: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants – dinner, by age, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 106: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants – snacks, by age, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 107: Fast food or drive-in restaurant chains visited for any dining daypart, by age, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 108: Frequency of visiting fast food and drive-in restaurants in the past 30 days, by age, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 109: Family and sit-down restaurant visits, by age, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 110: Dining companions at family and sit-down restaurants, by age, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 111: Dining companions at family or sit-down restaurants – breakfast, by age, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 112: Dining companions at family or sit-down restaurants – lunch, by age, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 113: Dining companions at family or sit-down restaurants – dinner, by age, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 114: Dining companions at family or sit-down restaurants – snacks, by age, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 115: Total past 30 day expenditures at a fast food or drive-in restaurant, by age, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 116: Whether money spent at a fast food, drive-in, family, or sit-down restaurant in the last 30 days, by age, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 117: Total past 30 day expenditures at a family or sit-down restaurant, by age, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                              • Generation
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 118: Attitudes toward ordering desserts at restaurants, by generations, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 119: Attitudes toward ordering appetizers/entrées/sides at restaurants, by generations, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 120: Restaurants eaten at for breakfast in the past month, by generations, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 121: Restaurants eaten at for lunch in the past month, by generations, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 122: Restaurants eaten at for dinner in the past month, by generations, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 123: Restaurants eaten at for late night snack/meal in the past month, by generations, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 124: Type of restaurants visited in the past month, by generations, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 125: Factors taken into consideration when choosing restaurants, by generations, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 126: Beverages ordered at restaurants in the past month, by generations, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 127: Type of restaurants visited in the past month, by generations, September 2014
                                                                                                                                              • Household income
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 128: Fast food or drive-in restaurant visits, by household income, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 129: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants – breakfast, by household income, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 130: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants – lunch, by household income, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 131: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants – dinner, by household income, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 132: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants – snacks, by household income, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 133: Fast food or drive-in restaurant chains visited for any dining daypart, by household income, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 134: Frequency of visiting fast food and drive-in restaurants in the past 30 days, by household income, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 135: Family and sit-down restaurant visits, by household income, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 136: Dining companions at family and sit-down restaurants, by household income, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 137: Dining companions at family or sit-down restaurants – breakfast, by household income, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 138: Dining companions at family or sit-down restaurants – lunch, by household income, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 139: Dining companions at family or sit-down restaurants – dinner, by household income, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 140: Dining companions at family or sit-down restaurants – snacks, by household income, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 141: Whether money spent at a fast food, drive-in, family, or sit-down restaurant in the last 30 days, by household income, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 142: Total past 30 day expenditures at a fast food or drive-in restaurant, by household income, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 143: Total past 30 day expenditures at a family or sit-down restaurant, by household income, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                              • Region
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 144: Attitudes toward ordering desserts at restaurants, by region, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 145: Restaurants eaten at for breakfast in the past month, by region, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 146: Restaurants eaten at for lunch in the past month, by region, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 147: Restaurants eaten at for dinner in the past month, by region, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 148: Restaurants eaten at for late night snack/meal in the past month, by region, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 149: Fast food or drive-in restaurant visits, by region, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 150: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants – breakfast, by region, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 151: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants – lunch, by region, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 152: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants – dinner, by region, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 153: Dining companions at fast food or drive-in restaurants – snacks, by region, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 154: Fast food or drive-in restaurant chains visited for any dining daypart, by region, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 155: Frequency of visiting fast food and drive-in restaurants in the past 30 days, by region, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 156: Family and sit-down restaurant visits, by region, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 157: Dining companions at family and sit-down restaurants, by region, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 158: Dining companions at family or sit-down restaurants – breakfast, by region, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 159: Dining companions at family or sit-down restaurants – lunch, by region, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 160: Dining companions at family or sit-down restaurants – dinner, by region, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 161: Dining companions at family or sit-down restaurants – snacks, by region, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 162: Whether money spent at a fast food, drive-in, family, or sit-down restaurant in the last 30 days, by region, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 163: Total past 30 day expenditures at a fast food or drive-in restaurant, by region, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 164: Total past 30 day expenditures at a family or sit-down restaurant, by region, April 2013-June 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 165: How/where consumers have ordered and eaten in the past month, by region, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 166: Beverages ordered at restaurants in the past month, by region, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 167: Type of restaurants visited in the past month, by region, September 2014
                                                                                                                                              • Type of restaurant
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 168: Attitudes toward ordering desserts at restaurants, by restaurant type visited, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 169: Type of restaurants visited in the past month, by any meal, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 170: Attitudes toward ordering appetizers/entrées/sides at restaurants, by restaurant type visited, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 171: Restaurants eaten at for breakfast in the past month, by any meal, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 172: Restaurants eaten at for lunch in the past month, by any meal, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 173: Restaurants eaten at for dinner in the past month, by any meal, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 174: Restaurants eaten at for late night snack/meal in the past month, by any meal, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 175: Factors taken into consideration when choosing restaurants, by restaurant type, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 176: How/where consumers have ordered and eaten in the past month, by restaurant type visited, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 177: Beverages ordered at restaurants in the past month, by restaurant type, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 178: Type of restaurants visited in the past month, by any meal, September 2014
                                                                                                                                            • Appendix – Trade Associations

                                                                                                                                                • Council for Responsible Nutrition
                                                                                                                                                  • Food Marketing Institute (FMI)
                                                                                                                                                    • International Food Information Council (IFIC)
                                                                                                                                                      • International Food Service Executives Association (IFSEA)
                                                                                                                                                        • International Foodservice Distributors Association (IFDA)
                                                                                                                                                          • International Foodservice Manufacturers Association (IFMA)
                                                                                                                                                            • International Franchise Association (IFA)
                                                                                                                                                              • National Council of Chain Restaurants (NCCR)
                                                                                                                                                                • National Restaurant Association (NRA)
                                                                                                                                                                  • Organic Trade Association (OTA)
                                                                                                                                                                    • Produce Marketing Association (PMA)

                                                                                                                                                                    Companies Covered

                                                                                                                                                                    • Applebee's International Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                    • Burger King Corporation
                                                                                                                                                                    • Denny's Corporation
                                                                                                                                                                    • McDonald's U.S.A.
                                                                                                                                                                    • Popeyes Chicken & Biscuits

                                                                                                                                                                    Black Consumers and Dining Out - US - January 2015

                                                                                                                                                                    £3,199.84 (Excl.Tax)