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Black Consumers and Dining Out - US - May 2013

“Government regulations are making it increasing more important to Black consumers to eat healthy. Menu customization is a way to address the issue. Some restaurants are allowing consumers to get what they want how they want it — this builds a more personal relationship, and allows consumers to choose healthier items. Authenticity and sustainability are also growing in importance.”

– Tonya Roberts, Multicultural Analyst

 Some questions answered in this report include:

  • Could rising beef prices negatively impact fast food restaurant sales?

  • Will government push toward healthy eating drive menu options?

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Table of contents

  1. Scope and Themes

    • What you need to know
      • Definition
        • Data sources
          • Consumer survey data
            • Advertising
              • Abbreviations and terms
                • Abbreviations
                  • Terms
                  • Executive Summary

                      • Spending in restaurants
                        • Figure 1: Average annual expenditures on food away from home, Black and Non-Black households, 2008 and 2011
                      • Fast food is popular
                        • Figure 2: Types of restaurants visited in last 30 days, all Black respondents, October 2012
                      • Blacks seek restaurants with unhurried and upbeat ambiance
                        • Figure 3: Factors that are important to consumers when it comes to dining out, by race/ethnicity, November 2012
                      • Importance of factors in restaurant choice
                        • Figure 4: Factors that influence restaurant choice, by type of restaurant, all Black consumers, October 2012
                      • Dining out spending outlook
                        • Spend More segment
                          • Spend The Same segment
                            • Spend Less segment
                              • What we think
                              • Issues in the Market

                                  • Rising beef prices could negatively impact fast food restaurant sales
                                    • Government push toward healthy eating will drive menu options
                                    • Insights and Opportunities

                                      • Trend Applications

                                          • Trend: Make It Mine
                                            • Trend: Carnivore, Herbivore…. Locavore
                                              • Figure 5: Level of influence sustainability has on where Black consumers eat, by race/ethnicity, October 2012
                                              • Figure 6: Level of influence technology has on where Black consumers eat, by race/ethnicity, October 2012
                                          • Profile of the Black Dining Out Consumer

                                            • Key points
                                              • Blacks’ spending on food away from home remains stable
                                                • Figure 7: Average annual expenditures, by category, Black and other race households, 2008 and 2011
                                              • Fast food restaurants remain the most popular dining out choices
                                                  • Figure 8: Incidence of eating or getting ready-to-eat prepared food from restaurants among Blacks, by gender and age, October 2012
                                                • Income and proximity of restaurants drive where Blacks eat
                                                  • Figure 9: Incidence of eating-in or taking out ready-to-eat prepared food from restaurants among Blacks, by household income, October 2012
                                                • Larger households are more likely to eat out
                                                  • Figure 10: Incidence of eating or getting ready-to-eat prepared food from restaurants among Blacks, by household size, October 2012
                                                • Busy lifestyle determines whether Black consumers dine in or dine out
                                                  • Figure 11: How restaurant food was ordered and where it was eaten, by race/ethnicity, October 2012
                                                • Cravings are far more likely to drive what Black consumers order
                                                    • Figure 12: Factors influencing where Black consumers eat, by race/ethnicity, October 2012
                                                • Attitudes of the Dining Out Consumer

                                                  • Key points
                                                    • Dining out ranks #2 on pastimes of Black consumers
                                                      • Figure 13: Top 5 leisure activities, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012
                                                    • Black consumers aren’t willing to sacrifice taste for healthier dishes
                                                      • Blacks prefer dining out over entertaining friends and family at home
                                                        • Figure 14: Attitudes, interests and opinions, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012
                                                      • Black consumers are more likely to order take-out
                                                        • Figure 15: How restaurant food was ordered and where it was eaten, by race/ethnicity, October 2012
                                                      • Cost is important, but cravings drive Black consumers into a restaurant
                                                          • Figure 16: Attitudes toward restaurants, by gender and income, October 2012
                                                        • Blacks seek restaurants with unhurried and upbeat ambiance
                                                            • Figure 17: Factors that are important to Black consumers when dining out, November 2012
                                                        • Factors Influencing Dining Out Choices

                                                          • Key points
                                                            • Ambiance and friendly staff are key to an enjoyable experience
                                                              • Figure 18: Characteristics that are important in restaurant atmosphere, November 2012
                                                            • Cleanliness and how food is prepared is more important to Blacks
                                                              • Figure 19: Factors that deter Black consumers on return visits, November 2012
                                                            • Black consumers prefer value meal deals over coupons
                                                              • Figure 20: Usage of deals and promotions at restaurants, November 2012
                                                              • Figure 21: Factors that influence restaurant choices, by gender and age, October 2012
                                                            • Black consumers have lower expectations for fast food restaurants
                                                              • Figure 22: Factors that influence restaurant choices, by type of fast food restaurant, all Black consumers, October 2012
                                                            • Black people take more into consideration when they’re planning to eat at fine dining establishments
                                                              • Figure 23: Factors that influence restaurant choices, by casual, family and fine dining restaurants, all Black consumers, October 2012
                                                            • Black consumers are more likely to embrace innovative approaches
                                                              • Figure 24: Types of restaurant technology Black consumers prefer, November 2012
                                                          • The Fast Food Restaurant Consumer

                                                            • Key points
                                                              • Blacks exhibit the highest incidence of visiting fast food restaurants
                                                                  • Figure 25: Incidence and frequency of eating at a fast food and/or drive-in restaurant, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                • Restaurants with pizza or chicken dishes are more popular
                                                                    • Figure 26: Fast food and/or drive-in restaurants visited, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                    • Figure 27: Fast food and/or drive-in restaurants visited, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012 (continued)
                                                                  • Income has little bearing on how frequently people visit fast food establishments
                                                                    • Figure 28: Incidence of visiting Fast food and drive-in restaurants, by household income, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                    • Figure 29: Fast food and drive restaurants visited, by household income, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                  • Half of Black moms said they eat at fast food restaurants nearly every day
                                                                    • Figure 30: Incidence and frequency of moms visiting fast food and drive-in restaurants, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                  • Black moms are significantly less likely to eat at McDonald’s
                                                                      • Figure 31: Types of fast food and/or drive-in restaurants visited by Moms, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                      • Figure 32: Types of fast food and/or drive-in restaurants visited by Moms, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012 (continued)
                                                                    • McDonald’s leads the pack for kids 6-11 years
                                                                      • Figure 33: Favourite fast food or drive-in restaurant, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                      • Figure 34: Reason for favourite fast food or drive-in restaurant, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                    • The majority of Black teens do not see fast food as “junk food”
                                                                      • Figure 35: Number of visits to fast food and drive-in restaurants in last thirty days by teens, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                      • Figure 36: Types of fast food and/or drive-in restaurants visited by teens, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                      • Figure 37: Types of fast food and/or drive-in restaurants visited by teens, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012 (continued)
                                                                    • Household income has little influence on frequency of visits
                                                                      • Figure 38: Fast food and drive-in restaurant visit frequency, by household income, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                  • The Family Restaurant and Steakhouse Consumer

                                                                    • Key points
                                                                      • Black consumers dine at family-style restaurants at least once a week on average
                                                                        • Figure 39: Incidence of visits to family restaurants and steak houses in last 30 days, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                        • Figure 40: Family restaurants and/or steakhouses visited in last 3 months, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                      • Black consumers dine out at family restaurants more frequently regardless of income
                                                                        • Figure 41: Incidence of visits to family restaurants and steak houses, by household income, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                        • Figure 42: Incidence of visits to family restaurants and steak houses, by household income, October 2011-November2012
                                                                      • Men 35-54 years of age are more likely to dine out than anyone else
                                                                        • Figure 43: Incidence of visits to family restaurants and steak houses, by gender and age, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                      • Single women and empty-nesters are key segments driving frequency
                                                                        • Figure 44: Incidence of visits to family restaurants and steak houses, by gender and age, August 2011-August 2012
                                                                      • Life stage is a huge driver as to where Blacks dine
                                                                          • Figure 45: Family restaurants and/or steakhouses visited in last 3 months, by gender and age, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                        • Lower-income Blacks less likely to dine out, but those who do dine more frequently
                                                                            • Figure 46: Frequency of visits to family restaurants and steak houses in last 30 days, by household income, frequency of usage, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                          • Larger families weigh cooking at home vs. dining out…. dining out wins!
                                                                              • Figure 47: Frequency of visits to family restaurants and steak houses in last 30 days, by household size, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                            • Black Moms dine at family restaurants/steakhouses at least once a week
                                                                              • Figure 48: Frequency of visits to family restaurants and steak houses by Moms in the last 30 days, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                            • Black Moms especially enjoy steakhouses and family restaurants
                                                                              • Figure 49: Family restaurants and/or steakhouses visited, moms by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                            • Chuck E. Cheese tops the list of kid’s favorite sit-down restaurant
                                                                              • Figure 50: Percentage of kids who have visited family-style/sit down restaurants, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                              • Figure 51: Favourite family style/sit-down restaurants for kids, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                            • Black teens represent a viable opportunity - they are dining out substantially more often than other teens
                                                                              • Figure 52: Frequency of visits to family restaurants and steak houses by teens, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                            • Black teens could be strong brand evangelists.
                                                                              • Figure 53: Family restaurants and/or steakhouses visited by teens, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                          • Spending on Dining Out – Outlook

                                                                            • Key points
                                                                              • Black consumers expect to spend the same on dining out as last year
                                                                                • Figure 54: Expectations for increase/decrease in dining out expenditures, by type of restaurant, all black consumers, October 2012
                                                                              • Higher-income families will drive spending growth across the board
                                                                                • Figure 55: Expectations for increase/decrease in dining out expenditures, by type of restaurant, Black consumers by household income, October 2012
                                                                              • Distinct differences observed in how Blacks plan to spend
                                                                                • Spend More segment
                                                                                  • Spend The Same segment
                                                                                    • Spend Less segment
                                                                                    • Regional Differences

                                                                                      • Key points
                                                                                        • Midwesterners dine at fast food restaurants most frequently
                                                                                          • Figure 56: Incidence of visits to fast food and drive-in restaurants in last 30 days, Black consumers by region, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                          • Figure 57: Incidence of visits to family restaurants and steak houses in last 30 days, Black consumers, by region, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                          • Figure 58: Top 10 fast food and/or drive-in restaurants visited, by region, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                          • Figure 59: Fast food and/or drive-in restaurants visited in last three months, Northeast region, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                          • Figure 60: Fast food and/or drive-in restaurants visited in last three months, Midwest region, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                          • Figure 61: Fast food and/or drive-in restaurants visited in last three months, Southern region, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                          • Figure 62: Fast food and/or drive-in restaurants visited in last three months, Western region, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                          • Figure 63: Top ten family restaurants and/or steakhouse restaurants visited in last three months, all regions, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                          • Figure 64: Top ten family restaurants and/or steakhouse restaurants visited in last three months, Northeast region, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                          • Figure 65: Top ten family restaurants and/or steakhouse restaurants visited in last three months, Midwest region, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                          • Figure 66: Family restaurants and/or steakhouse restaurants visited in last three months, Southern region, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                          • Figure 67: Family restaurants and/or steakhouse restaurants visited in last three months, Western region, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                      • Restaurant Dayparts

                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                          • Black consumers are more likely to dine out for breakfast and snacks
                                                                                            • Figure 68: Time of day when people dine out – fast food restaurants and family restaurants and/or steakhouses, by race/ethnicity, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                          • Black consumers are more likely to eat at fast food restaurants
                                                                                            • Figure 69: Time of day when people dine out – fast food restaurants and family restaurants and/or steakhouses visited, by gender, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                          • It doesn’t matter what time of day it is, Black consumers more likely to eat at McDonald’s
                                                                                            • Black consumers eat at non-breakfast restaurants for breakfast
                                                                                              • Figure 70: Fast food restaurants family restaurants and/or steakhouses visited for breakfast, Black respondents by gender, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                            • Black males and females dine at same restaurants for lunch but two chains stand out – Golden Corral and Chick-Fil-A
                                                                                              • Figure 71: Fast food restaurants family restaurants and/or steakhouses visited for lunch, black respondents by gender, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                            • Black consumers eat at fast food restaurants for dinner because they’re more cost effective and efficient
                                                                                              • Figure 72: Fast food restaurants and family restaurants and/or steakhouses visited for dinner, black respondents by gender, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                            • Dollar menus and appetizer specials driving Black consumers into restaurants during snack time
                                                                                              • Figure 73: Fast food restaurants and family restaurants and/or steakhouses visited for snacks, Black respondents by gender, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                          • Beverage Purchase Behaviors

                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                              • The popularity of frozen drinks may be driving sales independent of meals
                                                                                                • Figure 74: Types of beverage purchased in last month at a restaurant, all black respondents, October 2012
                                                                                                • Figure 75: Types of beverage purchased in last month at a restaurant, by gender and age, October 2012
                                                                                              • Most Black consumers are not ordering alcoholic beverages
                                                                                                • Figure 76: Types of alcoholic beverage purchased in last month at a restaurant, by gender and age, October 2012
                                                                                            • Cluster Analysis

                                                                                                • Frugalist Fast Foodies
                                                                                                  • Demographics
                                                                                                    • Characteristics
                                                                                                      • Opportunity
                                                                                                        • Noble Techies
                                                                                                          • Demographics
                                                                                                            • Characteristics
                                                                                                              • Opportunity
                                                                                                                • Health Seekers
                                                                                                                  • Demographics
                                                                                                                    • Characteristics
                                                                                                                      • Opportunity
                                                                                                                        • Cluster characteristic tables
                                                                                                                          • Figure 77: Target clusters, October 2012
                                                                                                                          • Figure 78: Dining out choices among black consumers, by target clusters, October 2012
                                                                                                                          • Figure 79: Factors that influence restaurant choices, by target clusters, October 2012
                                                                                                                          • Figure 80: Agreement with attitudes toward restaurant spending, by target clusters, October 2012
                                                                                                                          • Figure 81: Attitudes toward restaurant traits, by target clusters, October 2012
                                                                                                                        • Cluster demographic tables
                                                                                                                          • Figure 82: Target clusters, by household income, October 2012
                                                                                                                          • Figure 83: Target clusters, by household size, October 2012
                                                                                                                          • Figure 77: Target clusters, by gender and age, October 2012
                                                                                                                          • Figure 84: Target clusters - education October 2012
                                                                                                                        • Cluster methodology
                                                                                                                        • Marketing Strategies

                                                                                                                          • Overview of the restaurant industry landscape
                                                                                                                            • Industry spotlight: McDonald’s
                                                                                                                              • McDonald’s recipe for success is being deeply rooted
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 85: McDonalds “stay focused” television advertisement, 2013
                                                                                                                              • U.S. Black Population

                                                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                                                  • U.S. population by race/ethnicity
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 86: Population numbers and percentages, by race/ethnicity, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 87: Population numbers, by race/ethnicity, 2008-2018
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 88: Asian, Black, and Hispanic population numbers and percent change, 1970-2020
                                                                                                                                  • Black population by age
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 89: U.S. Black population, by age, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 90: U.S. Population, by age, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                  • U.S. Black geographic concentration
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 91: Black geographic concentration, by region, 2007
                                                                                                                                  • Black population by state
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 92: States with largest Black population, 2011
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 85: States with largest Black population, 2008
                                                                                                                                  • Population by geographic concentration
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 93: States (including District of Columbia) ranked, by highest share of total population that are Black, 2011
                                                                                                                                  • Black metros
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 94: Metropolitan status of Black households, 2006 and 2011
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 95: Top 10 metropolitan areas with the largest number of Black residents, 2010
                                                                                                                                  • Black purchasing power
                                                                                                                                    • Black income
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 96: Median household income, by race/ethnicity of householder, 2011
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 97: Household income distribution for all households and Black households, 2011
                                                                                                                                    • Purchasing power by race/ethnicity
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 98: Purchasing power, by race/ethnicity, 1990-2017
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 99: Purchasing power, by race/ethnicity, 1990-2017
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 100: Top 10 states/regions with the largest share of black buying power, 2012
                                                                                                                                    • Affluent Blacks
                                                                                                                                      • Black women are the key dining out consumer
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 101: Household, by type and tenure of householder, by Ethnicity/race of householder, 2012
                                                                                                                                      • Half of all black children live with moms
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 102: Children by presence and type of parents, by all races vs. Blacks, 2012
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 103: Average household size, by race/ethnicity of householder, 2001, 2008, and 2012
                                                                                                                                    • Appendix – Consumer Tables

                                                                                                                                      • Regional differences
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 104: Fast food and/or drive-in restaurants visited in last three months, by region, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 105: Fast food and/or drive-in restaurants visited in last three months, by region, October 2011-November 2012 (continued)
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 106: Family restaurants and/or steakhouses visited in last three months, by region, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 107: Family restaurants and/or steakhouses visited in last three months, by region, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                                    • Appendix – Trade Associations

                                                                                                                                      Companies Covered

                                                                                                                                      • Applebee's International Inc.
                                                                                                                                      • Buffalo Wild Wings Inc.
                                                                                                                                      • Burger King Corporation
                                                                                                                                      • Chick-fil-A Inc.
                                                                                                                                      • Denny's Corporation
                                                                                                                                      • Domino's Pizza LLB
                                                                                                                                      • Golden Corral Corporation
                                                                                                                                      • KFC Corporation
                                                                                                                                      • McDonald's Corporation
                                                                                                                                      • Pizza Hut Inc
                                                                                                                                      • Subway
                                                                                                                                      • Taco Bell Corp.
                                                                                                                                      • TGI Friday's
                                                                                                                                      • The Wendy's Company

                                                                                                                                      Black Consumers and Dining Out - US - May 2013

                                                                                                                                      US $3,995.00 (Excl.Tax)