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Black Diet and Wellness - US - December 2009

The connection between food, tradition, family and history is a deep one for African Americans. Many items that make up the Black diet today have been prepared and eaten in much the same way through several generations in the US. Although recipes and preparation have remained the same, the lifestyles of Blacks in America changed from a primarily Southern rural existence to an urban life in the Northeast and later, the Midwest.

A hidden cost of the “soul food” diet began to increase until today it has reached crisis proportions—the cost of good health. Many of the health problems suffered by Black Americans today are influenced to a great degree by dietary factors. African Americans have higher rates of death from heart disease, diabetes, most cancers and stroke than any other racial or ethnic group. They are also the most likely to suffer from overweight and obesity. Black children, especially girls, are more prone to obesity.

This report will examine how historical, cultural, marketing and lifestyle factors all affect the dietary choices of African Americans. Mintel looked at the following issues:

  • Do Black men and women truly understand the keys to a healthy lifestyle?
  • What beliefs and behaviors contribute to the high levels of overweight and obesity?
  • Why are Black people more likely to be overweight or obese than any other racial or ethnic group?
  • What role does the marketing of food and beverages play in dietary choices? And how can this role become more positive and supportive of a healthy lifestyle?
  • What role do the healthcare industry and healthcare providers play in providing information and support for a healthier lifestyle?
  • How do Blacks perceive their own body size? What do they consider to be overweight?
  • How do Black adults view their efforts towards a healthier lifestyle?
  • What are the reasons that traditional weight loss methods and programs may be less effective among African Americans?
  • How can marketers participate more effectively to support healthy lifestyles and healthier eating?

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Table of contents

  1. Scope and Themes

    • What you need to know
      • Definition
        • Sources
          • Consumer survey data
            • Advertising
              • Abbreviations and terms
                • Abbreviations
                  • Terms
                  • Executive Summary

                      • Cultural influencers
                        • Health factors
                        • Insights and Opportunities

                          • Awareness is key
                            • Role models
                              • Creating a healthier diet
                                • Helping Black children avoid obesity
                                  • Physical fitness
                                  • Inspire Insights

                                      • Trend: Fit or Fat
                                        • What’s it about?
                                          • What we’ve seen
                                            • Specifics
                                              • Implications
                                                • Trend: A Simple Balance for Health
                                                  • What’s it about?
                                                    • What we’ve seen
                                                      • Specifics
                                                        • Implications
                                                        • Market Drivers

                                                          • Key points
                                                            • Health factors in the Black community
                                                              • Poverty and environmental factors
                                                                • Influence of genetic factors
                                                                  • Black centenarians
                                                                    • Social and cultural factors
                                                                      • Sedentary lifestyle
                                                                        • High rate of television viewing
                                                                          • Figure 1: Percentage of total day spent viewing television, by race/Hispanic origin, 2008
                                                                        • Urban living
                                                                          • Lack of cultural sensitivity by healthcare providers
                                                                            • Defeatist attitude
                                                                              • Pharmacology reliance/dependency/denial
                                                                                • Legacy beliefs and practices
                                                                                  • Food preparation
                                                                                    • Perception vs. reality
                                                                                      • Reliance on religion
                                                                                        • Figure 2: Beliefs about the role of God in health outcomes, 2007-08
                                                                                      • Food industry marketing practices
                                                                                        • Targeted marketing
                                                                                          • Food labeling
                                                                                            • Lack of access to healthcare
                                                                                            • Advertising in the Media

                                                                                                • Print advertising
                                                                                                  • Figure 3: Old Orchard Healthy Balance, 2009
                                                                                                  • Figure 4: V-8 Juice, 2009
                                                                                                  • Figure 5: State Farm advertising—”50 Million Pound Challenge”, 2008
                                                                                                • Television ads
                                                                                                  • Figure 6: General Mills Cheerios, Man and Boy, August 2009
                                                                                                  • Figure 7: American Cancer Society, Doris Brewer—Ten Types of Cancer, August 2008
                                                                                                  • Figure 8: American Cancer Society, Bob—Tests help Prevent Colon Cancer, February 2007
                                                                                                  • Figure 9: Kellogg’s Special K, Woman Tries on Jeans, August 2007
                                                                                              • Healthy Eating

                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                  • An obesity epidemic
                                                                                                    • Figure 10: Incidence of overweight and obesity (states, DC, and territories), 1995-2007
                                                                                                  • Obesity rates by gender and race/Hispanic origin
                                                                                                    • Figure 11: Prevalence of obesity and overweight, by gender and ethnicity, 2006
                                                                                                  • Prevalence of obesity by race/Hispanic origin, gender and region
                                                                                                    • Figure 12: Prevalence* of obesity† among adults, by black/white race or Hispanic ethnicity, census region and gender
                                                                                                  • Black obesity rate by state
                                                                                                    • Figure 13: Top 15 states in which the largest percentage of the Black population is obese, by state, 2007
                                                                                                  • Childhood obesity
                                                                                                    • Figure 14: Percentage of overweight( children, by race, 2003-06
                                                                                                  • Black women and obesity
                                                                                                    • Body image in the Black community
                                                                                                      • Figure 15: Percentage of overweight( adults, by race, 2003-06
                                                                                                    • Perception of body size
                                                                                                      • By gender and body size
                                                                                                        • Figure 16: Perception of their own weight, by gender, September 2009
                                                                                                      • By household income
                                                                                                        • Figure 17: Perception of their own weight, by household income, September 2009
                                                                                                      • By age
                                                                                                        • Figure 18: Perception of their own weight, by age, September 2009
                                                                                                      • A healthy diet
                                                                                                        • Portion sizes have increased along with obesity rates
                                                                                                            • Figure 19: Average daily per capita calories consumed*, by food group, 1970-2004
                                                                                                          • High obesity rates among men and women
                                                                                                              • Figure 20: Perception of a healthy diet, by gender, September 2009
                                                                                                            • Household income not always a factor of a poor diet
                                                                                                                • Figure 21: Perception of a healthy diet, by household income, September 2009
                                                                                                              • Age impacts perception of a healthy diet
                                                                                                                • Figure 22: Perception of a healthy diet, by age, September 2009
                                                                                                              • Healthier options
                                                                                                                • Perception of healthy eating
                                                                                                                  • Figure 23: Perception of important factors in a healthy diet, by gender, September 2009
                                                                                                                • Sodium and age
                                                                                                                  • Figure 24: Perception of important factors in a healthy diet, by age, September 2009
                                                                                                                • Household income impacts knowledge
                                                                                                                  • Figure 25: Perception of important factors in a healthy diet, by household income, September 2009
                                                                                                                • Fruits and vegetables
                                                                                                                  • Consumption of fruits and vegetables
                                                                                                                    • No gender difference in the produce isle
                                                                                                                      • Figure 26: Daily consumption of fruits and vegetables, by gender, September 2009
                                                                                                                    • By age
                                                                                                                      • Figure 27: Daily consumption of fruits and vegetables, by age, September 2009
                                                                                                                    • By household income
                                                                                                                      • Figure 28: Daily consumption of fruits and vegetables, by household income, September 2009
                                                                                                                    • Low-in foods and beverages
                                                                                                                      • Low fat foods have low consumption among Blacks
                                                                                                                        • Figure 29: Low-in and other specialty foods used when watching diet, by race, February-March 2009
                                                                                                                      • Fat-free foods preferred by men
                                                                                                                        • Figure 30: Low-in and other specialty foods used when watching diet, by gender, February-March 2009
                                                                                                                      • Age is a factor when choosing low-in foods
                                                                                                                        • Figure 31: Low-in and other specialty foods used when watching diet, by age, February-March 2009
                                                                                                                      • By household income
                                                                                                                        • Figure 32: Low-in and other specialty foods used when watching diet, by household income, February-March 2009
                                                                                                                      • Being healthy and treating yourself
                                                                                                                        • Women’s eating behaviors are worrisome
                                                                                                                          • Figure 33: Attitudes towards food and eating, by gender, September 2009
                                                                                                                        • Too many treats among younger respondents
                                                                                                                          • Figure 34: Attitudes towards food and eating, by age, September 2009
                                                                                                                        • Healthy alternatives
                                                                                                                          • African Americans and organic foods
                                                                                                                            • Figure 35: Attitudes towards organic foods, by race/Hispanic origin, 2006
                                                                                                                            • Figure 36: Shoppers who purchase at least half of their food as organic, by race/Hispanic origin, 2006
                                                                                                                            • Figure 37: Where consumers buy organic food products, by race/Hispanic origin, 2006
                                                                                                                        • Health Advice

                                                                                                                          • Key points
                                                                                                                            • Source of health advice
                                                                                                                              • By race
                                                                                                                                • Figure 38: Sources of health information, by race, February-March 2009
                                                                                                                              • Women are more likely to use the internet as a resource
                                                                                                                                • Figure 39: Sources of health information, by gender, September 2009
                                                                                                                              • Older respondents rely on conventional doctors
                                                                                                                                • Figure 40: Sources of health information, by age, September 2009
                                                                                                                              • By household income
                                                                                                                                • Figure 41: Sources of health information, by household income, September 2009
                                                                                                                            • Healthy Living

                                                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                                                • Do you think you are healthy?
                                                                                                                                  • A lack of “health literacy”
                                                                                                                                    • Men are more likely to live a healthy lifestyle
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 42: Behavior that leads to good health, by gender, September 2009
                                                                                                                                    • Older respondents are more motivated
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 43: Behavior that leads to good health, by age, September 2009
                                                                                                                                    • By household income
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 44: Behavior that leads to good health, by household income, September 2009
                                                                                                                                    • Factors contributing to healthy living
                                                                                                                                      • Leisure time physical activity
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 45: Age-adjusted percentages of leisure-time physical activity among adults 18 years and over, by selected characteristics: United States, 2000 and 2005
                                                                                                                                      • What contributes to healthy living?
                                                                                                                                        • Stress and religion contribute to healthy living
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 46: Factors that contribute to healthy living, by gender, September 2009
                                                                                                                                          • By age
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 47: Factors that contribute to healthy living, by age, September 2009
                                                                                                                                          • Household income not a factor in medical screening
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 48: Factors that contribute to healthy living, by household income, September 2009
                                                                                                                                          • Health conditions
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 49: Leading causes of death among African Americans, by gender, 2006
                                                                                                                                          • Health concerns by gender
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 50: Concern about health conditions, by gender, September 2009
                                                                                                                                          • Current health conditions by gender
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 51: Current health conditions, by gender, September 2009
                                                                                                                                          • Younger respondents worry about cancer
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 52: Concern about health conditions, by age, September 2009
                                                                                                                                          • Current health conditions by age
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 53: Current health conditions, by age, September 2009
                                                                                                                                          • Factors that affect health
                                                                                                                                            • By gender
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 54: Concerns about factors that affect health, by gender, September 2009
                                                                                                                                            • By age
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 55: Concerns about factors that affect health, by age, September 2009
                                                                                                                                          • Cluster Analysis

                                                                                                                                              • The Unaware
                                                                                                                                                • Who they are
                                                                                                                                                  • Opportunity
                                                                                                                                                    • Activists
                                                                                                                                                      • Who they are
                                                                                                                                                        • Opportunity
                                                                                                                                                          • Self-deceivers
                                                                                                                                                            • Who they are
                                                                                                                                                              • Opportunity
                                                                                                                                                                • Cluster characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 56: Black diet and wellness clusters, September 2009
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 57: Attitudes towards food and eating, by Black diet and wellness clusters, September 2009
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 58: Sources of health advice, by Black diet and wellness clusters, September 2009
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 59: Attitudes towards healthy eating, by Black diet and wellness clusters, September 2009
                                                                                                                                                                • Cluster demographics
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 60: Black diet and wellness clusters, by gender, September 2009
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 61: Black diet and wellness clusters, by age, September 2009
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 62: Black diet and wellness clusters, by household income, September 2009
                                                                                                                                                                • Cluster methodology
                                                                                                                                                                • U.S. Black Population

                                                                                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                    • U.S. population by race/Hispanic origin
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 63: Population, by race and Hispanic origin, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                    • U.S. Black population
                                                                                                                                                                      • Black population by age
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 64: U.S. Black population, by age, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                      • U.S. Black geographic concentration
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 65: Black geographic concentration, by region, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                      • Black population by state
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 66: States with largest black population, 2008
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 67: States with the highest share of black residents, 2008
                                                                                                                                                                      • Black metros
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 68: Metropolitan status of black households, 2001-07
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 69: Top 10 metropolitan areas with the largest number of Black residents, 2006-08
                                                                                                                                                                      • Black income
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 70: Household income distribution for all households and Black households, 2008
                                                                                                                                                                      • Income of Black households versus total U.S. households
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 71: Increase in percentage of Black households with incomes of $50,000 or more vs. total U.S. households, 2003 and 2007
                                                                                                                                                                      • Average household size
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 72: Average household size, by Hispanic origin/race of householder, 2001 and 2008
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 73: Households with children, by race and Hispanic origin of householder, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                      • Black category expenditures
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 74: Distribution of expenditures by all consumer units and by CUs with a Black reference person, 2003-08
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 75: Aggregate expenditures by all consumer units and by CUs with a black reference person, 2003-08
                                                                                                                                                                    • Appendix: Trade Associations

                                                                                                                                                                      Companies Covered

                                                                                                                                                                      • American Cancer Society (ACS)
                                                                                                                                                                      • American Diabetes Association
                                                                                                                                                                      • American Dietetic Association (ADA)
                                                                                                                                                                      • American Heart Association, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                      • British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
                                                                                                                                                                      • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
                                                                                                                                                                      • Coca-Cola Company (The) (USA)
                                                                                                                                                                      • Facebook, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                      • Food and Drug Administration
                                                                                                                                                                      • General Mills Inc
                                                                                                                                                                      • Institute of Medicine
                                                                                                                                                                      • Jenny Craig Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                      • Kellogg Company
                                                                                                                                                                      • National Medical Association
                                                                                                                                                                      • NutriSystem, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                      • Old Orchard Brands LLC
                                                                                                                                                                      • President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports
                                                                                                                                                                      • Reuters Group PLC
                                                                                                                                                                      • State Farm Insurance Companies
                                                                                                                                                                      • U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
                                                                                                                                                                      • U.S. Bureau of the Census
                                                                                                                                                                      • U.S. Department of Agriculture
                                                                                                                                                                      • Weight Watchers International Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                      • World Health Organization
                                                                                                                                                                      • Yahoo! Inc

                                                                                                                                                                      Black Diet and Wellness - US - December 2009

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