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Business Travel Worldwide - September 2016

“The medium-term outlook for business travel has darkened somewhat as protectionist sentiment is on the rise in most Western societies and the BRICs can longer be counted on to lead world growth. In spite of demographic and technological changes, travel managers and corporate travel programmes still have a future, but will be challenged by the ongoing consolidation of the hotel sector, notably the Marriott/Starwood merger. However, on the bright side, it looks like business travellers will increasingly take the option of extending their trips to include some leisure activities in the destinations they visit.”
- Jessica Kelly, Senior Travel Analyst

This report provides an overview and update about business travel worldwide and key issues that are impacting, such as the reporting of travel expenses, risk management, airport security checks, adapting to mobile devices and the use of so-called ‘sharing economy’ travel services. There are also individual sections about travel management and distribution intermediaries, loyalty programmes, and meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions (MICE) travel.

This report looks at the following areas:

  • What is the outlook for growth in spending on business travel by region and major country?
  • Is managed business travel on the decline?
  • How is the rise of mobile impacting business travel?
  • Which are the most-/least-valued travel-related loyalty programmes?
  • Which hotel brands and airlines are best/worst rated by business travellers?
  • What is the trend regarding corporate procurement for travel services (lodging and air transport)?
  • What is the impact of ‘sharing-economy’ players like Uber and Airbnb on business travel?

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Table of contents

  1. Introduction

      • Key findings
      • Data Sources

        • Abbreviations

          • Issues in the Market

              • Reporting of travel expenses
                • Risk management
                  • Airport security checks
                    • Adapting to mobile
                      • Use of ‘sharing-economy’ travel services
                      • Global Summary

                          • Demographic trends
                            • Figure 1: Outlook for worldwide population growth, 2015-2100
                          • Population ageing
                            • Figure 2: Proportion of prime working-age population (age 20-34 years) of the total, 1950-2100
                            • Figure 3: Proportion of the population aged 50+ of the total, 1950-2100
                          • Economy
                            • Brexit impact
                              • Emerging markets looking up
                                • Figure 4: WEO projections (% change unless otherwise noted), July 2016
                              • Currency forecast
                                • Figure 5: Exchange-rate forecasts for major currencies, 24/06/16
                                • Figure 6: Exchange-rate forecasts for Asia, 24/06/16
                                • Figure 7: Exchange-rate forecasts for EMEA/Latin America, 24/06/16
                              • Business-travel spending by principal world region
                                • Figure 8: Spending* on business travel & tourism worldwide & by major region, 2015 & 2026
                              • Top-ten countries for business-travel expenditure
                                • Figure 9: Top 10 countries for business-travel expenditure*, 2015 & 2016
                              • Near-term expected growth in business-travel spending in Europe
                                • Brexit effect
                                  • Outlook for Germany
                                    • Outlook for the UK
                                      • Outlook for France
                                        • Outlook for Spain
                                          • Outlook for Italy
                                          • Expense Reporting

                                              • Global differences in expense-reporting practices
                                                • Increasing use of technology to manage and track expenses
                                                • Risk Management

                                                    • Business travel increases risk
                                                      • Figure 10: Summary of risks relating to business travel, 2016
                                                    • Legal risks
                                                      • Duty of care
                                                        • The UK Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act of 2007
                                                          • GBTA’s new travel risk-management assessment tool
                                                            • Sabre’s SafePoint
                                                            • Airport Security Checks

                                                                • US airlines offer ways to avoid queues
                                                                  • Elite programmes
                                                                    • CLEAR
                                                                      • PreCheck
                                                                        • Programmes criticised
                                                                          • EasyJet’s Fast Track security
                                                                            • Figure 11: easyJet airports where Fast Track Security lanes are available, 2016
                                                                        • Adapting to Mobile

                                                                            • What apps business travellers use and why
                                                                              • Use of travel apps
                                                                                • Figure 12: Travel apps used by North America-based business travellers, by type of travel service, 2016
                                                                                • Figure 13: Travel apps used by Europe-based business travellers, by type of travel service, 2016
                                                                              • North American business travellers are using hotel apps
                                                                                • Mobile payments
                                                                                  • Figure 14: Percentage who would be ‘likely’ or ‘very likely’ to use e-wallet technology/mobile payment, 2016
                                                                                • Mobile apps and duty of care
                                                                                  • BCD’s travel mobile app
                                                                                    • Surge in mobile hotel bookings with CWT’s ‘To Go’
                                                                                      • Controlling mobile costs
                                                                                      • Use of Sharing-Economy Travel Services

                                                                                          • Sharing economy presents a challenge to travel policies
                                                                                            • Beyond Uber and Airbnb…
                                                                                              • Business travellers unsure of travel policy
                                                                                                • Increasing use of social media
                                                                                                  • “Read the fine print”
                                                                                                    • Passengers assaulted by drivers
                                                                                                      • Corporate travellers shun Airbnb
                                                                                                        • Employees can book business travel for co-workers on Airbnb
                                                                                                          • Airbnb integrated into TMCs
                                                                                                            • Airbnb vs. hotels
                                                                                                              • Figure 15: Top 10 cities for business trips on Airbnb, 2016
                                                                                                            • ‘Business Travel Ready’ listings
                                                                                                            • Transport

                                                                                                                • Airlines
                                                                                                                  • Savings over traveller comfort in airline agreements
                                                                                                                    • In-flight connectivity
                                                                                                                      • Figure 16: Airlines offering in-flight Wi-Fi, 2015
                                                                                                                    • Cost of in-flight Wi-Fi
                                                                                                                      • Gogo
                                                                                                                        • Figure 17: A sampling of connectivity options available to passengers on selected airlines, 2016
                                                                                                                      • Facebook, Google and chat most popular
                                                                                                                        • Milking business travellers
                                                                                                                          • Slow speeds
                                                                                                                            • Video streaming a prime motivation
                                                                                                                              • Big European LCCs do not offer Internet yet
                                                                                                                                • BA to add fast Wi-Fi
                                                                                                                                  • Economy class
                                                                                                                                    • Seat pitch a key feature
                                                                                                                                      • Premium economy
                                                                                                                                        • Seat width
                                                                                                                                          • Seat configuration
                                                                                                                                            • Seat recline 
                                                                                                                                              • East Asia
                                                                                                                                                • AirAsia
                                                                                                                                                  • ANA
                                                                                                                                                    • Cathay Pacific
                                                                                                                                                      • Drukair 
                                                                                                                                                        • Garuda Indonesia
                                                                                                                                                          • Malaysia Airlines
                                                                                                                                                            • SilkAir
                                                                                                                                                              • Singapore Airlines 
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 18: Screen sizes in different cabins, 2016
                                                                                                                                                              • Thai Airways 
                                                                                                                                                                • Vietnam Airlines 
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 19: Details of economy-class seating for East Asian airlines, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                • Europe, Middle East & South Asia
                                                                                                                                                                  • Air India
                                                                                                                                                                    • British Airways 
                                                                                                                                                                      • Etihad Airways 
                                                                                                                                                                        • Finnair
                                                                                                                                                                          • Jetstar
                                                                                                                                                                            • Lufthansa
                                                                                                                                                                              • Qatar Airways
                                                                                                                                                                                • SWISS
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Turkish Airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Vistara
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 20: Details of economy-class seating for European, Middle Eastern & South Asian airlines, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                    • North America & Oceania
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Air New Zealand
                                                                                                                                                                                        • American Airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Qantas
                                                                                                                                                                                            • United Airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Virgin Australia
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 21: Details of economy-class seating for airlines in North America & Oceania, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Business class
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Personal TVs (PTVs)
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • East Asia
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Cathay Pacific (CX)
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Korean Air
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • China Southern
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Malaysia Airlines (MAS)
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • SilkAir
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Singapore Airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Thai Airways (THAI)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 22: Details of business-class seating for East Asian airlines, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Air France
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • British Airways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Emirates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Etihad
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Finnair 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Gulf Air
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Jet Airways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Lufthansa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Qatar Airways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Scandinavian Airlines (SAS)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • South African Airways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Virgin Atlantic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 23: Details of business-class seating for European, Middle Eastern, African & South Asian airlines, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • North America & Oceania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Air Canada
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Air New Zealand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • American Airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Delta
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Qantas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • United Airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 24: Details of business-class seating for airlines in North America & Oceania, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Luggage tracking
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Smart baggage the way forward
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Car rental
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • National tops the rankings again
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 25: Ranking of major car-rental companies by US travel buyers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Key findings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Client communication a differentiator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • National/Enterprise, a low-cost producer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Harnessing technology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Amenities and services present a challenge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Taxis/Uber/black cars
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Uber for Business
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Uber introduces advance ride scheduling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Taxis are losing out to ride-sharing services
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Supply chain is flexible, but is it reliable?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Taxi apps merge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Rides Everywhere
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Uber withdraws from China
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 26: Uber financing rounds, January-July 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lyft’s global partnership expansion with GrabTaxi and Ola
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lyft for sale?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Chauffeured limousine services and black cars
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Black cars
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Addison Lee acquires Tristar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Business Travel Accommodation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hotel characteristics for business travellers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hotel Wi-Fi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Fixed desks are out …
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • …communal workspaces are in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Starbucks effect
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bedrooms redefined
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Technology trends
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Why business travellers prefer chain hotels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 27: Key factors in determining where business travellers choose to stay, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Serviced apartments and extended stay
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 28: Comparison of servcied apartments with extended-stay & traditional hotels, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A broad spectrum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Serviced apartments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Traveller wellbeing assured
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Extended-stay hotels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 29: Cost comparison between corporate housing & extended-stay hotels in the US, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 30: How travel managers define extended stay, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Corporate housing, home sharing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Homelike expanding in Central Europe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Business Travel Management

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Managing corporate travel programmes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • ‘Travel Management 2.0’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • TMCs still have a future
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Corporate agreements
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Trends in hotel programmes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Business Travel Distribution

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Booking behaviour of UK, German and French business travellers 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 31: Booking channels used by UK, German & French business travellers*, 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Why do they book outside preferred booking channels?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • OBTs a preferred channel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • OBT platforms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Concur
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Concur, Microsoft tie-up
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Concur harnesses SAP relationship to grow in Europe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Concur’s taxi ads
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Concur to Buy Hipmunk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Egencia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • An underperforming business
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 32: Gross bookings, revenue margin & revenue, 2013-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • No apartment rentals for Egencia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • HRS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • HRS partners with Concur
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • GDSs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Still a growing distribution channel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 33: GDS hotel booking revenue generation* by world region, 2014 vs. 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Amadeus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Sabre
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sabre buys Trust international
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Travelport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 34: Travelport’s largest airline providers by major region/country (based on revenue) for the year ended 31 December 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hotels, car rental and rail
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Travel agencies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • AXESS International Network
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Travelsky
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Travel-Related Loyalty Programmes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Travel loyalty compared to other industries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Big is better
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Airline loyalty schemes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Airline loyalty-scheme ratings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Report rankings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 35: Rating* of US airline frequent-flyer programmes, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Airline loyalty programmes track revenue not miles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • 40% earn more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Gaming discouraged
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • American shifts to a revenue-based programme
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Secret airline loyalty programmes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • United Airlines’ Global Services
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • American airlines’ Conciergekey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Delta Airlines’ Delta 360
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Cathay Pacific Airways’ Diamond Plus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Emirates’ Invitation Only
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • British Airways’ Executive Club Premier
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Qantas Airways’ Chairman’s Lounge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Scandinavian Airlines’ Pandion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • In conclusion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hotel loyalty schemes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The advantages of hotel loyalty schemes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Le Club AccorHotels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Programme details
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 36: Details of Le Club’s tiers & point earning, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 37: Details of Le Club’s tiers & point earning, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 38: Onsite member benefits according to brand & tier status, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Partners
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 39: Le Club’s airline partners, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Inactive members
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wyndham has revamped its loyalty programme
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Booking direct
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Le Club AccorHotels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Choice Privileges rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hilton HHonors rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hyatt Gold Passport rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Your Rate by IHG Rewards Club
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Marriott Rewards member rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wyndham Rewards rate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hilton’s World Sale
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Comparing the programmes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 40: The largest hotel loyalty prograames, 2015 vs. 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The best hotel loyalty schemes for business travellers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hyatt Gold Passport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • IHG Rewards Club
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Marriott Rewards
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hilton HHonors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Starwood Preferred Guest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Summary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 41: Values (in cents) of combined hotel & credit-card rewards for paid stays, in ascending order, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hotel chain loyalty scheme ratings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 42: Rating* of US hotel chain loyalty programmes, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Report rankings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Record number of international association meetings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Berlin new number one
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 43: Top 20 cities ranking by number of meetings organised in 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Second-tier cities growing faster
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • UK moves up to third place
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 44: Top 20 countries ranking by number of meeting organised in 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • UIA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 45: Summary of UIA data, 2015-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 46: Top 10 countries for international meetings, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 47: Top 10 cities for international meetings, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Meetings management in corporate travel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 48: Does your organisation have an SMM in place?, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 49: What was the main reason for setting up your SMM?, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 50: How long ago did you begin your SMM programme?, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 51: What level of compliance do you have to your SMM programme overall?, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • ‘Sharing-economy’ effect
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Airbnb’s move into meetings and events industry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Airbnbs will be able to offer a personalised service
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • ‘Internet of things’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Meeting technology changes with guests’ needs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Anticipating needs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The latest and the best
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Working within the budget
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Destination marketing evolves
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • MICE distribution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online booking for corporate events and activities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Delta Edge Meetings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Business Travel by Major Country Market

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Brazil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • China
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • MICE travel strong
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 52: Breakdown of expenditure on MICE trips in China, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Germany
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 53: Summary of key indicators for German business travel, 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • India
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 54: Volume of business trips taken by UK residents, overseas versus domestic, 2009-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Services PMI for month of July crashes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 55: UK Services PMI (purchasing managers’ index), 2 August 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • US
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Price growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 56: Outlook for the price trend in business-travel components for the US in 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Group vs. individual business travel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 57: Group & transient business-travel volume & spending in the US, 2010-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • What Next?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Protectionism could impact business travel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Managed business travel to continue
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Marriott-Starwood merger will impact travel buying
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 58: Marriott & Starwood share of corporate spending on hotels in top business-travel destinations, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Compliance and loyalty programmes pose challenges
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 59: Estimated number of hotels by region/country of major hotel chains, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • More ‘bleisure’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Women, Millennials and SMEs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Alone or with a partner?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Companies Covered

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Business Travel Worldwide - September 2016

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    US $1,984.91 (Excl.Tax)