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Casinos - US - January 2011

Revenue growth in the casino industry came to an abrupt halt in 2008 with the onset of the recession. Growth at current prices was 9% between 2005 and 2010, However, between 2008 and 2010, the market declined by 4%—to an estimated $60.4 billion in 2010. The recession and its aftermath, plus high unemployment, have caused many Americans to reduce their spending, especially on non-essential activities. As the economy slowly recovers, growth in the casino industry is expected to gradually increase for the next several years.

This report addresses the following questions and provides unique insights on a variety of issues:

  • How are sales in the commercial, tribal and racetrack casino (racino) segments projected to fare between 2010 and 2015?
  • Which industry segments will drive growth?
  • Which markets/locations show strong sales growth? Which are experiencing declines? Where is the market saturated?
  • What proportion of U.S. adults visits casinos? Who are these visitors?
  • Who are the market leaders?
  • How are the lifestyles of casino-goers unique? How can casinos more effectively serve their customers?
  • How are demographic shifts impacting sales? How are they likely to affect companies in the future?
  • Other than gambling, what type of entertainment options are casino-goers most interested in at a casino?
  • How do gaming preferences vary among race? Which segments tend to be the highest value customers?
  • What factors discourage consumers from going to casinos?
  • What are the dominant themes in casino advertisements?

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Table of contents

  1. Scope and Themes

    • What you need to know
      • Definition
        • Data sources
          • Sales data
            • Consumer survey data
              • Online advertising data
                • Advertising videos
                  • Abbreviations and terms
                    • Abbreviations
                      • Terms
                      • Executive Summary

                        • Casino industry revenues remain challenged; rebound forecast
                          • Regional and local gaming locations gain; oversaturation lurks
                            • States yearn for tax revenue, but gaming expansion may backfire
                              • Caesars and MGM Resorts are largest commercial casino operators
                                • Loyalty programs and millions in advertising build brands
                                  • Almost 70 million adults visited a casino in the last year
                                    • Most casino visitors gamble closer to home
                                      • Many desire to improve their understanding of gaming rules
                                        • Only about 15% of adults say they “do not ever gamble”
                                          • Adults aged 25-34 have most active interest in gaming-related activities
                                            • Half of all casino visitors participate in a loyalty or rewards program
                                              • Good market potential for internet gaming
                                                • Most gamblers set a budget and gamble “just for fun”
                                                  • Majority of casino visitors play the slots
                                                    • Adults’ primary reason to gamble: escapism
                                                      • Four in 10 adults who do not gamble are just not that interested in it
                                                        • Hispanic market ripe for growth
                                                        • Insights and Opportunities

                                                          • Poker leagues and tournaments
                                                            • Internet gaming—establish the online brand
                                                              • “Free” games/mobile apps
                                                                • Extend brand to racetracks, regional or local casinos
                                                                  • Few ads target men 21-34—a key audience
                                                                    • Hispanic market beckons
                                                                    • Inspire Insight

                                                                        • Trend—Extend My Brand
                                                                        • Market Size and Forecast

                                                                          • Key points
                                                                            • Revenue growth halts in 2008
                                                                              • Consumers curtail spending on gambling
                                                                                • Return to positive growth in 2011
                                                                                  • Figure 1: Total U.S. gaming revenues, at current prices, 2005-15
                                                                                  • Figure 2: Total U.S. gaming revenues, at inflation adjusted prices, 2005-15
                                                                                • Fan-chart forecast
                                                                                    • Figure 3: Fan-chart forecast of total U.S. gaming revenues, at current prices, 2010-15
                                                                                • Market Drivers

                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                    • When the economy sours, so do gambling revenues
                                                                                      • Figure 4: CBO GDP and uneployment projections for calendar years 2010-11
                                                                                    • Americans are saving more
                                                                                      • Figure 5: Disposable personal income, personal savings and personal savings rate, Q3 2008-10
                                                                                    • Key age groups set to grow through 2016
                                                                                      • Figure 6: U.S. population aged 21 or older, by age group, 2006-16
                                                                                    • Gambling a part of many vacations
                                                                                      • Figure 7: Incidence of casino visits while on vacation, by age, October 2010
                                                                                    • Travel sentiment still down but leveling
                                                                                      • Figure 8: The Traveler Sentiment Index™, March 2007-October 2010
                                                                                  • Competitive Context

                                                                                    • Key points
                                                                                      • States’ desire for tax revenues leads to increased competition
                                                                                        • Figure 9: Selected state gaming legislation enacted, FYs 2010/11
                                                                                        • Figure 10: Casino and racino tax paid to state and local governments, FYs 2008-09
                                                                                      • Despite questionable legality, 13% of adults played gambling games online
                                                                                          • Figure 11: Online gaming habits, by gender, October 2010
                                                                                        • Legalization of internet gaming looking more promising
                                                                                          • Many options for spending disposable income
                                                                                            • Figure 12: Year-over-year extra money spending behavior, by total, July 2008, July 2009, June 2010
                                                                                        • Segment Overall Performance

                                                                                          • Key points
                                                                                            • Revenue parity between commercial and tribal casinos
                                                                                              • Tribal casinos and racinos expanding locations
                                                                                                • Figure 13: Number of U.S. locations for commercial, tribal, and racetrack casinos, 2006-09
                                                                                                • Figure 14: U.S. gaming revenue at current prices for commercial, tribal, and racetrack casinos, 2008 and 2010
                                                                                            • Commercial Casinos

                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                • Commercial casinos segment
                                                                                                  • Vegas wobbles; Atlantic City tanks
                                                                                                    • Figure 15: Total U.S. commercial casinos gaming revenues at current prices, 2005-15
                                                                                                    • Figure 16: Total U.S. commercial casinos gaming revenues at inflation adjusted prices, 2005-15
                                                                                                • Tribal Casinos

                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                    • Revenue growth from tribal casinos outpaces that of commercial casinos
                                                                                                      • More competition going forward
                                                                                                        • Figure 17: Total U.S. tribal casinos gaming revenues at current prices, 2005-15
                                                                                                        • Figure 18: Total U.S. tribal casinos gaming revenues at inflation adjusted prices, 2005-15
                                                                                                    • Racetrack Casinos (Racinos)

                                                                                                      • Key points
                                                                                                        • Racino segment is bright spot
                                                                                                          • Growth driven by legalization of racetrack casinos
                                                                                                            • Figure 19: Racino legalization and opening year, 1992-2010
                                                                                                            • Figure 20: Total U.S. racetrack casinos gaming revenues at current prices, 2005-15
                                                                                                            • Figure 21: Total U.S. racetrack casinos gaming revenues at inflation adjusted prices, 2005-15
                                                                                                        • Geographic Distribution

                                                                                                          • Key points
                                                                                                            • Geographic locations
                                                                                                              • Figure 22: States that participate in casino gambling, 2010
                                                                                                            • Nevada and New Jersey remain the largest markets for commercial casinos
                                                                                                              • Figure 23: Commercial casino gaming revenues, by state, 2008-09
                                                                                                            • Most markets show significant revenue declines
                                                                                                              • Figure 24: Top 20 U.S. casino markets, by revenue, 2007-09
                                                                                                            • Pennsylvania tops in racetrack casinos
                                                                                                              • Figure 25: Racetrack casino gaming revenues, by state, 2008-09
                                                                                                          • Leading Commercial Casinos

                                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                                              • Sales stabilize in 2010 for leading operators
                                                                                                                • Figure 26: Global revenues among selected top commercial casino operators, 2008 and 2009
                                                                                                              • Caesars Entertainment (formerly Harrah’s Entertainment)
                                                                                                                • MGM Resorts
                                                                                                                  • Las Vegas Sands
                                                                                                                  • Innovations and Innovators

                                                                                                                    • Pet friendly at Caesars
                                                                                                                      • A city within a city
                                                                                                                        • B Connected app
                                                                                                                          • Activities for the non-gamer or gamer seeking a diversion
                                                                                                                          • Marketing Strategies

                                                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                                                              • Huge swings in individual brand ad expenditures
                                                                                                                                • Figure 27: Media expenditures of leading casino hotel brands, 2008 and 2009
                                                                                                                              • Loyalty cards and comps anchor in-house marketing efforts
                                                                                                                                • Online marketing
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 28: Online advertising impressions and share, by top casino hotel advertisers, June 2010-December 2010
                                                                                                                                • Advertising approaches
                                                                                                                                  • All-encompassing offering
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 29: Harrah’s Tunica Casino, June 2010
                                                                                                                                  • Escapism and fantasy
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 30: Caesars Palace Las Vegas, August 2010
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 31: Foxwoods Resort Casino, October 2010
                                                                                                                                  • Rewards and promotional offerings
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 32: Foxwoods Resort Casino, November 2010
                                                                                                                                  • Gamble close to home
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 33: Harrah’s Chester Casino and Racetrack, August 2010
                                                                                                                                • Casino Visits

                                                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                                                    • Casino gaming is a mass market
                                                                                                                                      • Slightly fewer adults visit casinos in 2010 than a decade earlier
                                                                                                                                        • Adults who visit casinos do so more often now than in 2000/01
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 34: Visited a casino in the last 12 months and frequency of visits, April 2000-June 2010
                                                                                                                                      • Casino Visits by Type and location

                                                                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                                                                          • Casino visitors shy away from Las Vegas and riverboats
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 35: Type and location of casino visited in the last 12 months, June 2002-June 2010
                                                                                                                                          • Among adults who visit casinos, senior citizens lead the way
                                                                                                                                            • Social seniors enjoy the convenience of local casinos
                                                                                                                                              • Younger adults escape to Las Vegas
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 36: Incidence of visiting, location of casino visited and frequency in the last 12 months, by age, April 2009-June 2010
                                                                                                                                              • Affluence impacts visits to travel destination casinos
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 37: Incidence of visiting, location of casino visited and frequency in the last 12 months, by household income, April 2009-June 2010
                                                                                                                                              • Most adults gamble closer to home
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 38: Incidence of visiting, location of casino visited and frequency in the last 12 months, by geographic region, April 2009-June 2010
                                                                                                                                            • Developing the Market

                                                                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                                                                • Smoking bans at casinos could be welcome
                                                                                                                                                  • Three in 10 adults want to improve their understanding of gaming rules
                                                                                                                                                    • One in five men would like to play in gaming tournaments
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 39: Feelings toward cigarette smoke, gambling legalization, gaming knowledge and participation, by gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                    • Youngest adults anxious to learn how to gamble
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 40: Feelings toward cigarette smoke, gambling legalization, gaming knowledge and participation, by age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                  • Gambling Experience

                                                                                                                                                    • Key points
                                                                                                                                                      • Most adults are not regular gamblers
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 41: Knowledge of games and participation outside of the casino, by gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                      • Adults aged 25-34 have more active gaming interest
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 42: Knowledge of games and participation outside of the casino, by age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                    • Impact of Loyalty and Promotional Activities

                                                                                                                                                      • Key points
                                                                                                                                                        • About half of gamblers have a loyalty card
                                                                                                                                                          • Promotional offers are not prerequisites for visitation
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 43: Loyalty membership and impact of promotional offers on casino visitation, by age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                        • Interest in Online Gaming

                                                                                                                                                          • Key points
                                                                                                                                                            • Nascent online gambling industry garners strong interest
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 44: Incidence and frequency of online casino/gambling, by gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                            • Interest in online gaming highest for adults 21-34
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 45: Incidence and frequency of online casino/gambling, by age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                          • Attitudes and Behaviors Toward Casinos and Gambling

                                                                                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                                                                                              • Gambling is leisure activity for most
                                                                                                                                                                • About 5% of casino visitors who gamble are addicted
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 46: Attitudes toward gambling, by gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                • Young adults less likely to set a budget; more likely to expect to win
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 47: Attitudes toward gambling, by age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                              • Computerized Dealers

                                                                                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                  • Most casino gamblers prefer live dealers to computers
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 48: Use of and interest in computerized dealers, by age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                • Amount Won or Lost on Most Recent Visits

                                                                                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                    • Men more likely to report winning at the casino
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 49: Average amount won/lost on last casino visit, by gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                    • Vast majority of adults win or lose $300 or less
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 50: Amounts won/lost on last casino visit, by gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                    • Highest earners most likely to win or lose big
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 51: Amounts won/lost on last casino visit, by household income, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                  • Casino Gaming Preferences

                                                                                                                                                                    • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                      • Slot machines, blackjack/21, and video poker are the most popular games
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 52: Games usually played at the casino, by gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                      • Young adults more likely to bet on sports and table games
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 53: Games usually played at the casino, by age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                      • Household income does not correlate strongly with what games are played
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 54: Games usually played at the casino, by household income, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                    • Reasons for Gambling

                                                                                                                                                                      • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                        • Reasons for enjoying gambling at casinos
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 55: Reasons for enjoying gambling at casinos, by gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                        • Adults aged 45+ enjoy gambling to escape from everyday life
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 56: Reasons for enjoying gambling at casinos, by age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                      • Reasons for Not Visiting a Casino

                                                                                                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                          • Many are simply not interested…
                                                                                                                                                                            • While others are still to be lured
                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 57: Reasons for not visiting a casino in the past year, by age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                          • Non-gaming Casino Activities

                                                                                                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                              • Dining is the most popular non-gaming activity at casinos
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 58: Non-gaming casino activity participation, by gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                • Promote specific non-gaming options by age group
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 59: Non-gaming casino activity participation, by age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                • Broader packages for the well-heeled
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 60: Non-gaming casino activity participation, by household income, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                              • Choice of Accommodation

                                                                                                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Promotional offers and past experience are significant factors
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 61: Important attributes when selecting a hotel for overnight trip to a casino, by gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hotel amenities more important to younger adults
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 62: Important attributes when selecting a hotel for overnight trip to a casino, by age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                • Race and Hispanic Origin

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Casino visits by type and location
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 63: Incidence of visiting, location of casino visited and frequency in the last 12 months, by race/Hispanic origin, April 2009-June 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hispanic segment has untapped potential
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 64: Feelings toward cigarette smoke, gambling legalization, gaming knowledge and participation, by race/Hispanic origin, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hispanics welcome online experience
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 65: Knowledge of games and participation outside of the casino, by race/Hispanic origin, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Impact of loyalty and promotional activities
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 66: Loyalty membership and impact of promotional offers on casino visitation, by race/Hispanic origin, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gambling not “just for fun” for all minorities
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 67: Attitudes towards gambling, by race/Hispanic origin, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Gaming preferences at the casino
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 68: Games usually played at the casino, by race/Hispanic origin, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Reasons for gambling
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 69: Reasons for enjoying gambling at casinos, by race/Hispanic origin, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Reasons for not visiting a casino
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 70: Reasons for not visiting a casino in the past year, by race/Hispanic origin, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Non-gaming activity at casinos
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 71: Non-gaming casino activity participation, by race/Hispanic origin, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Choice of accommodation
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 72: Important attributes when selecting a hotel for overnight trip to a casino, by race/Hispanic origin, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Cluster Analysis

                                                                                                                                                                                      • All-ins
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Demographics
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Opportunity
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hold ‘em & Fold ‘ems
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Demographics
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Opportunity
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Tag-alongs
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Demographics
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Opportunity
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Cluster characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 73: Casino clusters, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 74: Online gaming habits, by casino clusters, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 75: Average frequency of casino visits, by casino clusters, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 76: Feelings toward cigarette smoke, gambling legalization, gaming knowledge and participation, by casino clusters, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 77: Knowledge of games and participation outside of the casino, by casino clusters, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 78: Loyalty membership and impact of promotional offers on casino visitation, by casino clusters, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 79: Attitudes toward gambling, by casino clusters, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 80: Attitudes toward computerized dealers, by casino clusters, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 81: Games usually played/activities at the casino, by casino clusters, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 82: Reasons for enjoying gambling at casinos, by casino clusters, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Cluster demographics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 83: Casino clusters, by gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 84: Casino clusters, by age group, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 85: Casino clusters, by household income, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 86: Casino clusters, by race/Hispanic origin, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Cluster methodology
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Custom Consumer Groups

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Impact of gender and age
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Casino visits
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 87: Incidence of visiting a casino in the last 12 months and frequency of visits, by gender and age, April 2009-June 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Developing the market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 88: Feelings toward cigarette smoke, gambling legalization, gaming knowledge and participation, by gender and age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Attitudes toward gambling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 89: Attitudes toward gambling, by gender and age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Primary reasons for enjoying casino gambling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 90: Reasons for enjoying gambling at casinos, by gender and age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Reasons for not visiting a casino
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 91: Reasons for not visiting a casino in the past year, by gender and age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Impact of presence of children by gender
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Casino visits
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 92: Visited a casino in the last 12 months and frequency of visits, by presence of children, April 2009-June 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Developing the market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 93: Feelings toward cigarette smoke, gambling legalization, gaming knowledge and participation, by gender and presence of children, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Gambling experience
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 94: Knowledge of games and participation outside of the casino, by gender and presence of children, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Interest in online gaming
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 95: Incidence and frequency of online casino/gambling, by gender and presence of chilren, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Computerized dealers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 96: Attitudes toward computerized dealers, by gender and presence of children, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Non-gaming casino activities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 97: Non-gaming casino activity participation, by gender and presence of children, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Appendix—Other Useful Data/Consumer Tables

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 98: Top 10 U.S. racetrack casino markets, by revenue, 2008 and 2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 99: Trips to casinos and racinos, by household income, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 100: Knowledge of games and participation outside of the casino, by household income, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 101: Reasons for enjoying gambling at casinos, by household income, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 102: Reasons for enjoying gambling at casinos, by gender and presence of children, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 103: Reasons for not visiting a casino in the past year, by gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 104: Reasons for not visiting a casino in the past year, by houshold income, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 105: Reasons for not visiting a casino in the past year, by gender and presence of children, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 106: Attitudes toward computerized dealers, by race/Hispanic origin, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 107: Attitudes toward computerized dealers, by gender and age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 108: Attitudes toward gambling, by gender and presence of children, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 109: Loyalty membership and impact of promotional offers on casino visitation, by gender and age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 110: Loyalty membership and impact of promotional offers on casino visitation, by gender and presence of children, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 111: Non-gaming casino activity participation, by gender and age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 112: Amounts won/lost on last casino visit, by age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Appendix—Trade Associations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Companies Covered

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • American Gaming Association
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ameristar Casinos Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Apollo Advisors, L.P.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Boyd Gaming Corporation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bureau of Economic Analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Caesars Entertainment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Casino Gaming Institute Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • ESPN, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Facebook, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Foxwoods Resort Casino
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Gaming Standards Association
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Harrah's Entertainment Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • International Association of Gaming Regulators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Las Vegas Sands Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Mandalay Resort Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Marriott International, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • MGM Mirage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • National Indian Gaming Commission
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • North American Gaming Regulators Association
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Penn National Gaming, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Pinnacle Entertainment Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Planet Hollywood
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Bureau of Transportation Statistics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Trump Entertainment Resorts, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • U.S. Bureau of the Census
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • US Department of Commerce
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wynn Resorts Limited

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Casinos - US - January 2011

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            £2,684.63 (Excl.Tax)