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Department Store Retailing - Europe - January 2009

This report series covers the six leading economies of Western Europe plus Ireland. We have produced Major Profiles of 12 top department store retailers in Europe. We have also included smaller profiles (13 in total) on other significant players, some of which operate in European markets not covered by this report.

The data in its entirety is contained in the single copy seven-country report. Single country reports are available for the UK, France, Germany, Spain and Italy.

The department store sector is facing major challenges:

  • Continued competition from high street specialists and the non-food offer of grocers.

  • Economic issues are undermining consumer confidence and many consumers are expected to cut back on their spending or trade down.

  • Department stores, with their focus on discretionary items, face difficult times.

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Table of contents

  1. Market in Brief

    • Tough retail conditions
      • Sector underperforms
        • Leading retailers
        • Report Scope

            • Technical notes
              • Definitions
                • Accounting policy
                  • Financial definitions
                    • Currencies
                      • Figure 1: Exchange rates, € to other European currencies, 2004-08
                    • Country codes
                      • Figure 2: Country codes
                    • VAT
                      • Figure 3: Europe: Standard VAT rates, 2007
                  • European Summary

                    • European market size
                        • Figure 4: Europe: Estimated mixed goods retailers’ sales, 2003-07
                      • Forecasts
                        • Figure 5: Europe: Forecast mixed goods retailers’ sales, 2008-13
                        • Figure 6: Europe: Mixed goods retailers’ sales by country, forecast growth 2008-13(f)
                      • Retail Competitor Analysis
                        • Leading retailers
                            • Figure 7: Europe: Top 30 leading department store retailers, 2007
                          • Other retailers
                            • Sales densities
                              • Figure 8: Europe: Selected department store operators’ sales densities, 2007
                            • Concentration
                              • Figure 9: Europe: Market consolidation and leading retailers in each market, 2007
                            • Internationalisation
                              • Store development
                                  • Figure 10: Europe: Leading department store retailers store development, 2003 and 2007
                                • Trends and Issues
                                  • Key points
                                    • Move upmarket
                                      • Growth of online
                                        • Figure 11: Leading European department store retailers: E-commerce facilities, 2008
                                      • The future
                                      • Europe – Background Data

                                        • Overview
                                          • The big five economies
                                            • Wealthiest and poorest markets
                                              • Figure 12: Europe: GDP, consumer spending and retail sales per capita by country, 2007
                                            • Fastest growing markets
                                              • Figure 13: Europe: Fastest growing economies, GDP (current prices) growth, 2003-07
                                              • Figure 14: Europe: Fastest growing retail markets, 2003-07
                                            • Summary tables
                                              • Population
                                                • Figure 15: Europe: Population, by country, 2003-07
                                              • GDP
                                                • Figure 16: Europe: GDP, by country, 2003-07
                                              • Consumer expenditure
                                                • Figure 17: Europe: Total consumer expenditure (current prices), 2003-07
                                              • Inflation
                                                • Figure 18: Europe: Inflation, by country, 2003-07
                                              • All retail sales
                                                • Figure 19: Europe: Retail sales, by country, 2003-07
                                            • France

                                              • Market in Brief
                                                • The future
                                                  • Market size and performance
                                                    • The competitive landscape
                                                      • Broader Market Environment
                                                        • Key points
                                                          • Immigration boosting population
                                                            • Figure 20: France: Population trends, 2003-08
                                                            • Figure 21: France: Population projections, by age group, 2005-45
                                                          • Economy
                                                            • Slow growth and a stifled turnaround
                                                                • Figure 22: France: Gross domestic product, 1996-2007
                                                              • Consumer confidence on a knife edge
                                                                  • Figure 23: France: Household consumer expenditure, 1995-2007
                                                                • Plummeting consumer confidence
                                                                  • Figure 24: France: Consumer confidence, January 1998-September 2008
                                                                • Inflation low but set to rise
                                                                  • Figure 25: France: Consumer prices, 2002-07
                                                                • The Market in Context
                                                                  • Key points
                                                                    • 2003 to 2007
                                                                      • 2008
                                                                          • Figure 26: France: Spending on key department store product markets, 2003-07
                                                                        • Sector Size and Forecast
                                                                          • Key points
                                                                            • Economic outlook
                                                                              • Retail forecasts
                                                                                  • Figure 27: France: Mixed goods retailers’ sales, 2003-13
                                                                                • Recent trends in French mixed goods retailers’ sales
                                                                                  • Retailer Competitor Analysis
                                                                                    • Key points
                                                                                      • Leading retailers
                                                                                        • Galeries Lafayette
                                                                                          • The others
                                                                                              • Figure 28: France: Leading department stores, 2007/08
                                                                                            • Market shares
                                                                                                • Figure 29: France: Leading department stores, market shares, 2007/08
                                                                                              • Enterprises and outlets
                                                                                                • Figure 30: France: Department store outlet data, 2004-08
                                                                                                • Figure 31: France: Ten largest department stores by size, 2006
                                                                                            • Germany

                                                                                              • Market in Brief
                                                                                                • The future
                                                                                                  • Market size and performance
                                                                                                    • The competitive landscape
                                                                                                      • Broader Market Environment
                                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                                          • Positive factors
                                                                                                            • Negative factors
                                                                                                              • Population to decline
                                                                                                                • Figure 32: Germany: Population trends, 2003-07
                                                                                                                • Figure 33: Germany: Births, deaths, immigration and emigration, 2000-07
                                                                                                                • Figure 34: Germany: Population, by age group, 2006, 2010 and 2015
                                                                                                              • Strengthening economy, but consumption has failed to pick up
                                                                                                                • Figure 35: Germany: Gross domestic product, 1997-2007
                                                                                                              • Consumer spending remains weak
                                                                                                                  • Figure 36: Germany: Consumer expenditure, 1998-2007
                                                                                                                • Inflation has peaked
                                                                                                                  • Figure 37: Germany: Consumer prices, 1999-2008
                                                                                                                • The Market in Context
                                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                                    • Mixed consumer spending performance
                                                                                                                      • Figure 38: Germany: Consumer spending on selected categories of goods, 2003-07
                                                                                                                    • Low inflation
                                                                                                                      • Figure 39: Germany: Consumer price index for goods typically sold at department stores, 2000-08*
                                                                                                                    • Competing sectors
                                                                                                                      • Sector Size and Forecast
                                                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                                                          • Economic outlook
                                                                                                                            • Consumer outlook
                                                                                                                              • Retail forecasts
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 40: Germany: Retail sales, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                • Prospects for department store retailers
                                                                                                                                  • Retail Competitor Analysis
                                                                                                                                    • Key points
                                                                                                                                      • Middle market most under pressure
                                                                                                                                        • Kaufhof up for sale
                                                                                                                                          • Karstadt performing even worse
                                                                                                                                            • Breuninger and Ludwig Beck
                                                                                                                                              • Hertie files for insolvency
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 41: Germany: Leading mixed goods retailers, 2007/08
                                                                                                                                              • Evaluation and market shares
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 42: Germany: Leading department store retailers and market shares, 2007
                                                                                                                                            • Republic of Ireland

                                                                                                                                              • Market in Brief
                                                                                                                                                • The future
                                                                                                                                                  • Market size and performance
                                                                                                                                                    • Competitive landscape
                                                                                                                                                      • Broader Market Environment
                                                                                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                                                                                          • Growing population
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 43: Republic of Ireland: Population by gender, 2003-08
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 44: Republic of ireland: Population, by age group, 2006, 2011 and 2016
                                                                                                                                                          • One of Europe’s first economies to move into recession
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 45: Republic of Ireland: Gross domestic product, 1997-2007
                                                                                                                                                          • Consumer spending – from boom to bust
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 46: Republic of Ireland: Consumer expenditure, 1997-2007
                                                                                                                                                          • High inflation
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 47: Republic of Ireland: Consumer prices, 2000-07
                                                                                                                                                          • The Market in Context
                                                                                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                                                                                              • Consumer spending booming
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 48: Republic of Ireland: Consumer spending on key department store markets, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                              • Competing retail sectors
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 49: Republic of Ireland: Selected sector sales, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                • Spending patterns change in 2008
                                                                                                                                                                  • Sector Size and Forecast
                                                                                                                                                                    • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                      • Economic outlook
                                                                                                                                                                        • Retail forecasts
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 50: Republic of Ireland: Retail sales, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                          • Recent past trends
                                                                                                                                                                            • Retail Competitor Analysis
                                                                                                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                • British retailers expand
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Mixed results from local players
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Department stores’ prospects
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 51: Republic of Ireland: Leading department store retailers, 2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Evaluation and market shares
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 52: Republic of Ireland: Leading department store retailers, evaluation and 2007 market shares
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Enterprise and outlet data
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 53: Republic of Ireland: Number of enterprises, 2001-06
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 54: Republic of Ireland: Leading department store retailers – outlet numbers, 1999-2007
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Italy

                                                                                                                                                                                        • Market in Brief
                                                                                                                                                                                          • The future
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Market size and performance
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Competitive landscape
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Broader Market Environment
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Positive factors
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Negative factors
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Low population growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 55: Italy: Population trends, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 56: Italy: Population projections, by age group, 2007-47
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy – a mini resurgence grinds to a halt
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 57: Italy: Gross domestic product, 1996-2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Consumer confidence delicate
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 58: Italy: Household consumer expenditure, 1996-2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Inflation set to increase
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 59: Italy: Consumer prices, 2002-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Market in Context
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 60: Italy: Spending on goods typically stocked, by department stores, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Sector Size and Forecast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economic outlook
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retail forecasts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 61: Italy: Mixed goods retailers’ sales, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Retail Competitor Analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Well developed and competitive sector
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • La Rinascente repositioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Coin investing too
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The only way is up?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Competition from hypermarkets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 62: Italy: Leading mixed goods retailers, 2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Evaluation and market shares
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 63: Italy: Mixed goods retailers, evaluation and market share, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Outlets and enterprises
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 64: Italy: Numbers of outlets by store type, 1996-2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Netherlands

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Market in Brief
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The future
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Market size and performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The competitive landscape
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Broader Market Environment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population continues to grow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 65: The Netherlands: Population trends, 2003-08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 66: The Netherlands: Births, deaths, immigration and emigration, 2000-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 67: The Netherlands: Population projections, by age group, 2007-50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Strong economic performance in last two years
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Effect of the global slowdown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 68: The Netherlands: Gross domestic product, 1997-2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Resurgence in consumer spending in 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 69: The Netherlands: consumer expenditure, 1997-2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Waning consumer confidence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 70: The Netherlands: Consumer confidence, January 2000-November 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Inflation set to decline
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 71: The Netherlands: Consumer prices, 2002-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Market in Context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mixed consumer spending performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 72: The Netherlands: Consumer spending on selected categories of goods, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Price deflation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 73: The Netherlands: Consumer price index for goods typically sold at department stores, 2000-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Competition from outside the sector
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sector Size and Forecast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economic outlook
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Retail forecasts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Prospects for Bijenkorf and V&D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 74: The Netherlands: Retail sales, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Retail Competitor Analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • New strategy and look for V&D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bijenkorf goes premium
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 75: The Netherlands: Leading players in the mixed goods sector, 2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Market shares and evaluation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 76: The Netherlands: Leading mixed goods retailers’ market shares, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Enterprise and outlet data
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 77: The Netherlands: Mixed goods retailers enterprise numbers (2002-06) and outlet numbers (2004-08)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Spain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Market in Brief
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The future
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Market size and performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The competitive landscape
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Broader Market Environment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Positive factors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Negative factors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Gradual population growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Growing population…
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 78: Spain: Population trends, 2004-08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • but ageing too…
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 79: Spain: Population projections, by age group, 2007 and 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy – the good times are over
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 80: Spain: Gross domestic product, 1998-2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Inflation moderating
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 81: Spain: Consumer prices, 1999-2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Unemployment rising
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 82: Spain: Unemployment rate, 1996-2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Consumer confidence weakens rapidly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 83: Spain: Consumer confidence indicator, 2005-08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • End of spending growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 84: Spain: Household consumer expenditure, 1998-2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Market in Context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Key product markets behind all spend
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mixed goods retailers hold share in key markets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 85: Spain: Consumer spending on goods typically sold at department stores, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Slow inflation hampers key categories
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 86: Spain: Consumer price inflation on selected goods, 2002-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sector Size and Forecast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economic outlook
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Retail forecasts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 87: Spain: Retail sales, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Retail Competitor Analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 88: Spain: Leading mixed goods retailers, 2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Market shares and evaluation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 89: Spain: Leading mixed goods retailers’ market shares, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • United Kingdom

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Issues in the Market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Main themes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sector definitions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Accounting policy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Market shares
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Explanations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Abbreviations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Department store definition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Consumer research
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Insights and Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Tough times ahead
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Trust
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Taking the strain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Fast Forward Trends
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Trend 1: Slow It All Down
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Definition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What’s next?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Trend 2: Diversity is All
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Definition:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • What’s next?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Market in Brief
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The future
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Market size and performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The competitive landscape
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Internal Market Environment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Responding to the downturn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Battening down the hatches
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Getting closer to shoppers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Longer term growth opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • E-commerce
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ramping up foreign expansion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Consolidation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Other corporate activity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Broader Market Environment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ageing population a major long term problem
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 90: Population forecasts, by age group, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 91: UK GDP growth, 1989-2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Consumers feeling the pinch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 92: Consumer expenditure, 1997-2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Retail sales
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 93: UK: Year on year retail sales value growth, Jan 2008-Nov 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 94: UK: Year on year retail sales volume growth, Jan 2008-Nov 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Consumer confidence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 95: Nationwide Consumer Confidence Index, Jan 2006-Oct 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Consumer prices and interest rates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 96: UK: Consumer prices, 2000-08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Market in Context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Key product markets have performed well
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 97: Consumer spending on key department store markets, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Competition intensifies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Spending patterns change in 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • VAT cut
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 98: Consumer spending on key department store markets, first half 2007 vs 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Consumer prices
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 99: Consumer prices on select non-food categories, 1996-2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Strengths and Weaknesses in the Market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Who’s Innovating?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Events
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Product development
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • e-commerce
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ethical and green issues
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Market Size and Forecast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economic outlook
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Retail prospects
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mixed goods sector will continue to suffer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Young people starting to feel the pinch too
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The challenges ahead
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Convincing customers to pay a premium
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Looking further out
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Forecasts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 100: Mixed goods retailers’ sales, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Recent trends in mixed goods retailing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sales performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 101: Mixed goods retailers, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Outlet data
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 102: Non-specialised retail outlet numbers, 2000-06
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Drilling down to department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sales performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 103: Identified department stores, sales performance, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Outlet data
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 104: Identified department stores, outlet numbers, 2001-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Retail Competitor Analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Middle ground challenged
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Not the time to be repositioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Top end has defensive qualities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Trading down – who and where
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Smaller players will struggle too
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 105: Major department store retailers, 2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Market shares and evaluation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 106: Department store retailers, market shares and evaluation, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retail Advertising and Promotion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 107: Main media advertising spend, by department stores, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Spending as percentage of turnover
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 108: Main media advertising spend, as % of selective* department store sector sales, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 109: Main media advertising spend, as % of select department store sales, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Spending by media
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 110: Main media advertising, by department stores, by media used, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Consumer – Which Department Stores They Shop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Which department stores they shop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 111: Department stores bought from most frequently, in the last six months, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Who buys where
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Debenhams
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • John Lewis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 112: Department stores bought from most frequently, in the last six months, by gender, age and socio-economic group, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • House of Fraser and Selfridges
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Other department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 113: Department stores visited, in the last six months, by gender, age and socio-economic group, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Sliding consumer usage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 114: Which department stores consumers have bought from in the previous six months, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Repertoire – House of Fraser and Selfridges shoppers are more promiscuous
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 115: Number of department stores shopped at, the past six months, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Consumer – What They Would Like to See From Department Stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • What people would like
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 116: What they would like to see from department stores, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Who wants what
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 117: What they would like to see from department stores, by gender, age and socio-economic group, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 118: What they would like to see from department stores, by gender, age and socio-economic group, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Consumer – Attitudes Towards Department Store Shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Attitudes to department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 119: How they feel about department store shopping, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Who thinks what
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Trading down
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Shopping around for deals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Quality matters
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • ABs are canny shoppers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 120: What they think of shopping in department stores, by gender, age and socio-economic group, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 121: What they think of shopping in department stores, by gender, age and socio-economic group, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Consumer Typologies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 122: Department store shopping typologies, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Group 1: Lovers (21%)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Group 2: Neutral (27%)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Group 4: Small Cutbacks (35%)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Group 3: Strongest Cutbacks (17%)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Typologies by frequency of shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 123: Percentage of groups who have shopped at a department store in the past six months, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Typologies by where people shop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 124: Penetration of groups within department stores, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Brand Elements
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Brand map
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 125: Attitudes and usage of department store brands, December 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Marks & Spencer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • What the brand is trying to achieve
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • What the consumer thinks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 126: Attitudes towards the Marks & Spencer brand, December 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Harvey Nichols
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • What the brand is trying to achieve
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • What the consumer thinks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 127: Attitudes towards the Harvey Nichols brand, December 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • John Lewis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • What the brand is trying to achieve
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What the consumer thinks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 128: Attitudes towards the John Lewis brand, December 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Harrods
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • What the brand is trying to achieve
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • What the consumer thinks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 129: Attitudes towards the Harrods brand, December 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Brand qualities of department store brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • M&S dominates, John Lewis claims second place, Selfridges strongest of the premium brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 130: Personalities of various department store brands, December 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Experience of department store brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • M&S is most popular
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 131: Consumer usage of various department store brands, December 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Brand intentions for department store brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • M&S and Debenhams have best customer retention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 132: Consideration of various department store brands, December 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Brand momentum for department store brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • M&S and John Lewis seen to be gaining most ground
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 133: Momentum of various department store brands, December 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Brand satisfaction for department store brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Harrods and John Lewis show best excellent rating
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 134: Satisfaction with various department store brands, December 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Brand commitment to department store brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • M&S has the strongest core of loyal customers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 135: Commitment to various department store brands, December 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Round up
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Appendix: Which Department Stores They Shop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 136: Dept stores visited in the last six months, by lifestage, Mintel’s Special Groups, region, ACORN group, technology users/TV received, web use, daily newspapers and supermarket used, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 137: Dept stores visited in the last six months, by lifestage, Mintel’s Special Groups, region, ACORN group, technology users/TV received, web use, daily newspapers and supermarket used, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Appendix: What They Would Like to See From Department Stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 138: What they would like to see from department stores, by lifestage, Mintel’s Special Groups, region, ACORN group, technology users/TV received, web use, daily newspapers and supermarket used, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 139: What they would like to see from department stores, by lifestage, Mintel’s Special Groups, region, ACORN group, technology users/TV received, web use, daily newspapers and supermarket used, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Appendix: Attitudes Towards Department Store Shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 140: How they feel about department store shopping, by lifestage, Mintel’s Special Groups, region, ACORN group, technology users/TV received, web use, daily newspapers and supermarket used, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 141: How they feel about department store shopping, by lifestage, Mintel’s Special Groups, region, ACORN group, technology users/TV received, web use, daily newspapers and supermarket used, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 142: How they feel about dept stores, crossed by various department stores, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 143: How they feel about dept stores, crossed by various department stores, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 144: Would like to see, by dept store bought from, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 145: Would like to see, by dept store bought from, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Appendix: Consumer Typologies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 146: Typology groups’ response to attitudinal statements, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 147: Typologies, by department store, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 148: Typologies, by gender, age, socio-economic group, lifestage, region, ACORN group, technology users/TV received, web use and newspaper readership, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Arnotts

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 149: Arnotts: Sales as share of mixed goods retailers’ sales in Ireland, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 150: Arnotts: Group financial performance, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Beale

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 151: Beale Plc: Sales as share of department store sector in the UK, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 152: Beale Plc: Group financial performance, 2002/03-2006/07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 153: Beale Plc: Outlet data, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Pricing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Operational issues
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Breuninger

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 154: Breuninger: Estimated sales as share of mixed goods retailers’ sales in Germany, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 155: Breuninger: Estimated group sales performance, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 156: Breuninger: Outlet data, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Brown Thomas

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 157: Brown Thomas: Sales as share of mixed goods retailers’ sales in Ireland, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 158: Brown Thomas: Group financial performance, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Coin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 159: Coin department stores: Sales as share of mixed goods retailers in Italy, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Strategic evaluation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Recent history
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 160: Coin department stores: Financial performance, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 161: Coin Italy department stores: Outlet data, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 162: Coin: Own label brands, 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 163: Coin department stores: Share of offer, by merchandise category, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Loyalty card
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Debenhams

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 164: Debenhams: Sales as share of UK department store sector sales, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Strategic evaluation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Highly geared balance sheet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 165: Debenhams: Group financial performance, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 166: Debenhams: UK and Republic of Ireland outlet data, 2004-08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 167: Debenhams: International sales as % of consolidated sales, 2004/05-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 168: Debenhams: International franchise outlet numbers, 2001/02-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 169: Debenhams: International franchises by country, October 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 170: Debenhams: Own bought product mix, 2006/07 and 2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Pricing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Advertising and marketing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • El Corte Inglés

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 171: El Corte Inglés (Department Stores): Sales as share of mixed goods retailers’ sales in Spain, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Strategic evaluation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 172: El Corte Inglés (Department Stores): Group financial performance, 2003/04-07/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 173: El Corte Inglés (Department Stores): Outlet data, 2003/04-07/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Pricing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Advertising and marketing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Fenwick Ltd

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 174: Fenwick Ltd: Sales as share of department store sales in UK, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 175: Fenwick Ltd: Group financial performance, 2003/04-07/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 176: Fenwick Ltd: Outlet data, 2003/04-07/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 177: Fenwicks: Store portfolio, 2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Pricing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Galeries Lafayette (Group)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 178: Galeries Lafayette (Group): Sales as share of mixed goods retailers in France, 2005-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Strategic evaluation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 179: Galeries Lafayette (Group): Group financial performance, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 180: Galeries Lafayette (Group): Outlet data, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Globus Department Stores

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 181: Globus department stores: Sales as share of mixed goods retailers’ sales in Switzerland, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 182: Globus department stores: Group sales performance, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 183: Globus department stores: Outlet data, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Harrods

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 184: Harrods Ltd: Sales as share of department store retailers’ sales in UK, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 185: Harrods Ltd: Group financial performance, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 186: Harrods Ltd: Outlet data, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Advertising and marketing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 187: Harrods: Main media advertising spend, by type of media, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 188: Harrods: Main media advertising spend, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Harvey Nichols Group

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 189: Harvey Nichols Group Ltd: Sales as share of all department store retailers’ sales in UK, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 190: Harvey Nichols Group Ltd: UK and Ireland retail financial performance, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 191: Harvey Nichols Group Ltd: UK financial performance, 2006/07-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 192: Harvey Nichols Group Ltd: UK and Ireland outlet data, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 193: Harvey Nichols Group Ltd: Group outlet data, November 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Pricing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Advertising and marketing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • House of Fraser

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 194: House of Fraser Plc: Sales as share of department store retailers’ sales in UK, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Strategic evaluation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The repositioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 195: House of Fraser Plc: Group financial performance, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 196: House of Fraser Plc: Outlet data, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 197: House of Fraser: Apparel own-brands, 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Pricing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Advertising and marketing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • John Lewis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 198: John Lewis Plc: Sales as share of department store sales in UK, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Strategic evaluation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Recent history
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 199: John Lewis Plc: Group financial performance, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 200: John Lewis Plc: Interim results, 2006/07-2008/09
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 201: John Lewis Plc: Outlet data, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Advertising and marketing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Pricing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Karstadt

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 202: Karstadt: Sales as share of mixed goods retailers’ sales in Germany, 2003-08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Strategic evaluation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Recent history
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 203: Karstadt Department Stores: Group financial performance, 2003-07/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 204: Karstadt Department Stores: Outlet data, 2004-07/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 205: Karstadt Department Stores: breakdown by store type, 2006-07/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 206: Karstadt: Sales breakdown by product area, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Pricing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Galeria Kaufhof

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 207: Kaufhof (Germany): Sales as share of mixed goods retailers’ sales in Germany, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Strategic evaluation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Recent history
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 208: Kaufhof: Group financial performance, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 209: Kaufhof: Outlet data, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Product offer and brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Advertising and marketing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Le Bon Marche (LVMH)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 210: Le Bonmarché Group: Estimated retail sales and sales densities, 2004-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 211: Le Bonmarché Group: Sales area, 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Manor Department Stores

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 212: Manor department stores: Sales as share of mixed goods retailers’ sales in Switzerland, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 213: Manor department stores: Group sales performance, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 214: Manor department stores: Outlet data, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Marks & Spencer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 215: Marks & Spencer (UK): Sales as share of all department store retailers’ sales in UK, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Strategic evaluation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Recent history
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 216: M&S: Group financial performance – continuing operations, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 217: M&S: UK sales and like-for-like growth, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 218: M&S: UK retail sales by product category, 2004/05-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 219: Marks & Spencer: UK stores by type, September 2007 and September 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 220: Marks & Spencer: UK stores by type, 2004/05-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 221: M&S: Breakdown of European franchise outlets, 2004-09
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 222: M&S: Other global locations, January 2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 223: M&S: UK retail sales by product category, 2004/05-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Pricing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 224: Marks & Spencer: Clothing price architecture, 2004-08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Advertising ad marketing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 225: Marks & Spencer: Advertising spending in the UK, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 226: Marks & Spencer: Advertising spending in the UK by type of media, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Maxeda

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 227: Maxeda: Department store sales as share of mixed goods retailers’ sales in the Netherlands, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Strategic evaluation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Recent history
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 228: Maxeda: Group financial performance, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 229: Maxeda: Outlet data, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Pricing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Advertising and marketing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Printemps

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 230: France Printemps: Sales as share of mixed goods in France, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Strategic evaluation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 231: France Printemps: Group financial performance, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 232: France Printemps: Outlet data, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 233: Printemps: Store numbers 2003-05 and 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Pricing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • La Rinascente

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 234: Rinascente (Department Stores): Sales as share of mixed goods in Italy, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Strategic evaluation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 235: Rinascente (Department Stores): Group financial performance, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 236: Rinascente (Department Stores): Outlet data, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Pricing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Selfridges Retail

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 237: Selfridges Retail Ltd: Sales as share of mixed goods in UK, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Strategic evaluation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 238: Selfridges Retail Ltd: Group financial performance, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 239: Selfridges Retail Ltd: Outlet data, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Advertising and marketing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Stockmann

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 240: Stockmann: Sales as share of all mixed goods retailers’ sales in Finland, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Recent history
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 241: Stockmann: Group financial performance, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 242: Stockmann: Department store division sales by unit, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 243: Stockmann: Outlet data, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 244: Stockmann: Department store division sales mix, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Pricing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Advertising and marketing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • e-commerce and home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • TJ Hughes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 245: TJ Hughes Plc: Sales as share of department store retailers’ sales in UK, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • History
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Financial performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 246: TJ Hughes Plc: Group financial performance, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Store portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 247: TJ Hughes Plc: Outlet data, 2003/04-2007/08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Market positioning
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Product offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Pricing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Advertising and marketing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 248: TJ Hughes Plc: Main media advertising spend, 2003-07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • e-commerce and home shopping

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Companies Covered

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                To learn more about the companies covered in this report please contact us.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Department Store Retailing - Europe - January 2009

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                US $1,663.95 (Excl.Tax)