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European Retail Handbook - September 2014

This is the 18th edition of the European Retail Handbook. In it we provide the essential background information to understanding the retail scene in each European country.
The European Retail Handbook provides top line demographic and economic data and a more detailed analysis of retail trade in each country. Where possible, retail information is given both on a national and sector basis, and we also provide data on the structure of the trade in terms of businesses, outlets and employees. Major retailers and retail groupings are identified with an indication of their size and relative importance. Other useful information includes synopses of the retail scene in each country and contact points for sources of further information.

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Table of contents

  1. Introduction

      • Definitions
      • Pan European Comparison

        • Population
          • Figure 1: Europe: Population, by country, 2013
          • Figure 2: Europe: Population, by country, 2013
        • GDP
          • Figure 3: Europe: GDP, by country and per capita, 2013
          • Figure 4: Europe: GDP per capita, 2013
        • Consumer expenditure
          • Figure 5: Europe: Consumer expenditure, by country and per capita, 2013
          • Figure 6: Europe: Consumer expenditure per capita, 2013
        • Retail sales
          • Figure 7: Europe: Retail sales, by country and per capita, 2013
          • Figure 8: Europe: Retail sales per capita, 2013
        • Online
          • Figure 9: Europe: % of adults who have made an online purchase in last 3 months, 2013
          • Figure 10: Europe: % of adults who have made an online purchase in last 3 months, 2013
        • Exchange rates
          • Figure 11: Average annual European exchange rates: €, £ and $, 2013
      • Albania

          • The Albanian retail scene
            • Albania in figures
              • Population
                • Figure 12: Albania: Population trends, 2010-14
                • Figure 13: Albania: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                • Figure 14: Albania: Population, by prefecture, 2010-14
              • Economy
                • Figure 15: Albania: GDP 2004-13
                • Figure 16: Albania: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2009-13
                • Figure 17: Albania: Final household consumption, 2003-12
                • Figure 18: Albania: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2008-12
              • Albanian retailing in figures
                • Figure 19: Retail sales, including motor vehicles, 2009-12
                • Figure 20: Albania: Retail sales indices, by broad sector, 2009-13
              • Major retailers in Albania
                • Figure 21: Albania: Leading retailers, 2013
              • Contacts and sources
              • Austria

                  • The Austrian retail scene
                    • Austria in figures
                      • Population
                        • Figure 22: Austria: Population, 2010-14
                        • Figure 23: Austria: Population, by age group, 2010-14
                        • Figure 24: Austria: Number of households, by household size, 2013
                        • Figure 25: Austria: Population, by region, 2011-14
                      • Economy
                        • Figure 26: Austria: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                        • Figure 27: Austria: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2009-13
                        • Figure 28: Austria: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2004-12
                        • Figure 29: Austria: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2009-12
                      • Austrian retailing in figures
                        • Figure 30: Austria: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                        • Figure 31: Austria: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                      • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                        • Figure 32: Austria: Retail businesses and employment, 2011-12
                      • E-commerce in Austria
                        • Figure 33: Austria: Household internet access, 2004 and 2009-13
                        • Figure 34: Austria: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                      • Food retailing in Austria
                        • Figure 35: Austria: Leading food retailers, 2013
                      • Non-food retailing in Austria
                        • Mixed goods and department stores
                          • Figure 36: Austria: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2013
                        • Clothing and footwear retailers
                          • Figure 37: Austria: Leading clothing specialists, 2013
                        • DIY specialists
                          • Figure 38: Austria: Leading DIY retailers, 2013
                        • Furniture specialists
                          • Figure 39: Austria: Leading furniture retailers, 2013
                        • Electricals specialists
                          • Figure 40: Austria: Leading electricals retailers, 2013
                        • Beauty specialists
                          • Figure 41: Austria: Leading health and beauty retailers, 2013
                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                          • Figure 42: Austria: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2013
                        • Online and other home shopping retailers
                          • Figure 43: Austria: Leading home shopping retailers, 2013
                        • Contacts and sources
                        • Belarus

                            • The Belarussian retail scene
                              • Belarus in figures
                                • Population
                                  • Figure 44: Belarus: Population trends, 2010-14
                                  • Figure 45: Belarus: Population, by prefecture, 2010-14
                                • Economy
                                  • Figure 46: Belarus: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                  • Figure 47: Belarus: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2009-13
                                  • Figure 48: Belarus: Final household consumption, 2005-12
                                  • Figure 49: Belarus: Breakdown of final household consumption, 2008-12
                                • Belarussian retailing in figures
                                  • Figure 50: Belarus: Retail sales, 2009-13
                                  • Figure 51: Belarus: Retail outlets, 2009-13
                                  • Figure 52: Belarus: Foreign owned retailers share of all retail sales, %, 2008-13
                                • Major retailers in Belarus
                                  • Figure 53: Major retailers in Belarus, 2013
                                • Contacts and sources
                                • Belgium

                                    • The Belgian retail scene
                                      • Belgium in figures
                                        • Population
                                          • Figure 54: Belgium: Population, 2010-14
                                          • Figure 55: Belgium: Population, by age group, 2010-14
                                          • Figure 56: Belgium: Number of households, by household size, January 2010
                                          • Figure 57: Belgium: Number of households, by household size, January 2010 (continued)
                                          • Figure 58: Belgium: Population, by region, 2012-14
                                        • Economy
                                          • Figure 59: Belgium: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                          • Figure 60: Belgium: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2009-13
                                          • Figure 61: Belgium: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2004-12
                                          • Figure 62: Belgium: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2009-12
                                        • Belgian retailing in figures
                                          • Figure 63: Belgium: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                          • Figure 64: Belgium: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                        • Enterprises and employment
                                          • Figure 65: Belgium: Retail businesses and employment, 2009-12
                                        • E-commerce in Belgium
                                          • Figure 66: Belgium: Household internet access, 2009-13
                                          • Figure 67: Belgium: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                        • Food retailing in Belgium
                                          • Figure 68: Belgium: Leading food retailers, 2013
                                        • Non-food retailing in Belgium
                                          • Mixed goods and department stores
                                            • Figure 69: Belgium: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2013
                                          • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                              • Figure 70: Belgium: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2013
                                            • DIY specialists
                                              • Figure 71: Belgium: Leading DIY retailers, 2013
                                            • Furniture specialists
                                              • Figure 72: Belgium: Leading furniture retailers, 2013
                                            • Electricals specialists
                                              • Figure 73: Belgium: Leading electricals retailers, 2013
                                            • Beauty specialists
                                              • Figure 74: Belgium: Leading beauty retailers, 2013
                                            • Miscellaneous specialists
                                              • Figure 75: Belgium: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2013
                                            • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                              • Figure 76: Belgium: Leading home shopping retailers, 2013
                                            • Contacts and sources
                                            • Bulgaria

                                                • The Bulgarian retail scene
                                                  • Bulgaria in figures
                                                    • Population
                                                      • Figure 77: Bulgaria: Population trends, 2009-13
                                                      • Figure 78: Bulgaria: Population, by age group and gender, 2013
                                                      • Figure 79: Bulgaria: Population, by district and municipality, 2009-13
                                                    • Economy
                                                      • Figure 80: Bulgaria: Gross domestic product, 2003-13
                                                      • Figure 81: Bulgaria: Consumer prices, % annual change, 2009-13
                                                      • Figure 82: Bulgaria: Consumer expenditure, 2004-13
                                                      • Figure 83: Bulgaria: Average annual expenditure per household, at current prices, 2009-13
                                                    • E-commerce in Bulgaria
                                                      • Figure 84: Bulgaria: Household internet access, 2004 and 2009-13
                                                      • Figure 85: Bulgaria: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                    • Bulgarian retailing in figures
                                                      • Figure 86: Bulgaria: Retail sales, by category category, excl. sales tax, 2009-13
                                                      • Figure 87: Bulgaria: Retail enterprises, 2009-12
                                                    • Major retailers in Bulgaria
                                                        • Figure 88: Bulgaria: Identified retailers, 2013
                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                      • Croatia

                                                          • The Croatian retail scene
                                                            • Croatia in figures
                                                              • Population
                                                                • Figure 89: Croatia: Population, 2009-14
                                                                • Figure 90: Croatia: Population, by age group, 2009-13
                                                                • Figure 91: Croatia: Population, by districts and city of Zagreb, 2013
                                                              • Economy
                                                                • Figure 92: Croatia: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                                                • Figure 93: Croatia: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2009-13
                                                                • Figure 94: Croatia: Final household consumption, 2004-13
                                                                • Figure 95: Croatia: Average annual personal consumption per household, 2007-11
                                                              • Croatian retailing in figures
                                                                • Figure 96: Croatia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                • Figure 97: Croatia: Selected and total retail sales, 2009-13
                                                              • Enterprises and employment
                                                                • Figure 98: Croatia: Retail businesses and employment, 2008-12
                                                              • E-commerce in Croatia
                                                                • Figure 99: Croatia: Household internet access, 2004-13
                                                                • Figure 100: Croatia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                              • Major retailers in Croatia
                                                                • Figure 101: Croatia: Selected leading retailers, 2013
                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                              • Czech Republic

                                                                  • The Czech retail scene
                                                                    • Czech Republic in figures
                                                                      • Population
                                                                        • Figure 102: Czech Republic: Population, by gender, 2009-13
                                                                        • Figure 103: Czech Republic: Population, by gender and age group, 2009-13
                                                                      • Economy
                                                                        • Figure 104: Czech Republic: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                                                        • Figure 105: Czech Republic: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2009-13
                                                                        • Figure 106: Czech Republic: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2004-13
                                                                        • Figure 107: Czech Republic: Breakdown of households consumption expenditure, 2009-12
                                                                      • Czech retailing in figures
                                                                        • Figure 108: Czech Republic: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2009-14
                                                                        • Figure 109: Czech Republic: Breakdown of retail sales, by sector, excl. VAT, 2009-14
                                                                        • Figure 110: Czech Republic: Retail enterprises and employment, 2008-12
                                                                      • E-commerce in the Czech Republic
                                                                        • Figure 111: Czech Republic: Percentage of households with internet access, 2004-13
                                                                        • Figure 112: Czech Republic: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                      • Major retailers in the Czech Republic
                                                                        • Figure 113: Leading retailers in the Czech Republic, 2013
                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                      • Denmark

                                                                          • The Danish retail scene
                                                                            • Denmark in figures
                                                                              • Population
                                                                                • Figure 114: Denmark: Population trends, 2009-13
                                                                                • Figure 115: Denmark: Population, by age group and gender, 2013
                                                                                • Figure 116: Denmark: Households, by size, 2009-13
                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                • Figure 117: Denmark: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                                                                • Figure 118: Denmark: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2009-13
                                                                                • Figure 119: Denmark: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2004-13
                                                                                • Figure 120: Denmark: Breakdown of consumer spending, by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2009-13
                                                                              • Danish retailing in figures
                                                                                • Retail sales
                                                                                  • Figure 121: Denmark: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                  • Figure 122: Denmark: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                  • Figure 123: Denmark: Retail enterprises, by sector, 2008-12
                                                                                  • Figure 124: Denmark: Retail outlets (places of work), 2008-12
                                                                                  • Figure 125: Denmark: Retail employment, full-time equivalents, 2008-12
                                                                                • E-commerce in Denmark
                                                                                  • Figure 126: Denmark: Household internet access, 2004 and 2009-13
                                                                                  • Figure 127: Denmark: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                • Food retailing in Denmark
                                                                                  • Figure 128: Denmark: Leading food retailers, 2013
                                                                                • Non-food retailing in Denmark
                                                                                  • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                    • Figure 129: Denmark: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2013
                                                                                  • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                    • Figure 130: Denmark: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2013
                                                                                  • DIY specialists
                                                                                    • Figure 131: Denmark: Leading DIY specialists, 2013
                                                                                  • Furniture specialists
                                                                                    • Figure 132: Denmark: Leading furniture retailers, 2013
                                                                                  • Electricals specialists
                                                                                    • Figure 133: Denmark: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2013
                                                                                  • Health and beauty specialists
                                                                                    • Figure 134: Denmark: Leading health and beauty specialists, 2013
                                                                                  • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                    • Figure 135: Denmark: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2013
                                                                                  • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                    • Figure 136: Denmark: Leading home-shopping retailers, 2013
                                                                                • Estonia

                                                                                    • The Estonian retail scene
                                                                                      • Estonia in figures
                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                          • Figure 137: Estonia: Total population, 2009-14
                                                                                          • Figure 138: Estonia: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                          • Figure 139: Estonia: Gross domestic product, 2003-13
                                                                                          • Figure 140: Estonia: Harmonised indices of consumer prices, annual % change, 2009-13
                                                                                          • Figure 141: Estonia: Final consumption expenditure of households, 2003-13
                                                                                          • Figure 142: Estonia: Breakdown of consumer spending, by category (incl. VAT), 2009-13
                                                                                          • Figure 143: Estonia: Breakdown of consumer spending, by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2009-12
                                                                                        • Retailing in Estonia
                                                                                          • Figure 144: Estonia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                          • Figure 145: Estonia: Breakdown of retail sales (excl VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                          • Figure 146: Estonia: Retail store and kiosk numbers, 2008-12
                                                                                          • Figure 147: Estonia: Number of retail enterprises, 2009-12
                                                                                          • Figure 148: Estonia: Number employed in retail – Full-time equivalent units, 2009-12
                                                                                        • E-commerce in Estonia
                                                                                          • Figure 149: Estonia: Household internet access, 2004-13
                                                                                          • Figure 150: Estonia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                        • Food retailing in Estonia
                                                                                            • Figure 151: Estonia: Leading food retailers, 2013
                                                                                          • Non-food retailing in Estonia
                                                                                              • Figure 152: Estonia: Leading non-food retailers, 2013
                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                            • Finland

                                                                                                • The Finnish retail scene
                                                                                                  • Finland in figures
                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                      • Figure 153: Finland: Population trends, 2009-13
                                                                                                      • Figure 154: Finland: Population, by age group and gender, 2013
                                                                                                      • Figure 155: Finland: Households, December 2008-12
                                                                                                      • Figure 156: Finland: Major regions, by inhabitants, 2009-13
                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                      • Figure 157: Finland: Gross domestic product, 2003-13
                                                                                                      • Figure 158: Finland: Consumer prices inflation,% change on previous year, 2009-13
                                                                                                      • Figure 159: Finland: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2003-13
                                                                                                      • Figure 160: Finland: Breakdown of consumer spending, by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2009-13
                                                                                                    • Finnish retailing in figures
                                                                                                      • Retail sales
                                                                                                        • Figure 161: Finland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                        • Figure 162: Finland: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                      • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                                        • Figure 163: Finland: Retail enterprises, 2008-12
                                                                                                        • Figure 164: Finland: Retail outlets, 2008-12
                                                                                                        • Figure 165: Retail employment, 2011-12
                                                                                                      • E-commerce in Finland
                                                                                                        • Figure 166: Finland: Household internet access, 2004-13
                                                                                                        • Figure 167: Finland: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                                      • Food retailing in Finland
                                                                                                        • Figure 168: Finland: Leading food retailers, 2013
                                                                                                      • Non-food retailing in Finland
                                                                                                        • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                          • Figure 169: Finland: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2013
                                                                                                        • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                          • Figure 170: Finland: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2013
                                                                                                        • DIY specialists
                                                                                                          • Figure 171: Finland: Leading DIY specialists, 2013
                                                                                                        • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                          • Figure 172: Finland: Leading furniture retailers, 2013
                                                                                                        • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                          • Figure 173: Finland: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2013
                                                                                                        • Health and beauty
                                                                                                          • Figure 174: Finland: Leading health and beauty specialists, 2013
                                                                                                        • Miscellaneous
                                                                                                          • Figure 175: Finland: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2013
                                                                                                        • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                          • Figure 176: Finland: Leading home-shopping retailers, 2013
                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                        • France

                                                                                                            • The French retail scene
                                                                                                              • France in figures
                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                  • Figure 177: France: Population trends, 2010-14
                                                                                                                  • Figure 178: France: Population, by age group and gender, 2013
                                                                                                                  • Figure 179: France: Number of households, by size, 2010
                                                                                                                  • Figure 180: France: Average number of people per household, 1990-30
                                                                                                                  • Figure 181: France: Population of regions, 1998, 2008 and 2010-11
                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                  • Figure 182: France: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                                                                                                  • Figure 183: France: Consumer prices, % change on year, 2009-13
                                                                                                                  • Figure 184: France: Household consumer expenditure, 2004-13
                                                                                                                  • Figure 185: France: Detailed breakdown of consumer expenditure, incl. sales tax, 2009-13
                                                                                                                • France retailing in figures
                                                                                                                  • Figure 186: France: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                  • Figure 187: France: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                                                  • Figure 188: France: Retail enterprises, 2008-11
                                                                                                                  • Figure 189: France: Retail employment, full-time equivalent units, 2009-11
                                                                                                                • E-commerce in France
                                                                                                                  • Figure 190: France: Household internet access, 2004 and 2009-13
                                                                                                                  • Figure 191: France: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                                                • Food retailing in France
                                                                                                                    • Figure 192: France: Major food, drink and tobacco retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                  • Non-food retailing in France
                                                                                                                    • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                        • Figure 193: France: Major department and variety store retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                      • Clothing specialists
                                                                                                                          • Figure 194: France: Major clothing retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                        • Furniture, electrical goods and household goods specialists
                                                                                                                          • Figure 195: France: Major furniture, electricals and household goods retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                        • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                          • Figure 196: France: Major DIY, hardware and garden products retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                        • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                          • Figure 197: France: Leading beauty retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                        • Cultural, leisure and other non-food specialists
                                                                                                                          • Figure 198: France: Major cultural, leisure and other non-food products retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                        • Online and other home shopping
                                                                                                                          • Figure 199: France: Major home shopping operators, 2013
                                                                                                                        • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                          • Figure 200: France: Major shopping centres, 2014
                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                        • Germany

                                                                                                                            • The German retail scene
                                                                                                                              • Germany in figures
                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 201: Germany: Total population, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 202: Germany: Population, by age group and gender, 2013
                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 203: Germany: Gross domestic product, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 204: Germany: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 205: Germany: Consumer spending totals (incl. VAT), 2003-13
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 206: Germany: Breakdown of consumer spending, by broad category (incl. VAT), 2009-13
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 207: Germany: Breakdown of consumer spending, by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2009-12
                                                                                                                                • German retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                  • Retail sales
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 208: Germany: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 209: Germany: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                  • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 210: Germany: Number of retail enterprises, 2009-11
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 211: Germany: Number of retail outlets, 2009-11
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 212: Germany: Number employed in retail, 2009-11
                                                                                                                                  • E-commerce in Germany
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 213: Germany: Household internet access, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 214: Germany: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                  • Food retailing in Germany
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 215: Germany: Leading food retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                  • Non-food retailing in Germany
                                                                                                                                    • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 216: Germany: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                      • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 217: Germany: Leading clothing specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 218: Germany: Leading footwear specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                      • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 219: Germany: Leading DIY specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                        • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 220: Germany: Leading furniture retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                        • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 221: Germany: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                          • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 222: Germany: Leading beauty specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                            • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 223: Germany: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                            • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 224: Germany: Leading home-shopping retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                            • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 225: Germany: Major shopping malls, 2014
                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                            • Greece

                                                                                                                                                • The Greek retail scene
                                                                                                                                                  • Greece in figures
                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 226: Greece: Total population, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 227: Greece: Population, by age group and gender, 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 228: Greece: Population, by region, 2010-13
                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 229: Greece: Gross domestic product, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 230: Greece: Consumer prices inflation, % change on year, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 231: Greece: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 232: Greece: Breakdown of consumer spending, by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2008-11
                                                                                                                                                    • Greek retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                      • Retail sales
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 233: Greece: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 234: Greece: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                      • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 235: Greece: Number of retail enterprises, 2008-10
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 236: Greece: Number of FTE employed, by retail sector, 2008-10
                                                                                                                                                      • E-commerce in Greece
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 237: Greece: Household internet access, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 238: Greece: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                      • Food retailing in Greece
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 239: Greece: Leading food retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Non-food retailing in Greece
                                                                                                                                                        • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 240: Greece: Leading department stores, 2013
                                                                                                                                                        • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 241: Greece: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                        • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 242: Greece: Leading DIY specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                        • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 243: Greece: Leading furniture retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                        • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 244: Greece: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                        • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 245: Greece: Leading beauty specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 246: Greece: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                        • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 247: Greece: Leading home-shopping retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                        • Hungary

                                                                                                                                                            • The Hungarian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                              • Hungary in figures
                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 248: Hungary: Population, by gender, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 249: Hungary: Population, by age group and gender, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 250: Hungary: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 251: Hungary: Consumer price index, annual % change, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 252: Hungary: Household consumption expenditure, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 253: Hungary: Breakdown of household consumption expenditure (incl. VAT), 2009-12
                                                                                                                                                                • Hungarian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 254: Hungary: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 255: Hungary: Breakdown of retail sales, excl. VAT 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                • Enterprise, outlets and employment
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 256: Hungary: Number of retail outlets, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 257: Hungary: Retail businesses and employment, 2008-11
                                                                                                                                                                • E-commerce in Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 258: Hungary: Percentage of households with internet access, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 259: Hungary: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                • Leading retailers in Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 260: Hungary: Identified leading retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                • Ireland

                                                                                                                                                                    • The Irish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                      • Ireland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 261: Ireland: Population by gender, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 262: Ireland: Breakdown of population by age group, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 263: Ireland: Number of households by household size, 2011
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 264: Ireland: Population by regional authority area, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 265: Ireland: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 266: Ireland: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 267: Ireland: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 268: Ireland: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2010-13
                                                                                                                                                                        • Irish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 269: Ireland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 270: Ireland: Selected retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                        • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 271: Ireland: Retail businesses and employment, 2009-11
                                                                                                                                                                        • E-commerce in Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 272: Ireland: Household internet access, 2004 and 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 273: Ireland: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                        • Food retailing in Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 274: Ireland: Leading food retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                        • Non-food retailing in Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                          • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 275: Ireland: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                          • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 276: Ireland: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                          • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 277: Ireland: Leading DIY retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                          • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 278: Ireland: Leading furniture retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                          • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 279: Ireland: Leading electricals retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                          • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 280: Ireland: Leading health and beauty retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                          • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 281: Ireland: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                          • Online and other home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 282: Ireland: Leading home shopping retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                          • Italy

                                                                                                                                                                              • The Italian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                • Italy in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 283: Italy: Total population, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 284: Italy: Population, by age group and gender, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 285: Italy: Gross domestic product, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 286: Italy: Consumer prices, annual % change, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 287: Italy: Consumer expenditure, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 288: Italy: Breakdown of consumer spending, by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Italian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retail sales
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 289: Italy: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 290: Italy: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 291: Italy: Number of retail enterprises, by sector, 2008-11
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 292: Italy: Number of full time equivalent employed, by retail sector, 2008-11
                                                                                                                                                                                    • E-commerce in Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 293: Italy: Household internet access, 2004 and 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 294: Italy: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Food retailing in Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 295: Italy: Leading food retailers, 2013/14
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Non-food retailing in Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 296: Italy: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2013/14
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 297: Italy: Leading clothing specialists, 2013/14
                                                                                                                                                                                      • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 298: Italy: Leading DIY specialists, 2013/14
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Furniture, electrical and household goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 299: Italy: Leading furniture, electrical and household goods specialists, 2013/14
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 300: Italy: Leading beauty specialists, 2012/13
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 301: Italy: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online and other home-shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 302: Italy: Leading home-shopping retailers, 2013/14
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 303: Italy: Major shopping malls, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Latvia

                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Latvian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Latvia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 304: Latvia: Population, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 305: Latvia: Population, by age group, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 306: Latvia: Population, by region, 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 307: Latvia: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 308: Latvia: Consumer prices inflation, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 309: Latvia: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 310: Latvia: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2009-12
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Latvian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 311: Latvia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 312: Latvia: Selected and total retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 313: Latvia: Retail businesses and employment, 2009-12
                                                                                                                                                                                              • E-commerce in Latvia
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 314: Latvia: Household internet access, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 315: Latvia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Latvia
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 316: Latvia: Leading retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Lithuania

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Lithuanian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lithuania in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 317: Lithuania: Population, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 318: Lithuania: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 319: Lithuania: Ten largest cities, by population, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 320: Lithuania: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 321: Lithuania: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 322: Lithuania: Final household consumption, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 323: Lithuania: Breakdown of households consumption expenditure, incl. VAT, 2009-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Lithuanian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 324: Lithuania: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 325: Lithuania: Breakdown of retail sales by sector, excl. VAT, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Enterprise and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 326: Lithuania: Retail businesses and employment, 2009-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • E-commerce in Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 327: Lithuania: Household internet access, 2004 and 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 328: Lithuania: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major retailers in Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 329: Lithuania: Selected leading retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Luxembourg

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Luxembourg retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Luxembourg in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 330: Luxembourg: Population trends, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 331: Luxembourg: Population, by origin, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 332: Luxembourg: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 333: Luxembourg: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 334: Luxembourg: Consumer price inflation, % change on previous year, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 335: Luxembourg: Consumer expenditure, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 336: Luxembourg: Breakdown of consumer expenditure, by category, 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Luxembourg retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 337: Luxembourg: Retail sales, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • E-commerce in Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 338: Luxembourg: Household internet access, 2004 and 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 339: Luxembourg: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Major retailers in Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 340: Major retailers in Luxembourg, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Macedonia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Macedonian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Macedonia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 341: Macedonia: Population trends, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 342: Macedonia: Population, by age group and gender, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 343: Macedonia: Population, by region, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 344: Macedonia: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 345: Macedonia: Consumer prices, % change on year, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 346: Macedonia: Final household consumption, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 347: Macedonia: Consumer spending, detailed breakdown 2007-11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Macedonian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 348: Macedonia: Retail sales, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 349: Macedonia: Retail sales, 2011-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Major retailers in Macedonia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 350: Macedonia: Leading retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Moldova

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Moldovan retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Moldova in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 351: Moldova: Population trends, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 352: Moldova: Population, by age and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 353: Moldova: Population, by district, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 354: Moldova: gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 355: Moldova: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 356: Moldova: Final household consumption, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 357: Moldova: Breakdown of average monthly per capita household consumption, 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Moldovan retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 358: Moldova: Retail sales, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 359: Moldova: Retail outlets and space, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Moldova
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 360: Moldova: Leading retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Netherlands

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Dutch retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Netherlands in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 361: The Netherlands: Population, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 362: The Netherlands: Population, by age and gender, at 1 January 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 363: The Netherlands: Number of households, by household size, 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 364: The Netherlands: Population, by region, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 365: The Netherlands: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 366: The Netherlands: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 367: The Netherlands: Household’s consumption expenditure, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 368: The Netherlands: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Dutch retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 369: The Netherlands: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 370: The Netherlands: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 371: The Netherlands: Retail businesses and employment, 2010-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • E-commerce in the Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 372: The Netherlands: Household internet access, 2004 and 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 373: The Netherlands: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Food retailing in the Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 374: The Netherlands: Leading food retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Non-food retailing in the Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 375: The Netherlands: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 376: The Netherlands: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 377: The Netherlands: Leading DIY retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 378: The Netherlands: Leading furniture retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 379: The Netherlands: Leading electricals retailers. 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Health and beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 380: The Netherlands: Leading health and beauty retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 381: The Netherlands: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 382: The Netherlands: Leading home shopping retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Norway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Norwegian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Norway in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 383: Norway: Population trends, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 384: Norway: Population, by age group and gender, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 385: Norway: Households, by size, 2010-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 386: Norway: Population, by county, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 387: Norway: Gross domestic product, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 388: Norway: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 389: Norway: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2003-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 390: Norway: Breakdown of consumer spending, by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Norwegian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Retail sales
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 391: Norway: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 392: Norway: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Enterprises and outlets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 393: Norway: Retail businesses, by sector, 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 394: Norway: Retail outlets, by sector, 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • E-commerce in Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 395: Norway: Household internet access, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 396: Norway: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Food retailing in Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 397: Norway: Leading food retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Non-food retailing in Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 398: Norway: Major mixed goods retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 399: Norway: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 400: Norway: Leading DIY specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 401: Norway: Leading furniture retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 402: Norway: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Health and beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 403: Norway: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 404: Norway: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 405: Norway: Leading home-shopping retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Poland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Polish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Poland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 406: Poland: Population, by gender, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 407: Poland: Population, by age group and gender, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 408: Poland: Population, by region, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 409: Poland: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 410: Poland: Consumer price inflation, % change on previous year, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 411: Poland: Households consumption expenditure, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 412: Poland: Breakdown of households consumption expenditure (incl. VAT), 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Polish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 413: Poland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 414: Poland: Breakdown of retail sales, by sector (excl. VAT), 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • E-commerce in Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 415: Poland: Household internet access, 2004 and 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 416: Poland: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailing in Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 417: Poland: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Non-food retailing in Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 418: Poland: Leading non-food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Portugal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Portuguese retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Portugal in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 419: Portugal: Total population, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 420: Portugal: Population, by age group and gender, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 421: Portugal: Number of households, by household size, 2007-11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 422: Portugal: Population, by regions, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 423: Portugal: Gross domestic product, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 424: Portugal: Consumer prices, annual % change, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 425: Portugal: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2003-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 426: Portugal: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Portuguese retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Retail sales
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 427: Portugal: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 428: Portugal: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 429: Portugal: Number of retail enterprises, 2008-11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 430: Portugal: Number of FTE employed, by retail sector, 2008-11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • E-commerce in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 431: Portugal: Household internet access, 2004 and 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 432: Portugal: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailing in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 433: Portugal: Leading food retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Non-food retailing in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 434: Portugal: Leading non-food retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Romania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Romanian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Romania in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 435: Romania: Population, by gender, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 436: Romania: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 437: Romania: Population, by region, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 438: Romania: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 439: Romania: Consumer price inflation 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 440: Romania: Households consumption expenditure, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Romanian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 441: Romania: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 442: Romania: Breakdown of retail sales, by sector (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • E-commerce in Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 443: Romania: Major retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Russia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Russian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Russia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 444: Russia: Total population, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 445: Russia: Population, by age group, 2011 and 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 446: Russia: Gross domestic product, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 447: Russia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 448: Russia: Households consumption expenditure, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 449: Russia: Breakdown of households consumption expenditure (incl. VAT), 2009-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Russian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retail sales
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 450: Russia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 451: Russia: Retail sales, by broad sector (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Enterprises and outlets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 452: Russia: Number of retail enterprises, 2009-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 453: Russia: Number of retail outlets, 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • E-commerce in Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Food retailing in Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 454: Russia: Leading food retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Non-food retailing in Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 455: Russia: Leading clothing/footwear specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 456: Russia: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Furniture and DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 457: Russia: Leading furniture and DIY specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Health and beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 458: Russia: Leading health and beauty specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 459: Russia: Other major identified retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Serbia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Serbian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Serbia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 460: Serbia: Population, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 461: Serbia: Population, by age and gender, 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 462: Serbia: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 463: Serbia: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 464: Serbia: Final household consumption, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 465: Serbia: Breakdown of final household consumption, 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Serbian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 466: Serbia: Retail sales incl. VAT, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Major retailers in Serbia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 467: Serbia: Major retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Slovakia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Slovak retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Slovakia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 468: Slovakia: Population trends, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 469: Slovakia: Population, by age group and gender, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 470: Slovakia: Gross domestic product, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 471: Slovakia: Consumer prices, % change year on year, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 472: Slovakia: Consumer expenditure, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 473: Slovakia: Breakdown of consumer expenditure 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Slovak retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 474: Slovakia: Retail sales, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 475: Slovakia: Breakdown of retail sales, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • E-commerce in Slovakia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 476: Slovakia: Household internet access, 2004 and 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 477: Slovakia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in Slovakia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 478: Major retailers in Slovakia, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Slovenia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Slovenian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Slovenia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 479: Slovenia: Population trends, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 480: Slovenia: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 481: Slovenia: Population, by region, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 482: Slovenia: Gross domestic product, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 483: Slovenia: Consumer prices, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 484: Slovenia: Consumer expenditure, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 485: Slovenia: Breakdown of consumer expenditure 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Slovenian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 486: Slovenia: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 487: Slovenia: Breakdown of retail sales, excl. VAT, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • E-commerce in Slovenia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 488: Slovenia: Household internet access, 2004 and 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 489: Slovenia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Slovenia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 490: Slovenia: Leading retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Spain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Spanish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Spain in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 491: Spain: Total population, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 492: Spain: Population, by age group and gender, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 493: Spain: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 494: Spain: Consumer prices, annual % change, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 495: Spain: Consumer expenditure, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 496: Spain: Breakdown of consumer spending, by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Spanish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Retail sales
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 497: Spain: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 498: Spain: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 499: Spain: Number of retail enterprises, 2008-11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 500: Spain: Number of full time employed, by retail sector, 2008-11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • E-commerce in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 501: Spain: Household internet access, 2004 and 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 502: Spain: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailing in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 503: Spain: Leading food retailers, 2013/14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Non-food retailing in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 504: Spain: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Clothing specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 505: Spain: Leading clothing specialists, 2013/14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 506: Spain: Leading DIY specialists, 2013/14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Furniture, electrical and household specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 507: Spain: Leading furniture, electrical and household goods retailers, 2013/14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 508: Spain: Leading beauty specialists, 2012/13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 509: Spain: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online and other home shopping specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 510: Spain: Leading home shopping retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 511: Spain: Major shopping centres, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sweden

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Swedish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sweden in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 512: Sweden: Population trends, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 513: Sweden: Population, by age group and gender, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 514: Sweden: Households, by size, 2012-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 515: Sweden: Population, by county, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 516: Sweden: Gross domestic product, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 517: Sweden: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 518: Sweden: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 519: Sweden: Breakdown of consumer spending, by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Swedish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Retail sales
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 520: Sweden: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 521: Sweden: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 522: Sweden: Retail businesses, by sector, 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 523: Sweden: Retail employment, by sector, 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • E-commerce in Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 524: Sweden: Household internet access, 2005 and 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 525: Sweden: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailing in Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 526: Sweden: Leading food retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Non-food retailing in Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 527: Sweden: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 528: Sweden: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 529: Sweden: Leading DIY specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 530: Sweden: Leading furniture retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 531: Sweden: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Health and beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 532: Sweden: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 533: Sweden: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 534: Sweden: Leading home-shopping retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Switzerland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Swiss retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Switzerland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 535: Population, by gender, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 536: Population, by gender and age group, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 537: Population, by region, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 538: Switzerland: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 539: Switzerland: Harmonised indices of consumer prices, annual % change, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 540: Switzerland: Households consumption expenditure (incl. VAT), 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Swiss retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 541: Switzerland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 542: Switzerland: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 543: Switzerland: Number of retail enterprises, by sector, 2009-10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • E-commerce in Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 544: Switzerland: Online sales, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Food retailing in Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 545: Switzerland: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Non-food retailing in Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 546: Switzerland: Department stores, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 547: Switzerland: Clothing retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Electricals, furniture and DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 548: Switzerland: Electricals, furniture and DIY stores, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Health and beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 549: Switzerland: Leading health and beauty specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 550: Switzerland: Leading cultural, leisure and other non-food specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 551: Switzerland: Major home shopping retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Turkey

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Turkish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Turkey in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 552: Turkey: Total population, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 553: Turkey: Population, by age group and gender, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 554: Turkey: Gross domestic product, 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 555: Turkey: Harmonised indices of consumer prices, annual % change, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 556: Turkey: Consumer spending by resident households (incl. VAT), 2003-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 557: Turkey: Breakdown of consumer spending, by broad category (incl. VAT), 2009-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 558: Turkey: Breakdown of consumer spending in % terms, 2009-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Turkish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Retail sales
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 559: Turkey: Retail sales (excl VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 560: Turkey: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • E-commerce in Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 561: Turkey: Household internet access, 2004 and 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 562: Turkey: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Turkish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 563: Turkey: Identified leading retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ukraine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Ukrainian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ukraine in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 564: Ukraine: Resident population trends, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 565: Ukraine: Resident population, by age group, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 566: Ukraine: Gross domestic product, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 567: Ukraine: Consumer prices, % annual change, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 568: Ukraine: Consumer expenditure, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 569: Ukraine: Final consumption expenditure of households, by purpose, 2011-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ukrainian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 570: Ukraine: Retail sales, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 571: Ukraine: Retail sales of enterprises, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 572: Ukraine: Structure of retail enterprises, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Ukraine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 573: Ukraine: Leading retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • United Kingdom

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The UK retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The UK in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 574: UK: Population, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 575: UK: Population, by age group, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 576: UK: Number of households, by household size, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 577: UK: Population, by region, 2011-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 578: UK: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 579: UK: Consumer prices inflation, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 580: UK: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 581: UK: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • UK retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 582: UK: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 583: UK: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 584: UK: Retail businesses, outlets and employment, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • E-commerce in the UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 585: UK: Household internet access, 2004 and 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 586: UK: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Food retailing in the UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 587: UK: Leading food retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Non-food retailing in the UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 588: UK: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 589: UK: Leading clothing specialists, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 590: UK: Leading DIY retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 591: UK: Leading furniture retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 592: UK: Leading electricals retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Health and beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 593: UK: Leading health and beauty retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 594: UK: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 595: UK: Leading home shopping retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 596: UK major shopping centres, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Companies Covered

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • 3 Suisses Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • 99p Stores Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • A.S.Watson Western Europe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Abercrombie & Fitch UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • achica
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Adams Childrenswear Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ahold Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ahold Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Albert Heijn (fascia) Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Albert Heijn Netherlands (Ahold)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Aldi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Aldi Stores Ltd (UK & Ireland)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Amazon.com Inc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Asda Group Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • ASOS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Aurora Fashions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • B&Q (UK & Ireland)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bargain Booze Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Bathstore.com Plc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • BC Partners Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Boden UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Booker Cash & Carry Limited
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Brico Depôt (France)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Brighthouse
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • British Retail Consortium
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Carpetright Plc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Castorama (Russia)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Cdiscount
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Co-operative Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Currys
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Dixons
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Dixons Retail Plc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • El Corte Inglés
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Food Standards Agency
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • French Connection (Retail)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Furniture Village Plc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Game Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Grafton Merchanting GB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Groupon, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Grupo Inditex
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • H&M Hennes & Mauritz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Hamleys of London Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Home Retail Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Homebase Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • House of Fraser Plc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Iceland Foods Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • IKEA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • IPC Media Ltd.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • J. Sainsbury
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • JD Sports Fashion plc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • John Lewis Partnership
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • JPMorgan Chase & Co
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Jumbo Group Holding
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Jumbo Supermarkten
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kantar Media
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Karstadt Premium Department Stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kiddicare
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kingfisher Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • La Senza Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Laura Ashley Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lidl (UK)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lindex
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lipsy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Luxottica Group S.p.A.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mamas & Papas Retail Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Maplin Electronics Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Marks & Spencer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • McColl's (convenience stores)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Metro Group (retail)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • mmO2 plc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Montagu Private Equity Limited
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Morrisons M Local
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Net-A-Porter Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Netflix, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • New Look Group Plc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Nisa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • O2 / Telefonica UK (Retail)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ocado
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Office for National Statistics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • One Stop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Phones 4U Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Poundland Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Poundworld Retail Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • PricewaterhouseCoopers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Primark/Penneys
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • R Barbour & Sons Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Rigby & Peller Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Rutland Fund Management Limited
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Savers Health and Beauty Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Schuh (UK)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Schwarz Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Screwfix UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Selfridges Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Selfridges Retail Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Shop Direct Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sports Direct Plc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Spotify AB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Stockmann Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Superdrug Stores Plc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • SuperGroup Plc (Retail)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Tesco (UK)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Tesco Express (UK)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Tesco Plc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Carphone Warehouse Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • TJX International (TK Maxx Europe)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Toys R Us
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • USC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Vivienne Westwood Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Vodafone Group Plc (UK)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Waitrose
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Westfield Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • WH Smith PLC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Wickes Building Supplies Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Wilkinson Hardware Stores Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Wm Morrison Supermarkets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Wyevale Garden Centres
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Zalando
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Zalando - DACH region

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          European Retail Handbook - September 2014

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          £1,495.00 (Excl.Tax)