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European Retail Handbook - September 2015

This is the 19th edition of the European Retail Handbook. In it we provide the essential background information to understanding the retail scene in each European country.

The European Retail Handbook provides top line demographic and economic data and a more detailed analysis of retail trade in each country. Where possible, retail information is given both on a national and sector basis, and we also provide data on the structure of the trade in terms of businesses, outlets and employees. Major retailers and retail groupings are identified with an indication of their size and relative importance. Other useful information includes synopses of the retail scene in each country and contact points for sources of further information.

The statistical information in the Handbook comes principally from official national or pan-European sources, while the company data has been obtained either directly from the organisations concerned or through trade press reports and duly acknowledged research bodies. Both have been reinforced by Mintel estimates and projections where necessary and we have made every effort to point out anomalies and differences in methodologies and definitions across the various countries.

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Table of contents

  1. Introduction

      • Definitions
      • Pan European Comparisons

        • Population
          • Figure 1: Europe: Population, by country, 2014
          • Figure 2: Europe: Population, by country, 2014
        • GDP
          • Figure 3: Europe: GDP, by country and per capita, 2014
          • Figure 4: Europe: GDP per capita, by country, 2014
        • Consumer spending
          • Figure 5: Europe: Consumer expenditure, by country and per capita, 2014
          • Figure 6: Europe: Consumer expenditure per capita, by country, 2014
        • Retail sales
          • Figure 7: Europe: Retail sales, by country and per capita, 2014
          • Figure 8: Europe: Retail sales per capita, by country, 2014
        • Online
          • Figure 9: Europe: % of adults who have made an online purchase in last 12 months, 2014
          • Figure 10: Europe: % of adults who have made an online purchase in last 12 months, 2014
        • Exchange rates
          • Figure 11: Eurozone members, 2015
          • Figure 12: Average annual European exchange rates: €, £ and $, 2014
      • Albania

          • The Albanian retail scene
            • Albania in figures
              • Population
                • Figure 13: Albania: Population trends, 2011-15
                • Figure 14: Albania: Population, by age group and gender, 2015
                • Figure 15: Albania: Population, by prefecture, 2011-15
                • Figure 16: Albania: Urban vs rural population, 2011-15
              • Economy
                • Figure 17: Albania: GDP, 2005-14
                • Figure 18: Albania: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                • Figure 19: Albania: Unemployment rate, by age, 2011-14
                • Figure 20: Albania: Final household consumption, 2004-13
                • Figure 21: Albania: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2009-13
              • Albanian retailing in figures
                • Figure 22: Albania: Retail sales, including motor vehicles, 2010-14
                • Figure 23: Albania: Retail sales indices, by broad sector, 2009-13
              • Major retailers in Albania
                • Figure 24: Albania: Leading retailers, 2014
              • Contacts and sources
                • INSTAT – INSTITUTE OF STATISTICS
                  • BANK OF ALBANIA
                  • Austria

                      • The Austrian retail scene
                        • Austria in figures
                          • Population
                            • Figure 25: Austria: Population, 2011-15
                            • Figure 26: Austria: Population, by age group, 2011-15
                            • Figure 27: Austria: Number of private households, household size, 2014
                            • Figure 28: Austria: Population, by region, 2011-14
                          • Economy
                            • Figure 29: Austria: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                            • Figure 30: Austria: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                            • Figure 31: Austria: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2005-14
                            • Figure 32: Austria: Final consumption expenditure of households by purpose, current prices, 2010-14
                          • Austrian retailing in figures
                            • Figure 33: Austria: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                            • Figure 34: Austria: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                          • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                            • Figure 35: Austria: Retail businesses and employment, 2012-13
                          • Online retailing in Austria
                            • Figure 36: Austria: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                            • Figure 37: Austria: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                          • Food retailing in Austria
                            • Figure 38: Austria: Leading food retailers, 2014
                          • Mixed goods and department stores
                            • Figure 39: Austria: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2014
                          • Clothing and footwear retailers
                            • Figure 40: Austria: Leading clothing specialists, 2014
                          • DIY specialists
                            • Figure 41: Austria: Leading DIY retailers, 2014
                          • Furniture specialists
                            • Figure 42: Austria: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                          • Electricals specialists
                            • Figure 43: Austria: Leading electricals retailers, 2014
                          • Beauty specialists
                            • Figure 44: Austria: Leading health & beauty retailers, 2014
                          • Miscellaneous specialists
                            • Figure 45: Austria: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2014
                          • Online and other home shopping retailers
                            • Figure 46: Austria: Leading home shopping retailers, 2014
                          • Contacts and sources
                            • STATISTIK AUSTRIA – Vienna
                              • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                              • Belarus

                                  • The Belarussian retail scene
                                    • Belarus in figures
                                      • Population
                                        • Figure 47: Belarus: Population trends, 2011-15
                                        • Figure 48: Belarus: Population, by prefecture, 2011-15
                                      • Economy
                                        • Figure 49: Belarus: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                        • Figure 50: Belarus: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                        • Figure 51: Belarus: Final household consumption, 2006-13
                                        • Figure 52: Belarus: Breakdown of final household consumption, 2009-13
                                      • Belarussian retailing in figures
                                        • Figure 53: Belarus: Retail sales, 2010-14
                                        • Figure 54: Belarus: Retail outlets, 2010-14
                                        • Figure 55: Belarus: % share of total retail sales, by ownership, 2009-14
                                      • Major retailers in Belarus
                                        • Figure 56: Belarus: Major retailers, 2014
                                      • Contacts and sources
                                        • NATIONAL STATISTICAL COMMITTEE OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS – Minsk
                                          • NATIONAL BANK OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS – Minsk
                                            • BELARUS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY – Minsk
                                            • Belgium

                                                • The Belgian retail scene
                                                  • Belgium in figures
                                                    • Population
                                                      • Figure 57: Belgium: Population, 2011-15
                                                      • Figure 58: Belgium: Population, by age group, 2011-15
                                                      • Figure 59: Belgium: Population, by region, 2013-15
                                                    • Economy
                                                      • Figure 60: Belgium: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                      • Figure 61: Belgium: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                      • Figure 62: Belgium: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2005-13
                                                      • Figure 63: Belgium: Breakdown of consumer spending, by category, 2010-13
                                                    • Belgian retailing in figures
                                                      • Figure 64: Belgium: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                      • Figure 65: Belgium: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                    • Enterprises and employment
                                                      • Figure 66: Belgium: Retail businesses and employment, 2010-13
                                                    • Online retailing in Belgium
                                                      • Figure 67: Belgium: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                                                      • Figure 68: Belgium: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                    • Food retailing in Belgium
                                                        • Figure 69: Belgium: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                        • Figure 70: Belgium: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2014
                                                      • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                        • Figure 71: Belgium: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2014
                                                      • DIY specialists
                                                        • Figure 72: Belgium: Leading DIY retailers, 2014
                                                      • Furniture specialists
                                                        • Figure 73: Belgium: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                                                      • Electrical specialists
                                                          • Figure 74: Belgium: Leading electricals retailers, 2014
                                                        • Beauty specialists
                                                          • Figure 75: Belgium: Leading beauty retailers, 2014
                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                          • Figure 76: Belgium: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2014
                                                        • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                          • Figure 77: Belgium: Leading home shopping retailers, 2014
                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                          • INSTITUT NATIONAL DE STATISTIQUE – Brussels
                                                            • NATIONAL BANK OF BELGIUM
                                                              • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                              • Bulgaria

                                                                  • The Bulgarian retail scene
                                                                    • Bulgaria in figures
                                                                      • Population
                                                                        • Figure 78: Bulgaria: Population trends, 2010-14
                                                                        • Figure 79: Bulgaria: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                        • Figure 80: Bulgaria: Population, by district and municipality, 2010-14
                                                                      • Economy
                                                                        • Figure 81: Bulgaria: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                        • Figure 82: Bulgaria: Consumer prices, % annual change, 2009-14
                                                                        • Figure 83: Final consumption expenditure of households, 2004-14
                                                                        • Figure 84: Bulgaria: Average annual expenditure per household, at current prices, 2010-14
                                                                      • Bulgarian retailing in figures
                                                                        • Figure 85: Bulgaria: Retail sales, by category, excl. sales tax, 2010-14
                                                                        • Figure 86: Bulgaria: Retail enterprises, 2009-13
                                                                      • Online retailing in Bulgaria
                                                                        • Figure 87: Bulgaria: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2010-14
                                                                        • Figure 88: Bulgaria: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                      • Major retailers in Bulgaria
                                                                          • Figure 89: Bulgaria: Identified retailers, 2014
                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                          • NATIONAL STATISTICAL INSTITUTE – Sofia
                                                                            • BULGARIAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE & INDUSTRY – Sofia
                                                                              • INVEST BULGARIA AGENCY (FORMERLY BULGARIAN FOREIGN INVESTMENT AGENCY) – Sofia
                                                                                • BULGARIAN NATIONAL BANK – Sofia
                                                                                  • MINISTRY OF FINANCE – Sofia
                                                                                    • BULGARIAN RETAIL ASSOCIATION
                                                                                    • Croatia

                                                                                        • Croatian retail scene
                                                                                          • Croatia in figures
                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                              • Figure 90: Croatia: Population, 2010-15
                                                                                              • Figure 91: Croatia: Population, by age group, 2010-14
                                                                                              • Figure 92: Croatia: Population, by districts and city of Zagreb, 2014
                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                              • Figure 93: Croatia: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                              • Figure 94: Croatia: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                              • Figure 95: Croatia: Final household consumption, 2005-14
                                                                                              • Figure 96: Croatia: Average annual personal consumption per household, 2007-11
                                                                                            • Croatian retailing in figures
                                                                                              • Figure 97: Croatia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                              • Figure 98: Croatia: Selected and total retail sales, 2010-15
                                                                                            • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                              • Figure 99: Croatia: Retail businesses and employment, 2009-13
                                                                                            • Online retailing in Croatia
                                                                                              • Figure 100: Croatia: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2010-14
                                                                                              • Figure 101: Croatia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                            • Major retailers in Croatia
                                                                                                • Figure 102: Croatia: Selected leading retailers, 2014
                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                • CROATIAN BUREAU OF STATISTICS – Zagreb
                                                                                                  • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                  • Czech Republic

                                                                                                      • The Czech retail scene
                                                                                                        • Czech Republic in figures
                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                            • Figure 103: Czech Republic: Population, by gender, 2010-14
                                                                                                            • Figure 104: Czech Republic: Population, by gender and age group, 2010-14
                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                            • Figure 105: Czech Republic: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                            • Figure 106: Czech Republic: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                            • Figure 107: Czech Republic: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2004-14
                                                                                                            • Figure 108: Czech Republic: Breakdown of households consumption expenditure, 2010-14
                                                                                                          • Czech retailing in figures
                                                                                                            • Figure 109: Czech Republic: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2010-15
                                                                                                            • Figure 110: Czech Republic: Breakdown of retail sales, by sector, excl. VAT, 2010-15
                                                                                                          • Online retailing in the Czech Republic
                                                                                                            • Figure 111: Czech Republic: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2010-14
                                                                                                            • Figure 112: Czech Republic: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                          • Major retailers in the Czech Republic
                                                                                                              • Figure 113: Czech Republic: Leading retailers, 2014
                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                              • CESKY STATISTICKY URAD (CZECH STATISTICAL OFFICE) – Prague
                                                                                                                • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                  • ECONOMIC CHAMBER OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC – Prague
                                                                                                                    • ADMAZ (ASOCIACE DIRECT MARKETING A ZASILKOVEHO OBCHODU) – Prague
                                                                                                                      • CZECH FRANCHISING ASSOCIATION – Prague
                                                                                                                      • Denmark

                                                                                                                          • The Danish retail scene
                                                                                                                            • Denmark in figures
                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                • Figure 114: Denmark: Population trends, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                • Figure 115: Denmark: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                • Figure 116: Denmark: Households, by size, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                • Figure 117: Denmark: Population, by region, 2010-14
                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                • Figure 118: Denmark: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                • Figure 119: Denmark: Consumer prices inflation, % change on year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                • Figure 120: Denmark: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2004-14
                                                                                                                                • Figure 121: Denmark: Breakdown of consumer spending, by category (incl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                              • Danish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                • Figure 122: Denmark: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15 (f)
                                                                                                                                • Figure 123: Denmark: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15 (f)
                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Denmark
                                                                                                                                • Figure 124: Denmark: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                • Figure 125: Denmark: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                              • Food retailing in Denmark
                                                                                                                                • Figure 126: Denmark: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                              • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                • Figure 127: Denmark: Major mixed goods retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                              • Clothing and footwear
                                                                                                                                • Figure 128: Denmark: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                              • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                • Figure 129: Denmark: Leading DIY specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                              • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                • Figure 130: Denmark: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                              • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                • Figure 131: Denmark: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                              • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                • Figure 132: Denmark: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                              • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                • Figure 133: Denmark: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                              • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                • Figure 134: Denmark: Leading home-shopping retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                • STATISTICS DENMARK – Copenhagen
                                                                                                                                  • RETAIL INSTITUTE SCANDINAVIA – Asnæs
                                                                                                                                    • DANSK INDUSTRI (DANISH CONFEDERATION OF DANISH INDUSTRY) – Copenhagen
                                                                                                                                      • DANSK MODE & TEXTIL– Herning
                                                                                                                                        • DE SAMVIRKENDE KØBMÆNDSFORENINGER I DANMARK – Hellerup
                                                                                                                                          • FDIH (Foreningen for Dansk Internethandel) – Copenhagen
                                                                                                                                            • DANSK HANDELSBLAD – Åbyhøj
                                                                                                                                            • Estonia

                                                                                                                                                • The Estonian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                  • Estonia in figures
                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 135: Estonia: Total population, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 136: Estonia: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 137: Estonia: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 138: Estonia: Consumer prices, annual % change, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 139: Estonia: Final consumption expenditure of households, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 140: Estonia: Breakdown of consumer spending, by category (incl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                    • Estonian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 141: Estonia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 142: Estonia: Selected breakdown of retail sales (excl VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                    • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 143: Estonia: Retail businesses and employment, 2011-13
                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Estonia
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 144: Estonia: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 145: Estonia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                    • Food retailing in Estonia
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 146: Estonia: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                    • Non-food retailing in Estonia
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 147: Estonia: Leading non-food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                      • NATIONAL STATISTICS OFFICE – Tallinn
                                                                                                                                                        • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                        • Finland

                                                                                                                                                            • The Finnish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                              • Finland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 148: Finland: Population trends, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 149: Finland: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 150: Finland: Households, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 151: Finland: Major regions, by inhabitants, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 152: Finland: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 153: Finland: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 154: Finland: Consumer prices expenditure (incl. VAT), 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 155: Finland: Breakdown of consumer spending by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                • Finnish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 156: Finland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 157: Finland: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Finland
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 158: Finland: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 159: Finland: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailing in Finland
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 160: Finland: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                • Department stores and mixed goods
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 161: Finland: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 162: Finland: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 163: Finland: Leading DIY specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 164: Finland: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 165: Finland: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 166: Finland: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 167: Finland: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 168: Finland: Leading home-shopping retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                  • STATISTICS FINLAND – Helsinki
                                                                                                                                                                    • KEHITTYVÄ KAUPPA – Helsinki
                                                                                                                                                                      • BANK OF FINLAND
                                                                                                                                                                      • France

                                                                                                                                                                          • The French retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                            • France in figures
                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 169: France: Population, by gender, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 170: France: Population, by age bracket and gender, January 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 171: France: Population, by region, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 172: France: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 173: France: Consumer prices, % change on year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 174: France: Household consumer expenditure, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 175: France: Detailed breakdown of consumer expenditure, inc VAT, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                              • France retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 176: France: Retail sales (ex VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 177: France: Retail sales breakdown (ex. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                              • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 178: France: Retail enterprises, 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in France
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 179: France: Household broadband access, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 180: France: Online purchases, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailing in France
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 181: France: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                • Mixed goods and department stores in France
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 182: France: Leading department store and mixed goods retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                • Clothing and footwear retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 183: France: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                  • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 184: France: Leading DIY specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Electrical goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 185: France: Leading electricals retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Furniture retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 186: France: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 187: France: Leading beauty specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Cultural, leisure and other non-food specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 188: France: Leading cultural, leisure and other non-food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 189: France: Leading online and home shopping retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 190: France: Major shopping malls, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                        • INSTITUT NATIONALE DE LA STATISTIQUE ET DES ÉTUDES ÉCONOMIQUES (INSEE) – Paris
                                                                                                                                                                                          • LIBRE SERVICE ACTUALITÉ (LSA) – Paris
                                                                                                                                                                                            • FÉDÉRATION DES ENTREPRISES DE VENTE À DISTANCE (FEVAD) – Paris
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Germany

                                                                                                                                                                                                • The German retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Germany in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 191: Germany: Total population, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 192: Germany: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 193: Germany: Population, by region and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 194: Germany: Number and size of households, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 195: Germany: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 196: Germany: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 197: Germany: Consumer spending totals (incl.VAT), 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 198: Germany: Breakdown of consumer spending, by broad category (incl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 199: Germany: Breakdown of consumer spending, by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2010-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • German retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 200: Germany: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 201: Germany: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 202: Germany: Number of retail enterprises, 2011-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 203: Germany: Number of retail outlets, 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 204: Germany: Number employed in retail, 2011-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Germany
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 205: Germany: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 206: Germany: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Food retailing in Germany
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 207: Germany: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Department store and mixed good retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 208: Germany: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 209: Germany: Leading clothing specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 210: Germany: Leading footwear specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 211: Germany: Leading DIY specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 212: Germany: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 213: Germany: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 214: Germany: Leading beauty specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 215: Germany: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 216: Germany: Online and other home-shopping retailers. 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 217: Germany: Major shopping malls, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • STATISTISCHES BUNDESAMT – Wiesbaden
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • LEBENSMITTEL-ZEITUNG – Frankfurt am Main
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Greece

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Greek retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Greece in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 218: Greece: Total population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 219: Greece: Population, by age group and gender, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 220: Greece: Population, by region, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 221: Greece: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 222: Greece: Consumer prices inflation, % change on year, 2010-15(Jan-Jun)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 223: Greece: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 224: Greece: Average monthly spending on goods and services (incl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Greek retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 225: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 226: Greece, Retail employment, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Greece
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 227: Greece: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 228: Greece: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailing in Greece
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 229: Greece: Leading food retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Clothing, footwear and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 230: Greece: Leading department stores and clothing retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Furniture and DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 231: Greece: Leading furniture and DIY stores, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 232: Greece: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Beauty retailers and other miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 233: Greece: Leading miscellaneous specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • HELLENIC STATISTICAL AUTHORITY (EL.STAT) – Athens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • IMF (INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND) – Washington
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • ATHENS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY (ACCI) – Athens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • NATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF HELLENIC COMMERCE – Athens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hungary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Hungarian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hungary in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 234: Hungary: Population, by gender, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 235: Hungary: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 236: Hungary: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 237: Hungary: Consumer price index, annual % change, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 238: Hungary: Household consumption expenditure, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 239: Hungary: Breakdown of household consumption expenditure (incl. VAT), 2010-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hungarian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 240: Hungary: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 241: Hungary: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 242: Hungary: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 243: Hungary: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Leading retailers in Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 244: Hungary: Identified leading retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • HUNGARIAN CENTRAL STATISTICAL OFFICE/KÖZPONTI STATISZTIKAI HIVATAL – Budapest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • TRADE MAGAZIN – Budapest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MAI PIAC (Market Today) – Budapest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • ÉLELMISZER – Budapest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • HUNGARIAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY– Budapest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • MAGYAR ARUKÜLDÖK EGYESÜLETE – Budapest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ireland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Irish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ireland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 245: Ireland: Population, by gender, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 246: Ireland: Breakdown of population, by age group, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 247: Ireland: Population, by regional authority area, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 248: Ireland: Gross domestic product, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 249: Ireland: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 250: Ireland: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 251: Ireland: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2011-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Irish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 252: Ireland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 20010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 253: Ireland: Selected retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 254: Ireland: Retail businesses and employment, 2010-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 255: Ireland: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 256: Ireland: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailing in Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 257: Ireland: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 258: Ireland: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 259: Ireland: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 260: Ireland: Leading DIY retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 261: Ireland: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 262: Ireland: Leading electricals retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 263: Ireland: Leading health & beauty retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 264: Ireland: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online and other home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 265: Ireland: Leading home shopping retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE (CSO) – Cork
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Italy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Italian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Italy in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 266: Italy: Total population, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 267: Italy: Population, by age group and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 268: Italy: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 269: Italy: Consumer prices inflation, annual % change, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 270: Italy: Final household expenditure (incl.VAT), 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 271: Italy: Breakdown of consumer spending by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Italian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 272: Italy: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 273: Italy: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 274: Italy: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 275: Italy: Online purchases of goods in last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Food retailing in Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 276: Italy: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 277: Italy: Leading department and variety stores, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 278: Italy: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 279: Italy: Leading DIY specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Electrical, furniture and household goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 280: Italy: Leading electrical, furniture and household goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 281: Italy: Leading beauty specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sporting goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 282: Italy: Major sporting goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online-only and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 283: Italy: Online-only retailers and other home shopping specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 284: Italy: Leading major shopping malls, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • INSTITUTO CENTRALE DI STATISTICA (ISTAT) – Rome
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • ITALIAN UNION OF THE CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE – Rome
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • FEDERAZIONE ASSOCIAZIONI IMPRESE DISTRIBUZIONE (FAID) – Milan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • ASSOCIAZIONE NAZIONALE FRA AZIENDE DI VENDITA PER CORRISPONDENZA E A DISTANZA (ANVED)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • ASSOCIAZIONE ITALIANA DEL FRANCHISING (AIF) – Milan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • LARGO CONSUMO – Milan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • FEDERAZIONE ITALIANA DETTAGLIANTI DELL ALIMENTAZIONE (FIDA) – Rome
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • FEDERAZIONE MODA ITALIA – Milan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Latvia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Latvian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Latvia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 285: Latvia: Population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 286: Latvia: Population, by age group, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 287: Latvia: Population, by region, 2013-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 288: Latvia: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 289: Latvia: Consumer prices inflation, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 290: Latvia: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 291: Latvia: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2010-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Latvian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 292: Latvia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 293: Latvia: Selected and total retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 294: Latvia: Retail businesses and employment, 2010-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Latvia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 295: Latvia: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 296: Latvia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major retailers in Latvia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 297: Latvia: Leading retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • CENTRAL STATISTICAL BUREAU OF LATVIA – Riga
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Lithuania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Lithuanian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lithuania in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 298: Lithuania: Population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 299: Lithuania: Population, by age group and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 300: Lithuania: Ten largest cities, by population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 301: Lithuania: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 302: Lithuania: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 303: Lithuania: Final household consumption, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lithuanian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 304: Lithuania: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 305: Lithuania: Breakdown of retail sales by sector, excl. VAT, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 306: Lithuania: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 307: Lithuania: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Majors retailers in Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 308: Lithuania: Identified leading retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • STATISTICS LITHUANIA – Vilnius
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • ASSOCIATION OF LITHUANIAN CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE & INDUSTRY – Vilnius
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • LITHUANIAN DEVELOPMENT AGENCY – Vilnius
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Luxembourg

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Luxembourg retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Luxembourg in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 309: Luxembourg: Population trends, 2011-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 310: Luxembourg: Population, by origin, 2011-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 311: Luxembourg: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 312: Luxembourg: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 313: Luxembourg: Consumer price inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 314: Luxembourg: Consumer expenditure, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 315: Luxembourg: Breakdown of consumer expenditure, by category, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Luxembourg retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 316: Luxembourg: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 317: Luxembourg: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 318: Luxembourg: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 319: Luxembourg: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major retailers in Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 320: Luxembourg: Major retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • SERVICE CENTRAL DE LA STATISTIQUE (STATEC) – Luxembourg City
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Macedonia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Macedonian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Macedonia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 321: Macedonia: Population trends, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 322: Macedonia: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 323: Macedonia: Population, by region, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 324: Macedonia, Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 325: Macedonia: Consumer prices, % change on year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 326: Macedonia: Final household consumption, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Macedonian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 327: Macedonia: Retail sales, 2011-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 328: Macedonia: Retail sales, 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Macedonia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 329: Macedonia: Leading retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA, STATE STATISTICAL OFFICE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MACINVEST, AGENCY FOR FOREIGN INVESTMENTS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Moldova

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Moldovan retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Moldova in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 330: Moldova: Population trends, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 331: Moldova: Population, by age and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 332: Moldova: Population, by district, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 333: Moldova: gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 334: Moldova: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 335: Moldova: Final household consumption, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 336: Moldova: Breakdown of average monthly per capita household consumption, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Moldovan retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 337: Moldova: Retail sales, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 338: Moldova: Retail outlets, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 339: Moldova: Retail space, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Moldova
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 340: Moldova: Leading retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA – Chisinau
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • NATIONAL BANK OF MOLDOVA – Chisinau
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • FOREIGN INVESTORS ASSOCIATION MOLDOVA – Chisinau
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Netherlands

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Dutch retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Netherlands in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 341: The Netherlands: Population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 342: The Netherlands: Population, by age and gender, at 1 January 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 343: The Netherlands: Number of households, by household size, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 344: The Netherlands: Population, by region, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 345: The Netherlands: Gross domestic product, 2007-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 346: The Netherlands: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 347: The Netherlands: Household’s consumption expenditure, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 348: The Netherlands: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Dutch retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 349: The Netherlands: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 350: The Netherlands: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 351: The Netherlands: Retail businesses and employment, 2011-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in the Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 352: The Netherlands: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 353: The Netherlands: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailing in the Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 354: The Netherlands: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 355: The Netherlands: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 356: The Netherlands: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 357: The Netherlands: Leading DIY retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 358: The Netherlands: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 359: The Netherlands: Leading electricals retailers. 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 360: The Netherlands: Leading health & beauty retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 361: The Netherlands: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 362: The Netherlands: Leading home shopping retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • CENTRAAL BUREAU VOOR DE STATISTIEK (CBS) – Heerlen/The Hague
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Norway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Norwegian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Norway in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 363: Norway: Population trends, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 364: Norway: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 365: Norway: Households, by size, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 366: Norway: Population, by county, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 367: Norway: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 368: Norway: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 369: Norway: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 370: Norway: Breakdown of consumer spending by category (incl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Norwegian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 371: Norway: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15 (f)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 372: Norway: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15 (f)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 373: Norway: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 374: Norway: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailing in Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 375: Norway: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 376: Norway: Major mixed goods retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Clothing and footwear
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 377: Norway: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 378: Leading DIY specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 379: Norway: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 380: Norway: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 381: Norway: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 382: Norway: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 383: Norway: Leading home-shopping retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • STATISTISK SENTRALBYRÅ (SB) – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • OSLO CHAMBER OF COMMERCE – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • VIRKE – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • DAGLIGVAREHANDELEN – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • TEKSTILFORUM – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • DISTANSEHANDEL NORGE – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Poland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Polish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Poland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 384: Poland: Population, by gender, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 385: Poland: Population, by age group, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 386: Poland: Population, by region, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 387: Poland: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 388: Poland: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 389: Poland: Households consumption expenditure, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 390: Poland: Breakdown of households consumption expenditure, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Polish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 391: Poland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 392: Poland: Selected and total retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 393: Poland: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 394: Poland: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailing in Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 395: Poland: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Non-food retailing in Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 396: Poland: Leading non-food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • POLISH CENTRAL STATISTICAL OFFICE – Warsaw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Portugal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Portuguese retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Portugal in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 397: Portugal: Total population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 398: Portugal: Population, by age group, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 399: Portugal: Population, by region, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 400: Portugal: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 401: Portugal: Consumer prices, annual % change, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 402: Portugal: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 403: Portugal: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Portuguese retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 404: Portugal: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 405: Portugal: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 406: Portugal: Retail businesses and employment, 2010-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 407: Portugal: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 408: Portugal: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailing in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 409: Portugal: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Non-food retailing in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 410: Portugal: Leading non-food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTATISTICA (INE) – Lisbon
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Romania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Romanian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Romania in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 411: Romania: Resident population, by gender, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 412: Romania: Resident population, by age and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 413: Romania: Resident population, by region, 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 414: Romania: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 415: Romania: Consumer price inflation, annual % change, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 416: Romania: Households consumption expenditure, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Romanian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 417: Romania: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 418: Romania: Breakdown of retail sales, by sector (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 419: Romania: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 420: Romania: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 421: Romania: Major retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STATISTICS (INSSE) – Bucharest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY OF ROMANIA – Bucharest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • IMF (INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND) – Washington
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Russia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Russian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Russia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 422: Russia: Total population, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 423: Russia: Population, by age group, 2011-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 424: Russia: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 425: Russia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 426: Russia: Households consumption expenditure, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Russian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 427: Russia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 428: Russia: Retail sales, by broad sector (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailing in Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 429: Russia: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 430: Russia: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 431: Russia: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Furniture and DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 432: Russia: Leading furniture and DIY specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 433: Russia: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 434: Russia: Other major identified retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and source
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • GOSKOMSTAT (FEDERAL STATE STATISTICS SERVICE) – Moscow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • ST PETERSBURG CHAMBER OF COMMERCE – St Petersburg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • AKORT (Association of Retail Businesses) – Moscow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • KOMMERSANT newspaper – Moscow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Serbia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Serbian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Serbia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 435: Serbia: Total population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 436: Serbia: Population, by age and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 437: Serbia: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 438: Serbia: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 439: Serbia: Final household consumption, 2005-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 440: Serbia: Breakdown of final household consumption, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Serbian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 441: Serbia, Retail sales, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Serbia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 442: Serbia: Major retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Slovakia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Slovak retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Slovakia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 443: Slovakia: Population trends, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 444: Slovakia: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 445: Slovakia: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 446: Slovakia: Consumer prices, % change year on year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 447: Slovakia: Consumer expenditure, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 448: Slovakia: Breakdown of consumer expenditure 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Slovak retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 449: Slovakia: Retail sales, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 450: Slovakia: Breakdown of retail sales, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in Slovakia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 451: Slovakia: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 452: Slovakia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Major retailers in Slovakia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 453: Major retailers in Slovakia, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC – Bratislava
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MINISTRY OF ECONOMY OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC – Bratislava
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • SLOVAK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE & INDUSTRY (SOPK) – Bratislava
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • NATIONAL BANK OF SLOVAKIA – Bratislava
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Slovenia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Slovenian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Slovenia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 454: Slovenia: Population trends, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 455: Slovenia: Population, by age group and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 456: Slovenia: Population, by region, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 457: Slovenia: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 458: Slovenia: Consumer prices, annual % change, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 459: Slovenia: Consumer expenditure, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 460: Slovenia: Breakdown of consumer expenditure 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Slovenian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 461: Slovenia: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 462: Slovenia: Breakdown of retail sales, excl. VAT, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Slovenia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 463: Slovenia: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 464: Slovenia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in Slovenia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 465: Slovenia: Leading retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE REPUBLIC OF SLOVENIA – Ljubljana
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY OF SLOVENIA – Ljubljana
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • SLOVENIAN TRADE & INVESTMENT PROMOTION OFFICE (TIPO) – Ljubljana
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • BANK OF SLOVENIA – Ljubljana
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • INSTITUTE FOR MACROECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT (IMAD) – Ljubljana
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Spain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Spanish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Spain in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 466: Spain: Total population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 467: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 468: Spain: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 469: Spain: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 470: Spain: Consumer spending (incl.VAT), 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 471: Spain: Breakdown of consumer spending by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Spanish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 472: Spain: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 473: Spain: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 474: Spain: Number of retail enterprises, by sector, 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 475: Spain: Number of full time employed, by retail sector, 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 476: Spain: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 477: Spain: Online purchases of goods in last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailing in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 478: Spain: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 479: Spain: Leading department stores and mixed goods retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 480: Spain: Leading clothing specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 481: Spain: Leading DIY specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Electrical, furniture and household goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 482: Spain: Leading electrical, furniture and household goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 483: Spain: Leading beauty specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 484: Spain: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2014/15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online-only retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 485: Spain: Online-only retailers (2014/15)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 486: Spain: Major shopping centres, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADISTICA (INE) – Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • CONSEJO SUPERIOR DE CAMARAS OFFICIALES DE COMERCIO, INDUSTRIA Y NAVEGACION DE ESPANA – Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • ASOCIACION ESPAÑOLA DE VENTA DIRECTA – Barcelona
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • ASOCIACIÓN ESPAÑOLA DE CENTROS Y PARQUES COMERCIALES – Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • ANUARIO DE LA DISTRIBUCIÓN – Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • DISTRIBUCIÓN ACTUALIDAD – Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • ALIMARKET – Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Sweden

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Swedish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Sweden in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 487: Sweden: Population trends, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 488: Sweden: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 489: Sweden: Households, by size, 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 490: Sweden: Population, by county, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 491: Sweden: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 492: Sweden: Consumer prices inflation, % change on year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 493: Sweden: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 494: Sweden: Breakdown of consumer spending by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Swedish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 495: Sweden: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15 (f)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 496: Sweden: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15 (f)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 497: Sweden: Proportion of households with broadband, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 498: Sweden: Online purchases – percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Food retailing in Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 499: Sweden: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 500: Sweden: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing and footwear
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 501: Sweden: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 502: Sweden: Leading DIY specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 503: Sweden: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 504: Sweden: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 505: Sweden: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 506: Sweden: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 507: Sweden: Leading home-shopping retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • STATISTICS SWEDEN (STATISTISKA CENTRALBYRÅN) – Stockholm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MARKET MAGAZINE – Vasterås
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • STOCKHOLM CHAMBER OF COMMERCE – Stockholm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • SVENSK HANDEL/SWEDISH TRADE FEDERATION TRADE – Stockholm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • HANDELNS UTREDNINGSINSTITUT (HUI) – Stockholm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • SVENSKA DIGITALHANDEL – Gothenburg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • BUSINESS SWEDEN, the Swedish Trade & Invest Council – Stockholm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Switzerland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Swiss retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Switzerland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 508: Switzerland: Population, by gender, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 509: Switzerland: Population, by age group, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 510: Switzerland: Population, by region, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 511: Switzerland: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 512: Switzerland: Harmonised indices of consumer prices, annual % change, 2009-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 513: Switzerland: Households consumption expenditure (incl. VAT), 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Swiss retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 514: Switzerland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 515: Switzerland: Online purchases in the last 12 months, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailing in Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 516: Switzerland: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Department and clothing stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 517: Switzerland: Leading clothing and department store retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Homewares specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 518: Switzerland: Leading household goods retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 519: Switzerland: Leading health & beauty retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 520: Switzerland: Leading miscellaneous specialists 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Home shopping and e-commerce
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 521: Switzerland: Major home shopping retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • BUNDESAMT FÜR STATISTIK (BF)/FEDERAL STATISTICAL OFFICE – Neuchâtel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY OF SWITZERLAND (CCIS) – St-Gallen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • SWISS RETAIL FEDERATION – Bern
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • SCHWEIZER DETAILLISTENVERBAND (SDV) – Lucerne
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • SCHWEIZERISCHER VERBAND DER LEBENSMITTEL-DETAILLISTEN (VELEDES) – Bern
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • VERBAND DES SCHWEIZERISCHEN VERSANDHANDELS (VSV) – Zürich
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Turkey

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Turkish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Turkey in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 522: Turkey: Total population, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 523: Turkey: population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 524: Turkey: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 525: Turkey: Harmonised indices of consumer prices, annual % change, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 526: Turkey: Consumer spending by resident households (incl. VAT), 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 527: Turkey: Breakdown of consumer spending, by broad category (incl. VAT), 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 528: Turkey: Breakdown of consumer spending in % terms, 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Turkish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 529: Retail sales (excl VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 530: Turkey: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 531: Turkey: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 532: Turkey: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 533: Turkey: Identified leading retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • DEVLET ISTATISTIK ENSTITUSU (TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • IMF (INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND) – Washington
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • UK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The UK retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The UK in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 534: UK: Population trends, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 535: UK: Population, by age group, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 536: UK: Number of households, by household size, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 537: UK: Population, by region, 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 538: UK: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 539: UK: Consumer prices inflation, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 540: UK: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 541: UK: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • UK retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 542: UK: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 543: UK: Retail sales (excl. VAT): Detailed sales breakdown, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 544: UK: Retail businesses, outlets and employment, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in the UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 545: UK: Household broadband access, 2005 and 2011-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 546: UK: Proportion of individuals buying online in last 12 months, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailing in the UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 547: UK: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 548: UK: Retailer used for main grocery shop, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 549: UK: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Clothing and footwear retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 550: UK: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 551: UK: Leading DIY retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Furniture and carpet specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 552: UK: Leading furniture and carpet retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 553: UK: Leading electricals retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 554: UK: Leading health & beauty retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 555: UK: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 556: UK: Leading home shopping retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major shopping centres
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 557: UK: Major shopping centres
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • THE BRITISH RETAIL CONSORTIUM – London
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • BRITISH COUNCIL OF SHOPPING CENTRES – London
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Office for National Statistics/Mintel – London
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • THE ASSOCIATION OF BRITISH CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE – London
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • INSTITUTE OF GROCERY DISTRIBUTION (IGD) – Watford
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • OXFORD INSTITUTE OF RETAIL MANAGEMENT (OXIRM) – Oxford
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • THE MAIL ORDER TRADERS' ASSOCIATION OF GREAT BRITAIN (MOTA) – London
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • UNION OF SHOP, DISTRIBUTIVE and ALLIED WORKERS (USDAW) – Manchester
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ukraine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Ukrainian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ukraine in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 558: Ukraine: Resident population trends, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 559: Ukraine: Resident population, by age group, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 560: Ukraine: Gross domestic product, 2006-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 561: Ukraine: Consumer prices, % annual change, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 562: Ukraine: Consumer expenditure, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 563: Ukraine: Final consumption expenditure of households, by purpose, 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ukrainian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 564: Ukraine: Retail sales, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Ukraine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 565: Ukraine: Leading retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • STATE STATISTICS SERVICE OF UKRAINE – Kiev
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • NATIONAL BANK OF UKRAINE – Kiev

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Companies Covered

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  To learn more about the companies covered in this report please contact us.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  European Retail Handbook - September 2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  £1,495.00 (Excl.Tax)