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European Retail Handbook - September 2016

This is the 20th edition of the European Retail Handbook. In it we provide the essential background information to understanding the retail scene in each European country.

The European Retail Handbook provides top line demographic and economic data and a more detailed analysis of retail trade in each country. Where possible, retail information is given both on a national and sector basis, and we also provide data on the structure of the trade in terms of businesses, outlets and employees. Major retailers and retail groupings are identified with an indication of their size and relative importance. Other useful information includes synopses of the retail scene in each country and contact points for sources of further information.

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Table of contents

  1. Introduction

      • Definitions
      • Pan European Comparisons

        • Population
          • Figure 1: Europe: Population by major country, 2015
          • Figure 2: Europe: Population by major country, 2015
        • GDP
          • Figure 3: Europe: GDP by country and per capita, 2015
          • Figure 4: Europe: GDP per capita, 2015
        • Consumer spending
          • Figure 5: Consumer expenditure, by country and per capita, 2015
          • Figure 6: Consumer expenditure per capita, 2015
        • Retail sales
          • Figure 7: Europe: Retail sales by country and per capita, 2015
          • Figure 8: Europe: Retail sales per capita by country, 2015
        • Online
          • Figure 9: Europe: Percentage of adults who have made a purchase online in the last 12 months, 2015
          • Figure 10: Europe: Percentage of adults who have made a purchase online in the last 12 months, 2015
        • Rankings
          • Figure 11: Country rankings, 2015
        • Exchange rates
          • Figure 12: Eurozone members, 2016
          • Figure 13: Average annual European exchange rates – Main currencies vs €, $, £, 2015
      • Albania

          • Albanian retail scene
            • Albania in figures
              • Population
                • Figure 14: Albania: Population trends, 2012-16
                • Figure 15: Albania: Population, by age group and gender, 2016
                • Figure 16: Albania: Population, by prefecture, 2012-16
              • Economy
                • Figure 17: Albania: GDP, 2006-15
                • Figure 18: Albania: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2011-15
                • Figure 19: Albania: Final household consumption, 2005-14
                • Figure 20: Albania: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2010-14
              • Albanian retailing in figures
                • Figure 21: Albania: Retail sales, including motor vehicles, 2011-15
              • Major retailers in Albania
                • Figure 22: Albania: Identified retailers, 2015
              • Contacts and sources
                • INSTAT – INSTITUTE OF STATISTICS
                  • BANK OF ALBANIA
                  • Austria

                      • The Austrian retail scene
                        • Austria in figures
                          • Population
                            • Figure 23: Austria: Population, 2012-16
                            • Figure 24: Austria: Population, by age group, 2012-16
                            • Figure 25: Austria: Number of private households, household size, 2015
                            • Figure 26: Austria: Population, by region, 2012-15
                          • Economy
                            • Figure 27: Austria: Gross domestic product, 2006-15
                            • Figure 28: Austria: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-15
                            • Figure 29: Austria: Final consumption expenditure of households, 2006-15
                            • Figure 30: Austria: Final consumption expenditure of households by purpose, current prices, 2011-15
                          • Austrian retailing in figures
                            • Figure 31: Austria: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                            • Figure 32: Austria: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                          • Online retailing in Austria
                            • Figure 33: Austria: Broadband connection, % of households, 2006-15
                            • Figure 34: Austria: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                          • Food retailers
                              • Figure 35: Austria: Leading food retailers, 2015
                            • Mixed goods and department stores
                              • Figure 36: Austria: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2015
                            • Clothing and footwear retailers
                              • Figure 37: Austria: Leading clothing specialists, 2015
                            • DIY retailers
                              • Figure 38: Austria: Leading DIY retailers, 2015
                            • Furniture retailers
                              • Figure 39: Austria: Leading furniture retailers, 2015
                            • Electrical retailers
                              • Figure 40: Austria: Leading electricals retailers, 2015
                            • Beauty retailers
                              • Figure 41: Austria: Leading health & beauty retailers, 2015
                            • Miscellaneous retailers
                              • Figure 42: Austria: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2015
                            • Online and other home shopping retailers
                              • Figure 43: Austria: Leading home shopping retailers, 2015
                            • Contacts and sources
                              • STATISTIK AUSTRIA – Vienna
                                • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                • Belarus

                                    • The Belarussian retail scene
                                      • Belarus in figures
                                        • Population
                                          • Figure 44: Belarus: Population trends, 2012-16
                                          • Figure 45: Belarus: Population, by prefecture, 2012-16
                                        • Economy
                                          • Figure 46: Belarus: Gross domestic product, 2006-15
                                          • Figure 47: Belarus: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-15
                                          • Figure 48: Belarus: Final household consumption, 2007-15
                                          • Figure 49: Belarus: Breakdown of final household consumption, 2010-14
                                        • Belarussian retailing in figures
                                          • Figure 50: Belarus: Retail sales, 2011-15
                                          • Figure 51: Belarus: Retail outlets, 2010-14
                                          • Figure 52: Belarus: % share of total retail sales, by ownership, 2010-15
                                        • Major retailers in Belarus
                                          • Figure 53: Belarus: Major retailers, 2015
                                        • Contacts and sources
                                          • NATIONAL STATISTICAL COMMITTEE OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS – Minsk
                                            • NATIONAL BANK OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS – Minsk
                                              • BELARUS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY – Minsk
                                              • Belgium

                                                  • The Belgian retail scene
                                                    • Belgium in figures
                                                      • Population
                                                        • Figure 54: Belgium: Population, 2012-16
                                                        • Figure 55: Belgium: Population, by age group, 2012-16
                                                        • Figure 56: Belgium: Population, by region, 2012-16
                                                      • Economy
                                                        • Figure 57: Belgium: Gross domestic product, 2006-15
                                                        • Figure 58: Belgium: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-15
                                                        • Figure 59: Belgium: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2006-14
                                                        • Figure 60: Belgium: Breakdown of consumer spending, by category, 2011-14
                                                        • Figure 61: Belgium: Breakdown of consumer spending, by category, 2011-14 (continued)
                                                      • Belgian retailing in figures
                                                        • Figure 62: Belgium: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                        • Figure 63: Belgium: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                      • Online retailing in Belgium
                                                        • Figure 64: Belgium: Broadband connection, % of households, 2006-15
                                                        • Figure 65: Belgium: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                      • Food retailers
                                                        • Figure 66: Belgium: Leading food retailers, 2015
                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                        • Figure 67: Belgium: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2015
                                                      • Clothing and footwear retailers
                                                        • Figure 68: Belgium: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2015
                                                      • DIY retailers
                                                        • Figure 69: Belgium: Leading DIY retailers, 2015
                                                      • Furniture retailers
                                                        • Figure 70: Belgium: Leading furniture retailers, 2015
                                                      • Electrical retailers
                                                        • Figure 71: Belgium: Leading electricals retailers, 2015
                                                      • Beauty retailers
                                                        • Figure 72: Belgium: Leading beauty retailers, 2015
                                                      • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                        • Figure 73: Belgium: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2015
                                                      • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                        • Figure 74: Belgium: Leading home shopping retailers, 2015
                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                        • INSTITUT NATIONAL DE STATISTIQUE – Brussels
                                                          • NATIONAL BANK OF BELGIUM
                                                            • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                            • Bulgaria

                                                                • The Bulgarian retail scene
                                                                  • Bulgaria in figures
                                                                    • Population
                                                                      • Figure 75: Bulgaria: Population trends, 2011-15
                                                                      • Figure 76: Bulgaria: Population, by age group and gender, 2015
                                                                      • Figure 77: Bulgaria: Population, by district and municipality, 2011-15
                                                                    • Economy
                                                                      • Figure 78: Bulgaria: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                      • Figure 79: Bulgaria: Consumer prices, % annual change, 2010-15
                                                                      • Figure 80: Final consumption expenditure of households, 2005-15
                                                                      • Figure 81: Bulgaria: Average annual expenditure per household, at current prices, 2010-15
                                                                    • Online retailing in Bulgaria
                                                                      • Figure 82: Bulgaria: Broadband connections, % of households, 2011-15
                                                                      • Figure 83: Bulgaria: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                    • Bulgarian retailing in figures
                                                                      • Figure 84: Bulgaria: Retail sales, by category, excl. sales tax, 2010-16
                                                                    • Major retailers in Bulgaria
                                                                        • Figure 85: Bulgaria: Identified leading retailers, 2015
                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                        • NATIONAL STATISTICAL INSTITUTE – Sofia
                                                                          • BULGARIAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE & INDUSTRY – Sofia
                                                                            • INVEST BULGARIA AGENCY (FORMERLY BULGARIAN FOREIGN INVESTMENT AGENCY) – Sofia
                                                                              • BULGARIAN NATIONAL BANK – Sofia
                                                                                • BULGARIAN RETAIL ASSOCIATION
                                                                                  • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                    • MINISTRY OF FINANCE – Sofia
                                                                                    • Croatia

                                                                                        • Croatian retail scene
                                                                                          • Croatia in figures
                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                              • Figure 86: Croatia: Population, 2012-16
                                                                                              • Figure 87: Croatia: Population, by age group, 2011-15
                                                                                              • Figure 88: Croatia: Population, by districts and city of Zagreb, 2015
                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                              • Figure 89: Croatia: Gross domestic product, 2006-15
                                                                                              • Figure 90: Croatia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-15
                                                                                              • Figure 91: Croatia: Final household expenditure, 2006-15
                                                                                              • Figure 92: Croatia: Average annual personal consumption per household, 2008-11 and 2014
                                                                                            • Croatian retailing in figures
                                                                                              • Figure 93: Croatia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                              • Figure 94: Croatia: Retail sales breakdown, 2011-16
                                                                                            • Online retailing in Croatia
                                                                                              • Figure 95: Croatia: Broadband connections, % of households, 2007-15
                                                                                              • Figure 96: Croatia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                                            • Major retailers in Croatia
                                                                                                • Figure 97: Croatia: Leading retailers, 2015
                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                • CROATIAN BUREAU OF STATISTICS – Zagreb
                                                                                                  • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                    • EUROPEAN COMMISSION – Brussels and Luxembourg
                                                                                                    • Czech Republic

                                                                                                        • The Czech retail scene
                                                                                                          • Czech Republic in figures
                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                              • Figure 98: Czech Republic: Population, by gender, 2011-15
                                                                                                              • Figure 99: Czech Republic: Population, by age, 2011-15
                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                              • Figure 100: Czech Republic: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                              • Figure 101: Czech Republic: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-15
                                                                                                              • Figure 102: Czech Republic: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2005-15
                                                                                                              • Figure 103: Czech Republic: Breakdown of households consumption expenditure, 2011-15
                                                                                                            • Czech retailing in figures
                                                                                                              • Figure 104: Czech Republic: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2011-16
                                                                                                              • Figure 105: Czech Republic: Breakdown of retail sales, by sector, excl. VAT, 2011-16
                                                                                                            • Online retailing in the Czech Republic
                                                                                                              • Figure 106: Czech Republic: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2011-15
                                                                                                              • Figure 107: Czech Republic: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                                                            • Major retailers in the Czech Republic
                                                                                                                • Figure 108: Czech Republic: Leading retailers, 2015
                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                • CESKY STATISTICKY URAD (CZECH STATISTICAL OFFICE) – Prague
                                                                                                                  • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                    • ECONOMIC CHAMBER OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC – Prague
                                                                                                                    • Denmark

                                                                                                                        • The Danish retail scene
                                                                                                                          • Denmark in figures
                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                              • Figure 109: Denmark: Population trends, 2011-15
                                                                                                                              • Figure 110: Denmark: Population, by age group and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                              • Figure 111: Denmark: Households by size, 2011-15
                                                                                                                              • Figure 112: Denmark: Population by region, 2011-15
                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                              • Figure 113: Denmark: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                              • Figure 114: Denmark: Consumer prices inflation, % change on year, 2010-15
                                                                                                                              • Figure 115: Denmark: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2005-15
                                                                                                                              • Figure 116: Denmark: Breakdown of consumer spending by category (incl. VAT), 2011-15
                                                                                                                              • Figure 117: Denmark: Breakdown of consumer spending by category (incl. VAT), 2011-15 (continued)
                                                                                                                            • Danish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                              • Figure 118: Denmark: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16 (f)
                                                                                                                              • Figure 119: Denmark: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2011-16 (f)
                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Denmark
                                                                                                                              • Figure 120: Denmark: Broadband connections, % of households, 2006-15
                                                                                                                              • Figure 121: Denmark: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                                                                            • Food retailers
                                                                                                                              • Figure 122: Denmark: Leading food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                            • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                              • Figure 123: Denmark: Major mixed goods retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                            • Clothing and footwear retailers
                                                                                                                              • Figure 124: Denmark: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                            • DIY retailers
                                                                                                                              • Figure 125: Denmark: Leading DIY specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                            • Furniture retailers
                                                                                                                              • Figure 126: Denmark: Leading furniture retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                            • Electricals retailers
                                                                                                                              • Figure 127: Denmark: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                            • Health & beauty retailers
                                                                                                                              • Figure 128: Denmark: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                            • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                              • Figure 129: Denmark: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                            • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                              • Figure 130: Denmark: Leading home shopping retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                              • STATISTICS DENMARK – Copenhagen
                                                                                                                                • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                  • RETAIL INSTITUTE SCANDINAVIA - Asnæs
                                                                                                                                    • DANSK INDUSTRI (DANISH CONFEDERATION OF DANISH INDUSTRY) – Copenhagen
                                                                                                                                      • DANSK MODE & TEXTIL– Herning
                                                                                                                                        • DE SAMVIRKENDE KØBMÆNDSFORENINGER I DANMARK – Hellerup
                                                                                                                                          • FDIH (Foreningen for Dansk Internethandel) – Copenhagen
                                                                                                                                            • DANSK HANDELSBLAD – Åbyhøj
                                                                                                                                              • NORDIC COUNCIL OF SHOPPING CENTRES – Stockholm
                                                                                                                                              • Estonia

                                                                                                                                                  • The Estonian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                    • Estonia in figures
                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 131: Estonia: Total population, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 132: Estonia: Population, by age group and gender, 2016
                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 133: Estonia: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 134: Estonia: Consumer prices, annual % change, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 135: Estonia: Final consumption expenditure of households, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 136: Estonia: Breakdown of consumer spending, by category (incl. VAT), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                      • Estonian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 137: Estonia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 138: Estonia: Detailed breakdown of retail sales (excl VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                      • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 139: Estonia: Retail businesses and employment, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Estonia
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 140: Estonia: Broadband connections, % of households, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 141: Estonia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                      • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 142: Estonia: Leading food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                      • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 143: Estonia: Leading non-food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                        • NATIONAL STATISTICS OFFICE – Tallinn
                                                                                                                                                          • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                          • Finland

                                                                                                                                                              • The Finnish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                • Finland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 144: Finland: Population trends, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 145: Finland: Population, by age group and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 146: Finland: Households, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 147: Finland: Major regions, by inhabitants, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 148: Finland: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 149: Finland: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 150: Finland: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 151: Finland: Breakdown of consumer expenditure (inc. VAT), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                  • Finnish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 152: Finland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 153: Finland: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Finland
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 154: Finland: Broadband connections, % of households, 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 155: Finland: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 156: Finland: Leading food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                  • Department stores and mixed goods
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 157: Finland: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                  • Clothing and footwear retailers
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 158: Finland: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                  • DIY retailers
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 159: Finland: Leading DIY specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                  • Furniture retailers
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 160: Finland: Leading furniture retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                  • Electrical retailers
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 161: Finland: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                  • Health & beauty retailers
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 162: Finland: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                  • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 163: Finland: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                  • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 164: Leading home-shopping retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                    • STATISTICS FINLAND – Helsinki
                                                                                                                                                                      • KEHITTYVÄ KAUPPA – Helsinki
                                                                                                                                                                        • BANK OF FINLAND
                                                                                                                                                                        • France

                                                                                                                                                                            • The French retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                              • France in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 165: France: Population by gender, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 166: France: Population by age bracket and gender, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 167: France: Population by region, 1990, 1999, 2008, 2013 and 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 168: France: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 169: France: Consumer prices, % change on year, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 170: France: Household consumer expenditure, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 171: France: Detailed breakdown of consumer expenditure, inc VAT, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 172: France: Detailed breakdown of consumer expenditure, inc VAT, 2011-15 (continued)
                                                                                                                                                                                • French retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 173: France: Retail sales (ex VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 174: France: Retail sales breakdown (ex. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in France
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 175: France: Broadband connections, % of households, 2007-15
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 176: France: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 177: France: Leading food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 178: Leading department store and mixed goods retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                • Clothing and footwear retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 179: France: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                • DIY retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 180: France: Leading DIY specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                • Electrical goods retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 181: France: Leading electricals retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                • Furniture retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 182: France: Leading furniture retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                • Beauty retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 183: France: Leading beauty retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                • Cultural, leisure and other non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 184: France: Leading cultural, leisure and other non-food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 185: France: Leading online and home shopping retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 186: France: Major shopping malls, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                  • INSTITUT NATIONALE DE LA STATISTIQUE ET DES ÉTUDES ÉCONOMIQUES (INSEE) – Paris
                                                                                                                                                                                    • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                      • ASSEMBLEE FRANCAISE DES CHAMBRES DE COMMERCE ET DE L’INDUSTRIE (ACFCI) – Paris
                                                                                                                                                                                        • CONFEDERATION GÉNÉRALE DE L'ALIMENTATION EN DÉTAIL – Paris
                                                                                                                                                                                          • FÉDÉRATION NATIONALE DE L'HABILLEMENT, NOUVEAUTÉ ET ACCESSOIRES – Paris
                                                                                                                                                                                            • LIBRE SERVICE ACTUALITÉ (LSA) – Paris
                                                                                                                                                                                              • FÉDÉRATION DES ENTREPRISES DE VENTE À DISTANCE (FEVAD) – Paris
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Germany

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The German retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Germany in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 187: Germany: Total population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 188: Germany: Population, by age group and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 189: Germany: Population by region and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 190: Germany: Number of households, by size, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 191: Germany: Gross domestic product, 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 192: Germany: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 193: Germany: Consumer spending totals (incl. VAT), 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 194: Germany: Disposable income of households, annual % growth, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 195: Germany: Breakdown of consumer spending, by detailed category (incl.VAT), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • German retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 196: Germany: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 197: Germany: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 198: Germany: Number of retail enterprises, 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 199: Germany: Number of retail outlets, 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 200: Germany: Number of persons employed in retail, 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Germany
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 201: Germany: Broadband connections, % of households, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 202: Germany: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 203: Germany: Location of online purchases made in the last 12 months, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 204: Germany: Leading food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 205: Germany: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Clothing and footwear retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 206: Germany: Leading clothing specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 207: Germany: Leading footwear specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • DIY retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 208: Germany: Leading DIY specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Furniture retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 209: Germany: Leading furniture retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Electrical retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 210: Germany: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Beauty retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 211: Germany: Leading beauty specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 212: Germany: Major miscellaneous specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 213: Germany: Online and other home-shopping retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 214: Germany: 25 largest German shopping malls, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • STATISTISCHES BUNBDESAMT – Wiesbaden
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • European Commission –Brussels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Trade association for e-commerce and distance-selling.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • LEBENSMITTEL-ZEITUNG – Frankfurt am Main
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Greece

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Greek retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Greece in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 215: Greece: Total population, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 216: Greece: Population by age group and gender, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 217: Greece: Population by region, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 218: Greece: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 219: Greece: Consumer prices inflation, % change on year, 2010-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 220: Greece: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 221: Greece: Average monthly spending on goods and services (incl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Greek retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 222: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 223: Greece, Retail employment, 2011-16(Q1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Greece
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 224: Greece: Broadband connections, % of households, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 225: Greece: Online purchases – percentage of all individuals, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 226: Greece: Leading food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Clothing, footwear and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 227: Greece: Leading department stores and clothing retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Furniture and DIY retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 228: Greece: Leading furniture and DIY stores, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Electrical retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 229: Greece: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Beauty retailers and other miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 230: Greece: Leading miscellaneous specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • HELLENIC STATISTICAL AUTHORITY (EL.STAT) – Athens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • International organisation of 187 member countries working towards economic growth.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • ATHENS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY (ACCI) – Athens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • NATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF HELLENIC COMMERCE – Athens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hungary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Hungarian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hungary in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 231: Hungary: Population, by gender, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 232: Hungary: Population, by age group, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 233: Hungary: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 234: Hungary: Consumer price index, annual % change, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 235: Hungary: Household consumption expenditure, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 236: Hungary: Breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hungarian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 237: Hungary: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 238: Hungary: Retail sales breakdown, excl. VAT, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 239: Hungary: Broadband connections, % of households, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 240: Hungary: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Leading retailers in Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 241: Hungary: Identified leading retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • HUNGARIAN CENTRAL STATISTICAL OFFICE / KÖZPONTI STATISZTIKAI HIVATAL – Budapest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • TRADE MAGAZIN – Budapest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • MAI PIAC (Market Today) – Budapest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • ÉLELMISZER – Budapest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • HUNGARIAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY– Budapest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • MAGYAR ARUKÜLDÖK EGYESÜLETE – Budapest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ireland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Irish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ireland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 242: Ireland: Population, by gender, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 243: Ireland: Breakdown of population, by age group, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 244: Ireland: Population, by regional authority area, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 245: Ireland: Gross domestic product, 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 246: Ireland: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 247: Ireland: Household consumption expenditure, 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 248: Ireland: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Irish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 249: Ireland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 250: Ireland: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 251: Ireland: Broadband connections, % of households, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 252: Ireland: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 253: Ireland: Leading food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 254: Ireland: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Clothing and footwear retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 255: Ireland: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • DIY retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 256: Ireland: Leading DIY retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Furniture retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 257: Ireland: Leading furniture retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Electrical retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 258: Ireland: Leading electricals retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Beauty retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 259: Ireland: Leading health & beauty retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 260: Ireland: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online and other home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 261: Ireland: Leading home shopping retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE (CSO) – Cork
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Italy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Italian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Italy in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 262: Italy: Total population, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 263: Italy: Population, by age group and gender, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 264: Italy: Gross domestic product, 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 265: Italy: Consumer prices inflation, annual % change, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 266: Italy: Final household expenditure (incl.VAT), 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 267: Breakdown of consumer spending by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Italian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 268: Italy: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 269: Italy: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 270: Italy: Broadband connections, % of households, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 271: Italy: Online purchases of goods in last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 272: Italy, Leading food retailers 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 273: Italy: Leading department and variety stores, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing and footwear retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 274: Italy: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • DIY retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 275: Italy: Leading DIY specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Electrical, furniture and household goods retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 276: Italy: Leading electrical, furniture and household goods specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Beauty retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 277: Italy: Leading beauty specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sports goods retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 278: Italy: Major sporting goods specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online-only and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 279: Italy: Online-only retailers and other home shopping specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 280: Italy: Leading major shopping malls, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • INSTITUTO CENTRALE DI STATISTICA (ISTAT) – Rome
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • ITALIAN UNION OF THE CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE – Rome
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • FEDERAZIONE ASSOCIAZIONI IMPRESE DISTRIBUZIONE (FAID) – Milan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • ASSOCIAZIONE NAZIONALE FRA AZIENDE DI VENDITA PER CORRISPONDENZA E A DISTANZA (ANVED)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • ASSOCIAZIONE ITALIANA DEL FRANCHISING (AIF) – Milan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • LARGO CONSUMO – Milan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • FEDERAZIONE ITALIANA DETTAGLIANTI DELL ALIMENTAZIONE (FIDA) – Rome
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • FEDERAZIONE MODA ITALIA – Milan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Latvia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Latvian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Latvia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 281: Latvia: Population, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 282: Latvia: Population, by age group, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 283: Latvia: Population, by region, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 284: Latvia: Gross domestic product, 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 285: Latvia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 286: Latvia: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 287: Latvia: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2011-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Latvian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 288: Latvia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 289: Latvia: Detailed retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 290: Latvia: Retail businesses and employment, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Latvia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 291: Latvia: Broadband connections, % of households, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 292: Latvia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Major retailers in Latvia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 293: Latvia: Leading retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • CENTRAL STATISTICAL BUREAU OF LATVIA – Riga
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lithuania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Lithuanian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lithuania in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 294: Lithuania: Population, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 295: Lithuania: Population, by age group and gender, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 296: Lithuania: Ten largest cities, by population, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 297: Lithuania: Gross domestic product, 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 298: Lithuania: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 299: Lithuania: Final household consumption, 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Lithuanian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 300: Lithuania: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 301: Lithuania: Breakdown of retail sales by sector, excl. VAT, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 302: Lithuania: Household internet access, broadband, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 303: Lithuania: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Majors retailers in Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 304: Lithuania: Identified leading retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • STATISTICS LITHUANIA – Vilnius
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • ASSOCIATION OF LITHUANIAN CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE & INDUSTRY – Vilnius
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • LITHUANIAN DEVELOPMENT AGENCY – Vilnius
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Luxembourg

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Luxembourg retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Luxembourg in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 305: Luxembourg: Population trends, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 306: Luxembourg: Population, by origin, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 307: Luxembourg: Population, by age group and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 308: Luxembourg: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 309: Luxembourg: Consumer price inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 310: Luxembourg: Consumer expenditure, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 311: Luxembourg: Breakdown of consumer expenditure, by category, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 312: Luxembourg: Breakdown of consumer expenditure, by category, 2009-14 (continued)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Luxembourg retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 313: Luxembourg: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 314: Luxembourg: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 315: Luxembourg: Broadband connections, % of households, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 316: Luxembourg: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Major retailers in Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 317: Luxembourg: Major retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • SERVICE CENTRAL DE LA STATISTIQUE (STATEC) – Luxembourg City
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • ECOMMERCE FOUNDATION
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Macedonia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Macedonian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Macedonia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 318: Macedonia: Population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 319: Macedonia: Population, by age group and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 320: Macedonia: Population, by region, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 321: Macedonia, Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 322: Macedonia: Consumer prices, % change on year, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 323: Macedonia: Final household consumption, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 324: Macedonia: Breakdown of final household consumption, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Macedonian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 325: Macedonia: Retail sales, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 326: Macedonia: Retail sales, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in Macedonia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 327: Macedonia: Leading retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA, STATE STATISTICAL OFFICE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MACINVEST, AGENCY FOR FOREIGN INVESTMENTS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Moldova

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Moldova retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Moldovan in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 328: Moldova: Population, by gender, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 329: Moldova: Population, by age, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 330: Moldova: Population, by district, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 331: Moldova: gross domestic product, 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 332: Moldova: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 333: Moldova: Final household consumption, 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 334: Moldova: Breakdown of average monthly per capita household consumption, 2011-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Moldovan retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 335: Moldova: Retail sales, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 336: Moldova: Retail outlets, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 337: Moldova: Retail space, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major retailers in Moldova
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 338: Moldova: Leading retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA – Chisinau
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • NATIONAL BANK OF MOLDOVA – Chisinau
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • FOREIGN INVESTORS ASSOCIATION MOLDOVA – Chisinau
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Netherlands

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Dutch retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Netherlands in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 339: The Netherlands: Population, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 340: The Netherlands: Population, by age and gender, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 341: The Netherlands: Number of households, by household size, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 342: The Netherlands: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 343: The Netherlands: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 344: The Netherlands: Household consumption expenditure, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 345: The Netherlands: Breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Dutch retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 346: The Netherlands: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 347: The Netherlands: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in the Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 348: The Netherlands: Broadband connections, % of households, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 349: The Netherlands: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 350: The Netherlands: Leading food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 351: The Netherlands: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing and footwear retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 352: The Netherlands: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • DIY retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 353: The Netherlands: Leading DIY retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Furniture retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 354: The Netherlands: Leading furniture retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Electricals retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 355: The Netherlands: Leading electricals retailers. 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Health and beauty retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 356: The Netherlands: Leading health and beauty retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 357: The Netherlands: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 358: The Netherlands: Leading home shopping retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • CENTRAAL BUREAU VOOR DE STATISTIEK (CBS) – Heerlen/The Hague
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Norway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Norwegian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Norway in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 359: Norway: Population trends, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 360: Norway: Population, by age group and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 361: Norway: Households by size, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 362: Norway: Population by county, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 363: Norway: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 364: Norway: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 365: Norway: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 366: Norway: Breakdown of consumer spending by category (incl. VAT), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Norwegian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 367: Norway: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16 (f)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 368: Norway: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2011-16 (f)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 369: Norway: BVroadband connection, % of households, 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 370: Norway: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 371: Norway: Leading food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 372: Norway: Major mixed goods retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Clothing and footwear retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 373: Norway: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • DIY retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 374: Leading DIY specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Furniture retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 375: Norway: Leading furniture retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Electricals retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 376: Norway: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Health & beauty retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 377: Norway: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 378: Norway: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 379: Norway: Leading home-shopping retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • STATISTISK SENTRALBYRÅ (SB) – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • OSLO CHAMBER OF COMMERCE – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • VIRKE – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • DAGLIGVAREHANDELEN – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • TEKSTILFORUM – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • DISTANSEHANDEL NORGE – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • SPORTSBRANSJEN – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Poland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Polish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Poland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 380: Poland: Population, by gender, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 381: Poland: Population, by age group, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 382: Poland: Population, by region, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 383: Poland: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 384: Poland: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 385: Poland: Household consumption expenditure, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 386: Poland: Breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 387: Poland: Breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2010-14 (continued)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Polish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 388: Poland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 389: Poland: Selected and total retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 390: Poland: Broadband connections, % of households, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 391: Poland: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 392: Poland: Leading food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Non-food retailing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 393: Poland: Leading non-food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • CENTRAL STATISTICAL OFFICE OF POLAND – Warsaw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Portugal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Portuguese retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Portugal in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 394: Portugal: Population, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 395: Portugal: Population, by age group, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 396: Portugal: population, by region, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 397: Portugal: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 398: Portugal: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 399: Portugal: Resident households final consumption expenditure, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 400: Portugal: Breakdown of resident households final consumption expenditure, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Portuguese retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 401: Portugal: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 402: Portugal: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 403: Portugal: Percentage proportion of households with broadband, 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 404: Portugal: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailing in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 405: Portugal: Leading food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Non-food retailing in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 13: Portugal: Leading non-food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Instituto Nacional de Estatistica (INE) – Lisbon
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Romania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Romanian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Romania in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 406: Romania: Resident population by gender, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 407: Romania: Resident population by age and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 408: Romania: Resident population by region, 2012-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 409: Romania: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 410: Romania: Consumer price inflation, annual % change, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 411: Romania: Households consumption expenditure, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Romanian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 412: Romania: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 413: Romania: Breakdown of retail sales, by sector (excl. VAT), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 414: Romania: Household internet access, broadband, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 415: Romania: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major food retailers in Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 416: Romania, known leading Grocery retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Major non-food retailers in Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 417: Romania: Major non-food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STATISTICS (INSSE) – Bucharest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY OF ROMANIA – Bucharest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • IMF (INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND) – Washington
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Russia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Russian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Russia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 418: Russia: Total population, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 419: Russia: Population, by age group, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 420: Russia: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 421: Russia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 422: Russia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, by category, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 423: Russia: Households consumption expenditure, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Russian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 424: Russia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 425: Russia: Retail sales breakdown, by broad sector (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 426: Russian Federation: Fixed and mobile internet access, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 427: Online sales as share of total retail trade turnover by region, 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 428: Russia: Leading food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Clothing and footwear retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 429: Russia: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Electrical retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 430: Russia: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Furniture and DIY retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 431: Russia: Leading furniture and DIY specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Health & beauty retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 432: Russia: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 433: Russia: Other identified retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • GOSKOMSTAT (FEDERAL STATE STATISTICS SERVICE) – Moscow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • ST PETERSBURG CHAMBER OF COMMERCE – St Petersburg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • AKORT (Association of Retail Businesses) – Moscow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • KOMMERSANT newspaper – Moscow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Serbia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Serbian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Serbia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 434: Serbia population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 435: Serbia: Population, by age and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 436: Serbia: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 437: Serbia: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 438: Serbia: Final household consumption, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 439: Serbia: Breakdown of final household consumption, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 440: Serbia: Breakdown of final household consumption, 2010-14 (continued)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Serbian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 441: Serbia, Retail sales, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Serbia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 442: Serbia: Major retailers, 2015/16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA – Belgrade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Slovakia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Slovak retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Slovakia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 443: Slovakia: Population trends, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 444: Slovakia: Population, by age group and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 445: Slovakia: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 446: Slovakia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 447: Slovakia: Final consumption of households, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 448: Slovakia: Expenditures of households, euro/person/month, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Slovak retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 449: Slovakia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 450: Slovakia: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Slovakia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 451: Slovakia: Broadband connections, % of households, 2016-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 452: Slovakia: Online purchases – percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Slovakia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 453: Slovakia: Major retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC – Bratislava
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • NATIONAL BANK OF SLOVAKIA – Bratislava
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Slovenia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Slovenian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Slovenia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 454: Slovenia: Population, by gender, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 455: Slovenia: Population, by age group, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 456: Slovenia: Population, by region, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 457: Slovenia: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 458: Slovenia: Consumer prices, annual % change, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 459: Slovenia: Household Consumption expenditure, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 460: Slovenia: Breakdown of household Consumption expenditure, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Slovenian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 461: Slovenia: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 462: Slovenia: Retail sales breakdown, excl. VAT, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Slovenia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 463: Slovenia: Broadband connections, % of households, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 464: Slovenia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Slovenia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 465: Slovenia: Leading retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE REPUBLIC OF SLOVENIA – Ljubljana
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Spain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Spanish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Spain in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 466: Spain: Total population, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 467: Spain: Population, by age group and gender, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 468: Spain: Population by autonomous community, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 469: Spain: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 470: Spain: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 471: Spain: Consumer spending (incl.VAT), 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 472: Spain: Breakdown of consumer spending by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Spanish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 473: Spain: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 474: Spain: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 475: Spain: Number of retail enterprises, by sector, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 476: Spain: Number of full time employed, by retail sector, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 477: Broadband connections, % of households, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 478: Spain: Online purchases of goods in last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 479: Spain: Leading food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 480: Spain: Leading department stores and mixed goods retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Clothing and footwear retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 481: Spain: Leading clothing specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • DIY retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 482: Spain: Leading DIY specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Electrical, furniture and household goods retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 483: Spain: Leading electrical, furniture and household goods specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Beauty retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 484: Spain: Leading beauty specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 485: Spain: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 486: Spain: Online-only retailers. 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 487: Spain: Major shopping centres, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADISTICA (INE) – Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • CONSEJO SUPERIOR DE CAMARAS OFFICIALES DE COMERCIO, INDUSTRIA Y NAVEGACION DE ESPANA – Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • ASOCIACION ESPAÑOLA DE VENTA DIRECTA – Barcelona
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • ASOCIACIÓN ESPAÑOLA DE CENTROS Y PARQUES COMERCIALES – Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • ANUARIO DE LA DISTRIBUCIÓN – Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • DISTRIBUCIÓN ACTUALIDAD – Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • ALIMARKET – Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sweden

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Swedish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Sweden in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 488: Sweden: Population trends, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 489: Sweden: Population, by age group and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 490: Sweden: Households by size, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 491: Sweden: Population by county, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 492: Sweden: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 493: Sweden: Consumer prices inflation, % change on year, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 494: Sweden: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 495: Sweden: Breakdown of consumer spending by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 496: Sweden: Breakdown of consumer spending by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2011-15 (continued)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Swedish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 497: Sweden: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16 (f)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 498: Sweden: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 499: Sweden: Broadband connections, % of households, 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 500: Sweden: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 501: Sweden: Leading food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 502: Sweden: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Clothing and footwear retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 503: Sweden: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • DIY retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 504: Sweden: Leading DIY specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Furniture retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 505: Sweden: Leading furniture retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Electricals retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 506: Sweden: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Health & beauty retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 507: Sweden: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 508: Sweden: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 509: Sweden: Leading home shopping retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • STATISTICS SWEDEN (STATISTISKA CENTRALBYRÅN) – Stockholm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MARKET MAGAZINE (Hakon Media) – Stockholm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • STOCKHOLM CHAMBER OF COMMERCE – Stockholm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • SVENSK HANDEL/SWEDISH TRADE FEDERATION TRADE – Stockholm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • HANDELNS UTREDNINGSINSTITUT (HUI) – Stockholm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • SVENSKA DIGITALHANDEL – Gothenburg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • BUSINESS SWEDEN, the Swedish Trade & Invest Council – Stockholm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • NORDIC COUNCIL OF SHOPPING CENTRES – Stockholm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Switzerland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Swiss retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Switzerland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 510: Switzerland: Population by gender, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 511: Switzerland: Population by age group, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 512: Switzerland: Population by region, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 513: Switzerland: Gross domestic product, 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 514: Switzerland: Harmonised indices of consumer prices, annual % change, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 515: Switzerland: Households consumption expenditure (incl. VAT), 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Swiss retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 516: Switzerland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 517: Switzerland: Online purchases in the last 12 months, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 518: Switzerland: Leading food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Department stores and clothing retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 519: Switzerland: Leading clothing and department store retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Household goods retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 520: Switzerland: Leading household goods retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Health & beauty retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 521: Switzerland: Leading health & beauty retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 522: Switzerland: Leading miscellaneous specialists, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 523: Switzerland: Major online and home shopping retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • BUNDESAMT FÜR STATISTIK (BF) / FEDERAL STATISTICAL OFFICE – Neuchâtel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY OF SWITZERLAND (CCIS) – St-Gallen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • SWISS RETAIL FEDERATION – Bern
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • SCHWEIZER DETAILLISTENVERBAND (SDV) – Lucerne
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • SCHWEIZERISCHER VERBAND DER LEBENSMITTEL-DETAILLISTEN (VELEDES) – Bern
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • VERBAND DES SCHWEIZERISCHEN VERSANDHANDELS (VSV) – Zürich
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • ECOMMERCE FOUNDATION
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Turkey

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Turkish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Turkey in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 524: Turkey: Population, by gender, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 525: Turkey: Population, by age group, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 526: Turkey: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 527: Turkey: Harmonised indices of consumer prices, annual % change, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 528: Turkey: Consumer spending by resident households (incl. VAT), 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 529: Turkey: Breakdown of consumer spending, by broad category (incl. VAT), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Turkish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 530: Turkey: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 531: Turkey: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in the Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 532: Turkey: Broadband connections, % of households, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 533: Turkey: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Major retailers in Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 534: Turkey: Identified leading retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • DEVLET ISTATISTIK ENSTITUSU (TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • UK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The UK retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The UK in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 535: UK: Population by gender, 2011-2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 536: UK: Population, by age group, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 537: UK: Number of households, by household size, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 538: UK: Population, by region, 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 539: UK: Gross domestic product, 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 540: UK: Consumer prices inflation, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 541: UK: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 542: UK: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • UK retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 543: UK: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 544: UK: Retail sales (excl. VAT): Detailed sales breakdown, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in the UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 545: UK: Household broadband access, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 546: UK: Proportion of individuals buying online in last 12 months, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Food retailing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 547: UK: Leading food retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 548: UK: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 549: UK: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 550: UK: Leading DIY retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 551: UK: Leading furniture and carpet retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 552: UK: Leading electricals retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 553: UK: Leading health & beauty retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 554: UK: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online and other home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 555: UK: Leading home shopping retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Major shopping centres
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 556: UK: Major shopping centres, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • THE BRITISH RETAIL CONSORTIUM – London
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • BRITISH COUNCIL OF SHOPPING CENTRES – London
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Office for National Statistics/Mintel – London
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • THE ASSOCIATION OF BRITISH CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE – London
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • INSTITUTE OF GROCERY DISTRIBUTION (IGD) – Watford
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • OXFORD INSTITUTE OF RETAIL MANAGEMENT (OXIRM) – Oxford
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • THE MAIL ORDER TRADERS' ASSOCIATION OF GREAT BRITAIN (MOTA) – London
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • UNION OF SHOP, DISTRIBUTIVE and ALLIED WORKERS (USDAW) – Manchester
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ukraine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Ukrainian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ukraine in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 557: Ukraine: Resident population, by gender, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 558: Ukraine: Resident population, by age group, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 559: Ukraine: Gross domestic product, 2007-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 560: Ukraine: Consumer prices, % annual change, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 561: Ukraine: Consumer expenditure, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 562: Ukraine: Final consumption expenditure of households, by purpose, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ukraine retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 563: Ukraine: Retail sales, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Major retailers in Ukraine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 564: Ukraine: Leading retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • STATE STATISTICS SERVICE OF UKRAINE – Kiev
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • NATIONAL BANK OF UKRAINE – Kiev

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Companies Covered

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                To learn more about the companies covered in this report please contact us.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                European Retail Handbook - September 2016

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                US $1,935.88 (Excl.Tax)