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European Retail Handbook - September 2017

This is the 21st edition of the European Retail Handbook. In it we provide the essential background information to understanding the retail scene in each European country.

The European Retail Handbook provides top line demographic and economic data and a more detailed analysis of retail trade in each country. Where possible, retail information is given both on a national and sector basis, and we also provide data on the structure of the trade in terms of businesses, outlets and employees. Major retailers and retail groupings are identified with an indication of their size and relative importance. Other useful information includes synopses of the retail scene in each country and contact points for sources of further information.

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Table of contents

  1. Introduction

      • Definitions
      • Pan European Comparisons

        • Population
          • Figure 1: Europe: Population by major country, 2016
          • Figure 2: Europe: Population by major country, 2016
        • GDP
          • Figure 3: Europe: GDP by country and per capita, 2016
          • Figure 4: Europe: GDP per capita by country, 2016
        • Consumer spending
          • Figure 5: Europe: Consumer spending by country and per capita, 2016
          • Figure 6: Europe: Consumer spending per capita by country, 2016
        • Retail sales
          • Figure 7: Europe: Retail Sales, excluding fuel, by country and per capita, 2016
          • Figure 8: Europe: Retail sales, excluding fuel, per capita by country, 2016
        • Online
          • Figure 9: Europe: Percentage of adults who have made a purchase online in the last 12 months, 2017
          • Figure 10: Europe: Percentage of adults who have made a purchase online in the last 12 months, 2017
        • Rankings
          • Figure 11: Europe: Country rankings by population and economic measures, 2016
        • Exchange rates
          • Figure 12: Average annual Exchange rates, 2016
      • Winners and Losers

          • Winners
            • Losers
              • Population
                • Turkey’s population is growing fast
                  • Ukraine and the Baltics in decline
                    • Figure 13: Europe: Population change, 2012-16
                  • GDP
                    • Belarus GDP growth driven by inflation
                      • Turkey sees fastest growth in real terms
                        • Excluding Ireland
                          • A Greek tragedy
                            • Figure 14: Europe: CAGR of GDP at constant prices, 2012-16
                          • Consumer spending
                            • Romania tops consumer spending growth
                              • Russia hit by slump in oil prices
                                • Figure 15: Europe: CAGR of consumer spending at constant prices, 2012-16
                              • Retail sales
                                • Bulgaria experiences healthy retail sales growth
                                  • Romanians spending more in the shops
                                    • Uncertainty in Ukraine
                                      • Finland slowly recovering from weak growth
                                        • Swiss retailers hit by unpegging of the Franc
                                          • Figure 16: Europe: CAGR of price-adjusted retail sales, 2012-16
                                      • Albania

                                          • Albanian retail scene
                                            • Albania in figures
                                              • Population
                                                • Figure 17: Albania: Population, 2013-17
                                                • Figure 18: Albania: Population, by age, 2013-17
                                                • Figure 19: Albania: Population, by prefecture, 2013-17
                                              • Economy
                                                • Figure 20: Albania: GDP, 2007-16
                                                • Figure 21: Albania: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                • Figure 22: Albania: Final household consumption, 2007-16
                                                • Figure 23: Albania: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2011-15
                                              • Albanian retailing in figures
                                                • Figure 24: Albania: Retail sales, including motor vehicles, 2012-16
                                              • Major retailers in Albania
                                                • Figure 25: Albania: Identified retailers, 2016
                                              • Contacts and sources
                                              • Austria

                                                  • The Austrian retail scene
                                                    • Austria in figures
                                                      • Population
                                                        • Figure 26: Austria: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                        • Figure 27: Austria: Population, by age group, 2013-17
                                                        • Figure 28: Austria: Number of private households, household size, 2016
                                                        • Figure 29: Austria: Population, by region, 2013-17
                                                      • Economy
                                                        • Figure 30: Austria: Gross domestic product, 2007-16
                                                        • Figure 31: Austria: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                        • Figure 32: Austria: Final consumption expenditure of households, 2007-16
                                                        • Figure 33: Austria: Final consumption expenditure of households by purpose, current prices, 2011-15
                                                      • Austrian retailing in figures
                                                        • Figure 34: Austria: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                        • Figure 35: Austria: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                      • Online retailing in Austria
                                                        • Figure 36: Austria: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2008-16
                                                        • Figure 37: Austria: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                      • Major retailers in Austria
                                                        • Food retailers
                                                          • Figure 38: Austria: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                        • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                          • Figure 39: Austria: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2016
                                                        • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                            • Figure 40: Austria: Leading clothing specialists, 2016
                                                          • DIY specialists
                                                            • Figure 41: Austria: Leading DIY specialists, 2016
                                                          • Furniture specialists
                                                            • Figure 42: Austria: Leading furniture specialists, 2016
                                                          • Electrical specialists
                                                            • Figure 43: Austria: Leading electrical specialists, 2016
                                                          • Beauty specialists
                                                            • Figure 44: Austria: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2016
                                                          • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                            • Figure 45: Austria: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2016
                                                          • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                            • Figure 46: Austria: Leading home shopping retailers, 2016
                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                          • Belarus

                                                              • The Belarussian retail scene
                                                                • Belarus in figures
                                                                  • Population
                                                                    • Figure 47: Belarus: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                    • Figure 48: Belarus: Population, by age group, 2013-17
                                                                    • Figure 49: Belarus: Population, by region and city of Minsk, 2013-17
                                                                  • Economy
                                                                    • Figure 50: Belarus: Gross domestic product, 2007-16
                                                                    • Figure 51: Belarus: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-17
                                                                    • Figure 52: Belarus: Final household consumption expenditure, 2007-16
                                                                  • Belarussian retailing in figures
                                                                    • Figure 53: Belarus: Retail sales, 2011-16
                                                                    • Figure 54: Belarus: Retail outlets, 2011-16
                                                                    • Figure 55: Belarus: % share of total retail sales, by ownership, 2011-16
                                                                  • Major retailers in Belarus
                                                                    • Figure 56: Belarus: Major retailers, 2016
                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                  • Belgium

                                                                      • The Belgian retail scene
                                                                        • Belgium in figures
                                                                          • Population
                                                                            • Figure 57: Belgium: Population, 2013-17
                                                                            • Figure 58: Belgium: Population, by age group, 2013-17
                                                                            • Figure 59: Belgium: Population, by region, 2013-17
                                                                          • Economy
                                                                            • Figure 60: Belgium: Gross domestic product, 2007-16
                                                                            • Figure 61: Belgium: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                            • Figure 62: Belgium: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2007-15
                                                                            • Figure 63: Belgium: Breakdown of consumer spending, by category, 2012-15
                                                                          • Belgian retailing in figures
                                                                            • Figure 64: Belgium: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                            • Figure 65: Belgium: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                          • Online retailing in Belgium
                                                                            • Figure 66: Belgium: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2008-16
                                                                            • Figure 67: Belgium: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                          • Major retailers in Belgium
                                                                            • Food retailers
                                                                              • Figure 68: Belgium: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                                            • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                • Figure 69: Belgium: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2016
                                                                              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                  • Figure 70: Belgium: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2016
                                                                                • DIY specialists
                                                                                  • Figure 71: Belgium: Leading DIY specialists, 2016
                                                                                • Furniture specialists
                                                                                  • Figure 72: Belgium: Leading furniture specialists, 2016
                                                                                • Electrical specialists
                                                                                  • Figure 73: Belgium: Leading electrical specialists, 2016
                                                                                • Beauty specialists
                                                                                  • Figure 74: Belgium: Leading beauty specialists, 2016
                                                                                • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                  • Figure 75: Belgium: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2016
                                                                                • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                  • Figure 76: Belgium: Leading home shopping retailers, 2016
                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                • Bulgaria

                                                                                    • The Bulgarian retail scene
                                                                                      • Bulgaria in figures
                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                          • Figure 77: Bulgaria: Population by gender, 2012-16
                                                                                          • Figure 78: Bulgaria: Population by age group, 2012-16
                                                                                          • Figure 79: Bulgaria: Population by region, 2012-16
                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                          • Figure 80: Bulgaria: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                          • Figure 81: Bulgaria: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2011-16
                                                                                          • Figure 82: Bulgaria: Consumer expenditure, 2006-16
                                                                                          • Figure 83: Bulgaria: Average annual expenditure per household, at current prices, 2012-16
                                                                                        • Bulgarian retailing in figures
                                                                                          • Figure 84: Bulgaria: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                          • Figure 85: Bulgaria: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                        • Online retailing in Bulgaria
                                                                                          • Figure 86: Bulgaria: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2012-16
                                                                                          • Figure 87: Bulgaria: Online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                        • Major retailers in Bulgaria
                                                                                            • Figure 88: Bulgaria: Identified leading retailers, 2016
                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                          • Croatia

                                                                                              • The Croatian retail scene
                                                                                                • Croatia in figures
                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                    • Figure 89: Croatia: Population, 2013-17
                                                                                                    • Figure 90: Croatia: Population, by age group, 2012-16
                                                                                                    • Figure 91: Croatia: Population, by districts and city of Zagreb, 2016
                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                    • Figure 92: Croatia: Gross domestic product, 2007-16
                                                                                                    • Figure 93: Croatia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                    • Figure 94: Croatia: Final household expenditure, 2007-16
                                                                                                    • Figure 95: Croatia: Average annual personal consumption per household, 2008-11 and 2014
                                                                                                  • Croatian retailing in figures
                                                                                                    • Figure 96: Croatia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                    • Figure 97: Croatia: Retail sales breakdown, 2012-17
                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Croatia
                                                                                                    • Figure 98: Croatia: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2008-16
                                                                                                    • Figure 99: Croatia: Online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Croatia
                                                                                                      • Figure 100: Croatia: Leading retailers, 2016
                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                    • Czech Republic

                                                                                                        • The Czech retail scene
                                                                                                          • Czech Republic in figures
                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                              • Figure 101: Czech Republic: Population, by gender, 2012-16
                                                                                                              • Figure 102: Czech Republic: Population, by age, 2012-16
                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                              • Figure 103: Czech Republic: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                              • Figure 104: Czech Republic: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                              • Figure 105: Czech Republic: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2006-16
                                                                                                              • Figure 106: Czech Republic: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2012-16
                                                                                                            • Czech retailing in figures
                                                                                                              • Figure 107: Czech Republic: Retail sales excl. VAT, 2012-17
                                                                                                              • Figure 108: Czech Republic: Breakdown of retail sales, by sector, excl. VAT, 2012-17
                                                                                                            • Online retailing in the Czech Republic
                                                                                                              • Figure 109: Czech Republic: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2012-16
                                                                                                              • Figure 110: Czech Republic: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-16
                                                                                                            • Major retailers in the Czech Republic
                                                                                                                • Figure 111: Czech Republic: Leading retailers, 2016
                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                              • Denmark

                                                                                                                  • The Danish retail scene
                                                                                                                    • Denmark in figures
                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                        • Figure 112: Denmark: Population, by gender, 2012-17
                                                                                                                        • Figure 113: Denmark: Population, by age group and gender, 2017
                                                                                                                        • Figure 114: Denmark: Households, by size, 2012-17
                                                                                                                        • Figure 115: Denmark: Population, by region, 2012-17
                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                        • Figure 116: Denmark: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                        • Figure 117: Denmark: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-16
                                                                                                                        • Figure 118: Denmark: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2006-16
                                                                                                                        • Figure 119: Denmark: Breakdown of consumer spending by category (incl. VAT), 2012-16
                                                                                                                        • Figure 120: Denmark: Breakdown of consumer spending by category (incl. VAT), 2012-16 (continued)
                                                                                                                      • Danish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                        • Figure 121: Denmark: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                        • Figure 122: Denmark: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Denmark
                                                                                                                        • Figure 123: Denmark: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2007-16
                                                                                                                        • Figure 124: Denmark: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                      • Major retailers in Denmark
                                                                                                                        • Food retailers
                                                                                                                          • Figure 125: Denmark: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                        • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                          • Figure 126: Denmark: Major mixed goods retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                        • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                          • Figure 127: Denmark: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                        • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                          • Figure 128: Denmark: Leading DIY specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                        • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                          • Figure 129: Denmark: Leading furniture specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                        • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                          • Figure 130: Denmark: Leading electrical specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                        • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                          • Figure 131: Denmark: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                          • Figure 132: Denmark: Major cultural, leisure, and other specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                        • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                          • Figure 133: Denmark: Leading home shopping retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                        • Estonia

                                                                                                                            • The Estonian retail scene
                                                                                                                              • Estonia in figures
                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 134: Estonia: Total population, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 135: Estonia: Population, by age group and gender, 2017
                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 136: Estonia: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 137: Estonia: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 138: Estonia: Final consumption expenditure of households, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 139: Estonia: Breakdown of consumer spending, by category (incl. VAT), 2012-16
                                                                                                                                • Estonian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 140: Estonia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 141: Estonia: Detailed breakdown of retail sales (excl VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 142: Estonia: Retail businesses and employment, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Estonia
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 143: Estonia: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 144: Estonia: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                • Major retailers in Estonia
                                                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 145: Estonia: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                  • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 146: Estonia: Leading non-food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                  • Finland

                                                                                                                                      • The Finnish retail scene
                                                                                                                                        • Finland in figures
                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 147: Finland: Population, by gender, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 148: Finland: Population, by age group, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 149: Finland: Households, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 150: Finland: Major regions, by inhabitants, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 151: Finland: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 152: Finland: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 153: Finland: Consumption expenditure of households, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 154: Finland: Breakdown of private consumer expenditure, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                          • Finnish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 155: Finland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 156: Finland: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Finland
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 157: Finland: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 158: Finland: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in Finland
                                                                                                                                            • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 159: Finland: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                            • Department stores and mixed goods
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 160: Finland: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                            • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 161: Finland: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                            • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 162: Finland: Leading DIY specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                            • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 163: Finland: Leading furniture specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                            • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 164: Finland: Leading electrical specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                            • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 165: Finland: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                            • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 166: Finland: Major leisure and other specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                            • France

                                                                                                                                                • The French retail scene
                                                                                                                                                  • France in figures
                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 167: France: Population, by gender, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 168: France: Population, by age bracket and gender, 2016
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 169: France: Population, by region, 1990, 1999, 2008, 2013 and 2015
                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 170: France: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 171: France: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 172: France: Household consumer expenditure, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 173: France: Breakdown of consumer expenditure, by detailed category (incl VAT), 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                    • France retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 174: France: Retail sales (ex VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 175: France: Retail sales breakdown (ex. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                    • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 176: France: Retail enterprises and employment, 2014
                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in France
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 177: France: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2008-16
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 178: France: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                    • Major retailers in France
                                                                                                                                                      • Food retailers in France
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 179: France: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 180: France: Leading department store and mixed goods retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 181: France: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                      • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 182: France: Leading DIY specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                      • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 183: France: Leading electrical specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                      • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 184: France: Leading furniture specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                      • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 185: France: Leading beauty specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                      • Cultural, leisure and other non-food specialists
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 186: France: Leading cultural, leisure and other non-food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                      • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 187: France: Leading online and home shopping retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                      • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 188: France: Major shopping malls, 2016/17
                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                      • Germany

                                                                                                                                                          • The German retail scene
                                                                                                                                                            • Germany in figures
                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 189: Germany: Population, by gender, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 190: Germany: Population, by age group and gender, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 191: Germany: Population, by region and gender, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 192: Germany: Number of households, by size, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 193: Germany: Gross domestic product, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 194: Germany: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 195: Germany: Consumer spending totals (incl.VAT), 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 196: Germany: Breakdown of consumer spending, by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                              • German retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 197: Germany: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 198: Germany: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                              • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 199: Germany: Number of retail enterprises, 2013-15
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 200: Germany: Number of retail outlets, 2013-15
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 201: Germany: Number of people employed in retail, 2013-15
                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Germany
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 202: Germany: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 203: Germany: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Germany
                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 204: Germany: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                  • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 205: Germany: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                    • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 206: Germany: Leading clothing specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 207: Germany: Leading footwear specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                      • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 208: Germany: Leading DIY specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                      • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 209: Germany: Leading furniture specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                      • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 210: Germany: Leading electrical specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                      • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 211: Germany: Leading beauty specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                      • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 212: Germany: Major miscellaneous specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                      • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 213: Germany: Online and other home-shopping retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                      • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 214: Germany: Major shopping malls, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                      • Greece

                                                                                                                                                                          • The Greek retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                            • Greece in figures
                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 215: Greece: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 216: Greece: Population, by age group and gender, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 217: Greece: Population, by region, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 218: Greece: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 219: Greece: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 220: Greece: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 221: Greece: Average monthly spending on goods and services (incl. VAT), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                              • Greek retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 222: Greece: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                              • Employment
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 223: Greece, Retail employment, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Greece
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 224: Greece: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2005-16
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 225: Greece: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Greece
                                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 226: Greece: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Clothing, footwear and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 227: Greece: Leading department stores and clothing specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Furniture and DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 228: Greece: Leading furniture and DIY specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 229: Greece: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Beauty specialists and other miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 230: Greece: Leading miscellaneous specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hungary

                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Hungarian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Hungary in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 231: Hungary: Population, by gender, 2013-16
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 232: Hungary: Population, by age group, 2013-16
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 233: Hungary: Gross domestic product, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 234: Hungary: Consumer price Index, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 235: Hungary: Household consumption expenditure, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 236: Hungary: Breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hungarian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 237: Hungary: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 238: Hungary: Retail sales breakdown excl VAT, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 239: Hungary: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 240: Hungary: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Major retailers in Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 241: Hungary: Identified leading retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ireland

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Irish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ireland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 242: Ireland Population, by gender, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 243: Ireland: Population, by age group, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 244: Ireland: Population, by regional authority area, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 245: Ireland: Gross domestic product, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 246: Ireland: Consumer price inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 247: Ireland: Household consumption expenditure, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 248: Ireland: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Irish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 249: Ireland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 250: Ireland: Retail sales breakdown (excl.VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 251: Ireland: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 252: Ireland: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major retailers in Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 253: Ireland: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 254: Ireland: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 255: Ireland: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 256: Ireland: Leading DIY specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 257: Ireland: Leading furniture specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 258: Ireland: Leading electrical specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Health and beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 259: Ireland: Leading health & beauty specialists. 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 260: Ireland: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online and other home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 261: Ireland: Leading home shopping retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Italy

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Italian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Italy in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 262: Italy: Total population, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 263: Italy: Population, by age group and gender, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 264: Italy: Population, by region, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 265: Italy: Gross domestic product, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 266: Italy: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 267: Italy: Final household expenditure (incl.VAT), 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 268: Breakdown of consumer spending by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Italian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 269: Italy: Retail sales (ex-VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 270: Italy: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 271: Italy: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 272: Italy: Online purchases of goods in last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 273: Italy, Leading food retailers 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 274: Italy: Leading department and variety stores, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 275: Italy: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 276: Italy: Leading DIY specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Electrical, furniture and household goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 277: Italy: Leading electrical, furniture and household goods specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 278: Italy: Leading beauty specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Sporting goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 279: Italy: Major sporting goods specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online-only and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 280: Italy: Leading home shopping retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 281: Italy: Leading major shopping malls, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Latvia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Latvian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Latvia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 282: Latvia: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 283: Latvia, Population, by age group, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 284: Latvia: Population, by region, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 285: Latvia: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 286: Latvia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 287: Latvia: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 288: Latvia: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Latvian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 289: Latvia: Retail sales (excl VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 290: Latvia: Detailed retail sales breakdown, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 291: Latvia: Retail businesses and employment, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Latvia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 292: Latvia: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 293: Latvia: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Major retailers in Latvia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 294: Latvia: Leading retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Lithuania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Lithuanian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lithuania in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 295: Lithuania: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 296: Lithuania: Population, by age group and gender, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 297: Lithuania: Population, by region, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 298: Lithuania: Gross domestic product, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 299: Lithuania: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 300: Lithuania: Final household consumption, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 301: Lithuania: Final consumption expenditure of households by purpose, current prices, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lithuania retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 302: Lithuania: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 303: Lithuania: Breakdown of retail sales by sector, excl. VAT, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 304: Lithuania: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2009-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 305: Lithuania: Online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Major retailers in Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 306: Lithuania: Leading retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Luxembourg

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Luxembourg retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Luxembourg in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 307: Luxembourg: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 308: Luxembourg: Population, by origin, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 309: Luxembourg: Population, by age group and gender, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 310: Luxembourg: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 311: Luxembourg: Consumer price inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 312: Luxembourg: Consumer expenditure, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 313: Luxembourg: Breakdown of consumer expenditure, by category, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 314: Luxembourg: Breakdown of consumer expenditure, by category, 2010-15 (continued)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Luxembourg retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 315: Luxembourg: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 316: Luxembourg: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 317: Luxembourg: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 318: Luxembourg: Online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 319: Luxembourg: Major retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Macedonia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Macedonian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Macedonia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 320: Macedonia: Population, by gender, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 321: Macedonia: Population, by age group, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 322: Macedonia: Population, by region, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 323: Macedonia, gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 324: Macedonia: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 325: Macedonia: Final household consumption, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 326: Macedonia: Breakdown of final household consumption, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Macedonian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 327: Macedonia: Retail sales*, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 328: Macedonia: Retail sales, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major retailers in Macedonia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 329: Macedonia: Leading retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Moldova

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Moldovan retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Moldova in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 330: Moldova: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 331: Moldova: Population, by age, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 332: Moldova: Population, by district, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 333: Moldova: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 334: Moldova: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 335: Moldova: Final household consumption, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 336: Moldova: Breakdown of average monthly per capita household consumption, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Moldovan retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 337: Moldova: Retail sales, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 338: Moldova: Retail sales breakdown, 2015-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Major retailers in Moldova
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 339: Moldova: Leading retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Netherlands

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Dutch retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Netherlands in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 340: The Netherlands: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 341: The Netherlands: Population, by age and gender, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 342: The Netherlands: Number of households, by household size, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 343: The Netherlands: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 344: The Netherlands: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 345: The Netherlands: Household consumption expenditure, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 346: The Netherlands: Breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Dutch retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 347: The Netherlands: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 348: The Netherlands: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in the Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 349: The Netherlands: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 350: The Netherlands: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in the Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 351: The Netherlands: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 352: The Netherlands: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 353: The Netherlands: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 354: The Netherlands: Leading DIY specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Furniture and homeware specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 355: The Netherlands: Leading furniture specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 356: The Netherlands: Leading electrical specialists. 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Health and beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 357: The Netherlands: Leading health and beauty specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 358: The Netherlands: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 359: The Netherlands: Leading home shopping retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Norway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Norwegian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Norway in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 360: Norway: Population, by gender, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 361: Norway: Population, by age group and gender, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 362: Norway: Households, by size, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 363: Norway: Population, by county, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 364: Norway: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 365: Norway: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 366: Norway: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 367: Norway: Breakdown of consumer spending by category (incl. VAT), 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Norwegian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 368: Norway: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 369: Norway: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 370: Norway: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 371: Norway: Online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Major retailers in Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 372: Norway: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 373: Norway: Leading mixed goods retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 374: Norway: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 375: Norway: Leading DIY specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 376: Norway: Leading furniture specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 377: Norway: Leading electrical specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 378: Norway: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 379: Norway: Leading cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 380: Norway: Leading home-shopping retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Poland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Polish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Poland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 381: Poland: Population, by gender, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 382: Poland: Population, by age group, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 383: Poland: Population, by region, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 384: Poland: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 385: Poland: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 386: Poland: Household consumption expenditure, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 387: Poland: Breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Polish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 388: Poland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 389: Poland: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 390: Poland: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 391: Poland: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 392: Poland: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 393: Poland: Leading non-food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Portugal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Portuguese retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Portugal in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 394: Portugal: Population, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 395: Portugal: Population, by age group, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 396: Portugal: population, by region, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 397: Portugal: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 398: Portugal: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 399: Portugal: Resident households final consumption expenditure, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 400: Portugal: Breakdown of resident households final consumption expenditure, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Portuguese retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 401: Portugal: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 402: Portugal: Selective breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 403: Portugal: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 404: Portugal: Online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Major retailers in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 405: Portugal: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 406: Portugal: Leading non-food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Romania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Romanian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Romania in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 407: Romania: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 408: Romania: Resident population by age and gender, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 409: Romania: Resident population, by region, 2013-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 410: Romania: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 411: Romania: Consumer price inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 412: Romania: Households consumption expenditure, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 413: Romania: Average monthly household spending on goods and services, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Romanian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 414: Romania: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 415: Romania: Breakdown of retail sales, by sector (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 416: Romania: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2009-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 417: Romania: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 418: Romania: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 419: Romania: Major non-food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Russia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Russian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Russia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 420: Russia: Population, by gender, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 421: Russia: Population, by age group, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 422: Russia: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 423: Russia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 424: Russia: Households consumption expenditure, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Russian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 425: Russia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2011-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 426: Russia: Retail sales, by broad sector (excl. VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 427: Russia: Selected information society indicators, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 428: Russia: E-commerce retail market by segment, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Leading retailers in Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 429: Russia: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 430: Russia: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 431: Russia: Leading electrical specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Furniture and DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 432: Russia: Leading furniture and DIY specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 433: Russia: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 434: Russia: Other identified retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Serbia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Serbian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Serbia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 435: Serbia: Population, by gender, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 436: Serbia: Population, by age group, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 437: Serbia: Population, by region, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 438: Serbia: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 439: Serbia: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 440: Serbia: Household consumption expenditure, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 441: Serbia: Breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Serbian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 442: Serbia, Retail sales, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Major retailers in Serbia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 443: Serbia: Major retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Slovakia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Slovak retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Slovakia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 444: Slovakia: Population, by gender, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 445: Slovakia: Population, by age group and gender, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 446: Slovakia: Population, by region, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 447: Slovakia: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 448: Slovakia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 449: Slovakia: Final consumption of households, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 450: Slovakia: Expenditures of households, euro/person/month, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Slovak retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 451: Slovakia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 452: Slovakia: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Slovakia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 453: Slovakia: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2008-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 454: Slovakia: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Slovakia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 455: Slovakia: Major retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Slovenia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Slovenian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Slovenia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 456: Slovenia: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 457: Slovenia: Population, by age group, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 458: Slovenia: Population, by region, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 459: Slovenia: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 460: Slovenia: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 461: Slovenia: Household Consumption expenditure, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 462: Slovenia: Breakdown of household Consumption expenditure, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Slovenian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 463: Slovenia: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 464: Slovenia: Breakdown of retail sales, excl. VAT, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Slovenia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 465: Slovenia: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 466: Slovenia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in Slovenia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 467: Slovenia: Leading retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Spain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Spanish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Spain in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 468: Spain: Population, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 469: Spain: Population, by age group and gender, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 470: Spain: Population, by autonomous community, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 471: Spain: Gross domestic product, 2005-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 472: Spain: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 473: Spain: Consumer spending (incl VAT), 2005-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 474: Spain: Breakdown of consumer spending by detailed category (incl VAT), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Spanish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 475: Spain: Retail sales (excl VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 476: Spain: Retail sales breakdown (excl VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Enterprises and unemployment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 477: Spain: Number of retail enterprises, by sector, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 478: Spain: Number of full time employed, by retail sector, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 479: Spain: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 480: Spain: Online purchases of goods in last 12 months - % of all individuals, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Major retailers in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 481: Spain: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 482: Spain: Leading department stores and mixed goods retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 483: Spain: Leading clothing specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 484: Spain: Leading DIY specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Electrical, furniture and household goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 485: Spain: Leading electrical, furniture and household goods specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 486: Spain: Leading beauty specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 487: Spain: Miscellaneous specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 488: Spain, online-only retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 489: Major shopping centres, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sweden

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Swedish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sweden in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 490: Sweden: Population, by gender, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 491: Sweden: Population, by age group and gender, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 492: Sweden: Households, by size, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 493: Sweden: Population, by county, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 494: Sweden: Gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 495: Sweden: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 496: Sweden: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 497: Sweden: Breakdown of consumer spending by category (incl. VAT), 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Swedish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 498: Sweden: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 499: Sweden: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 500: Sweden: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 501: Sweden: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 502: Sweden: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 503: Sweden: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 504: Sweden: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 505: Sweden: Leading DIY specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 506: Sweden: Leading furniture specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 507: Sweden: Leading electrical specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 508: Sweden: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 509: Sweden: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 510: Sweden: Leading home shopping retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Switzerland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Swiss retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Switzerland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 511: Switzerland: Population, by age group, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 512: Switzerland: Population, by region, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 513: Switzerland: Gross domestic product, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 514: Switzerland: Harmonised indices of consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 515: Switzerland: Households consumption expenditure (incl. VAT), 2006-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Swiss retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 516: Switzerland: Retail sales (excl. VAT and fuel), 2012-17 (f)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 517: Switzerland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 518: Switzerland: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Major retailers in Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 519: Switzerland: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Department stores and clothing retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 520: Switzerland: Leading clothing and department store retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Household goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 521: Switzerland: Leading household goods specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 522: Switzerland: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 523: Switzerland: Leading miscellaneous specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 524: Switzerland: Major online and home shopping retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Turkey

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Turkish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Turkey in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 525: Turkey: Population, by gender, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 526: Turkey: Population, by age group, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 527: Turkey, gross domestic product, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 528: Turkey: Harmonised indices of consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 529: Turkey: Consumer spending by resident households (incl VAT), 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 530: Turkey: Breakdown of consumer spending, by broad category (incl VAT), 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Turkish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 531: Turkey: Retail sales (excl VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 532: Turkey: Retail sales breakdown (excl VAT), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 533: Turkey: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 534: Turkey: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 535: Turkey: Identified leading retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • UK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The UK retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The UK in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 536: UK: Population, by gender, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 537: UK: Population, by age group, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 538: UK: Number of households, by household size, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 539: UK: Population, by region, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 540: UK: Gross domestic product, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 541: UK: Consumer prices inflation, % change on the previous year, 2011-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 542: UK: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 543: UK: Breakdown of household’s consumption expenditure, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • UK retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 544: UK: Retail sales (excl fuel), 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 545: UK: Retail sales (excl. VAT): Detailed sales breakdown, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in the UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 546: UK: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 547: UK: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in the UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 548: UK: Leading food retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 549: UK: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 550: UK: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 551: UK: Leading DIY specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 552: UK: Leading furniture and carpet specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 553: UK: Leading electrical specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 554: UK: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 555: UK: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online and other home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 556: UK: Leading home shopping retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 557: UK: Major shopping centres, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ukraine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Ukrainian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ukraine in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 558: Ukraine: Resident population, by age group, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 559: Ukraine: Resident population, by gender, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 560: Ukraine: Gross domestic product, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 561: Ukraine: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 562: Ukraine: Consumer expenditure, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 563: Ukraine: Final consumption expenditure of households, by purpose, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ukrainian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 564: Ukraine: Retail sales, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in Ukraine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 565: Ukraine: Leading retailers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Companies Covered

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bricorama
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Conforama
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Showroomprive.com

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            European Retail Handbook - September 2017

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            US $2,002.85 (Excl.Tax)