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Impact of The Recession on Media Usage - UK - January 2010

  • Almost nine out of ten adult internet users are surfing the net more at home in response to the recession. This reflects the fact that it is an extremely cost-effective – and usually fixed-price - method of accessing a wide variety of media.
  • Other popular responses to the recession include recording films off TV to watch later as a substitute for renting DVDs (44%), reading free newspapers and magazines instead of paid-for publications (43% and 34% respectively) and downloading free rather than paid-for music and podcasts (20% and 13% respectively).
  • An HDTV is the item people are most likely to be deferring the purchase of in response to the recession, cited by nearly one in five adults. Generally, it is upgrades to existing technology that they already own which are the biggest casualties of recessionary cutbacks.
  • Consumers are still prepared to spend money on media that is important to them. A laptop is the item people are most likely to be buying despite the recession. Almost one in three adults have bought one since the recession began.
  • Other recession-driven switching behaviour includes moving away from buying paid-for newspapers, towards using their websites (one in six adults have done this) while with magazines one in seven have switched to using websites – both those of the magazine itself and also specialist websites and forums.
  • Families with children have cut back most on their media usage. This sector tends to be heavy users of media but also have large regular financial commitments and concerns about job security and pay.
  • Not all consumers have been adversely impacted by the recession. The principal beneficiaries are people from the younger and older age groups, as well as those who have seen their mortgage repayments contract in line with the base rate. These consumers are among the most likely to have used media more heavily and bought items despite the recession.

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Table of contents

  1. Issues in the Market

      • Main issues
        • Definition
          • Abbreviations
          • Future Opportunities

            • The age of the screen
              • The art of conversation, not lecturing
                • Turning the media industry upside-down
                  • Wiki Times?
                  • Market in Brief

                    • Consumers migrate towards free content in recession
                      • Figure 1: Graphical summary of impact of recession on consumers’ media usage, November 2009
                    • A multi-faceted approach
                      • Increased home internet most prevalent among newspaper buyers
                        • Other examples of switching from paid-for to free content evident
                          • Purchases deferred as well
                            • Satellite/cable TV not immune
                              • Families with children likely to be hardest hit
                              • Internal Market Environment

                                • Key points
                                  • Netting more customers
                                    • Figure 2: Trends in British internet penetration at home/work/place of study or elsewhere, 2004-09
                                  • New media: The rise of free content
                                    • The rise and rise of the freesheet
                                      • London: Template for the future or vision of Armageddon for the newspaper industry?
                                        • New titles still being launched
                                          • Magazines take their cue from newspapers too
                                            • Traditional media owners struggle to find a business model that works
                                              • The growth of streamed and downloaded media
                                                • Figure 3: Trends in watching/downloading of video, 2008-09
                                                • Figure 4: Trends in downloading of and listening to music online, 2008-09
                                            • Broader Market Environment

                                              • Key points
                                                • The historical impact of recession
                                                  • Figure 5: Percentage changes in selected areas of discretionary expenditure, at current and constant prices, 1989-94
                                                  • Figure 6: Trends in quarterly GDP change, 2004-09
                                                  • Figure 7: GDP, PDI, consumer expenditure and savings, at constant 2004 prices, 2004-14
                                                • Consumer confidence dips again after recent increases
                                                  • Figure 8: Trends in consumer confidence, 2008-09
                                                • Rising unemployment still plays on consumers’ minds
                                                  • Figure 9: UK unemployment rates (seasonally adjusted), 2004-09
                                                  • Figure 10: UK unemployment rates, by age band (seasonally adjusted), June-August 2009
                                                  • Figure 11: Agreement with statements about changes in employment situation in past year, July 2009
                                                • Recession good for some
                                                  • Figure 12: How recession has affected consumers’ overall financial situation compared to a year ago, November 2009
                                                  • Figure 13: Trends in the Bank of England base rate, January 2008-November 2009
                                                  • Figure 14: Consumers’ financial situation at the moment, November 2009
                                                • Population trends offer mixed blessings
                                                  • Figure 15: Trends in the age structure of the UK population, by gender, 2004-14
                                                  • Figure 16: Forecast adult population trends, by socio-economic group, 2004-14
                                                  • Figure 17: UK household sizes, 2004-14
                                              • Competitive Context

                                                • Key points
                                                  • Spending on media a relatively small part of total
                                                    • Figure 18: Recreation & culture and communications within total household expenditure, 2008
                                                    • Figure 19: Household expenditure on media usage, by broad category, 2008
                                                  • TV is dominant force
                                                    • Internet offers value alternative
                                                      • Figure 20: Household expenditure on media usage, by detailed category, 2008
                                                    • The shift from out-of-home to in-home
                                                    • What Media do Consumers Use?

                                                      • Key points
                                                          • Figure 21: Usage of media and technology – Regularly, November 2009
                                                        • Subscription TV viewers
                                                          • Sky TV viewers
                                                            • Virgin Media viewers
                                                              • Radio listeners
                                                                • Magazine readers
                                                                  • Newspaper buyers/readers
                                                                    • Internet users
                                                                    • How has the Recession Impacted on Media Usage?

                                                                      • Key points
                                                                        • Summary
                                                                          • Figure 22: Things people are doing in response to the recession, based only on consumers who have changed their media use in response to the recession, November 2009
                                                                        • Things people are doing more
                                                                          • Figure 23: Media being used more often now in response to the recession, November 2009
                                                                        • Surfing the net at home
                                                                          • Recording films off TV to watch later
                                                                            • Reading free newpapers and magazines
                                                                              • Downloading free podcasts and music
                                                                                • Number of media being used more often in response to the recession
                                                                                  • Figure 24: Number of media being used more often in response to the recession, November 2009
                                                                                  • Figure 25: Number of media being used more often in response to the recession, by media being used more often, November 2009
                                                                                • Newspaper buyers and radio listeners most likely to be surfing net more
                                                                                  • Figure 26: Media being used more often in response to the recession, by regular usage of media and technology, November 2009
                                                                                • Clear evidence of switching from paid-for to free content
                                                                                  • Figure 27: Media being used more often in response to the recession, by the most popular media being used less often, November 2009
                                                                                  • Figure 28: Media being used more often in response to the recession, by the next most popular media being used less often, November 2009
                                                                                  • Figure 29: Media being used more often in response to the recession, by other popular media being used less often, November 2009
                                                                                • Other considerations influencing things people are doing more of
                                                                                  • Mortgage holders have it taped
                                                                                    • But some are better off in the recession
                                                                                      • Overpayers still better off?
                                                                                        • Things people are doing less
                                                                                          • Figure 30: Media being used less often now in response to the recession, November 2009
                                                                                        • Polarisation among those doing less
                                                                                          • Figure 31: Number of media being used less often now in response to the recession, November 2009
                                                                                          • Figure 32: Number of media being used less often in response to the recession, by type of media being used less often, November 2009
                                                                                          • Figure 33: Media being used less often in response to the recession, by regular usage of media and technology, November 2009
                                                                                        • Further evidence of substitution of paid-for media with free alternatives
                                                                                          • Figure 34: Media being used less often in response to the recession, by the most popular media being used more often, November 2009
                                                                                          • Figure 35: Media being used less often in response to the recession, by the net most popular media being used more often, November 2009
                                                                                          • Figure 36: Media being used less often in response to the recession, by other media being used more often, November 2009
                                                                                        • Other factors influencing people doing less of things in the recession
                                                                                          • Personal loan = cutbacks
                                                                                            • Print and music bear brunt of cutbacks for those worse off
                                                                                              • Trying to make ends meet means biggest cutbacks
                                                                                                • Household income bigger factor than debt in curbing media usage
                                                                                                • The Impact of the Recession on Purchases

                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                    • HDTV tops list of purchases deferred because of recession
                                                                                                      • Figure 37: Consumer durables not bought due to recession, November 2009
                                                                                                    • The influence of media usage of deferral of purchases
                                                                                                      • Laptops most popular item bought despite recession
                                                                                                        • Figure 38: Consumer durables bought despite recession, November 2009
                                                                                                      • The ratio between deferred purchasing and purchases made
                                                                                                        • Figure 39: Ratio between deferred purchasing and purchases made despite recession, November 2009
                                                                                                    • Recession-driven Behaviour and Intentions

                                                                                                      • Key points
                                                                                                        • Figure 40: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, November 2009
                                                                                                      • Print sector bears the brunt...
                                                                                                        • Mags more resilient?
                                                                                                          • TV another target but churn is accepted aspect of business
                                                                                                            • Most have cut back in just one area
                                                                                                              • Figure 41: Repertoire of statements on cutting back to save money during recession, November 2009
                                                                                                              • Figure 42: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by repertoire of statements on cutting back to save money during recession, November 2009
                                                                                                            • The influence of media usage on measures to save money in a recession
                                                                                                            • Appendix – Internal Market Environment

                                                                                                                • Figure 43: Trends in British internet penetration at home/work/place of study or elsewhere, 2004-09
                                                                                                                • Figure 44: Trends in watching/downloading of video, 2008-09
                                                                                                                • Figure 45: Trends in downloading of and listening to music online, 2008-09
                                                                                                            • Appendix – Broader Market Environment

                                                                                                                • Figure 46: Trends in selected areas of discretionary expenditure, at current and constant prices, 1989-94
                                                                                                                • Figure 47: UK unemployment rates (seasonally adjusted), 2004-09
                                                                                                                • Figure 48: UK unemployment rates, by age band (seasonally adjusted), June-August 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 49: How recession has affected consumers’ overall financial situation compared to a year ago, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 50: Consumers’ financial situation at the moment, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 51: Trends in the age structure of the UK population, by gender, 2004-14
                                                                                                                • Figure 52: Forecast adult population trends, by socio-economic group, 2004-14
                                                                                                                • Figure 53: UK household sizes, 2004-14
                                                                                                            • Appendix – Competitive Context

                                                                                                                • Figure 54: Recreation & culture and communications within total household expenditure, 2008
                                                                                                                • Figure 55: Household expenditure on media usage, by detailed category, 2008
                                                                                                            • Appendix – What Media do Consumers Use?

                                                                                                                • Figure 56: Most popular usage of media and technology (TV viewers) – Regularly by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 57: Next most popular usage of media and technology (TV viewers) – Regularly by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 58: Usage of media and technology (radio listeners) – Regularly by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 59: Usage of media and technology (newspaper readers) – Regularly by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 60: Usage of media and technology (internet users) – Regularly by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 61: Most popular usage of media and technology (TV viewers) – Occasionally by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 62: Next most popular usage of media and technology (TV viewers) – Occasionally by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 63: Usage of media and technology (radio listeners) – Occasionally by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 64: Usage of media and technology (newspaper readers) – Occasionally by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 65: Usage of media and technology (internet users) – Occasionally by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 66: Most popular usage of media and technology (TV viewers) – All users by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 67: Next most popular usage of media and technology (TV viewers) – All users by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 68: Usage of media and technology (radio listeners) – All users by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 69: Usage of media and technology (newspaper readers) – All users by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 70: Usage of media and technology (internet users) – All users by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 71: Usage of media and technology – Regularly by usage of media and technology – Regularly (TV Viewers), November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 72: Usage of media and technology – Regularly by usage of media and technology – Regularly (TV Viewers), November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 73: Usage of media and technology – Regularly by usage of media and technology – Regularly (radio Listeners), November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 74: Usage of media and technology – Regularly by usage of media and technology – Regularly (newspaper readers), November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 75: Usage of media and technology – Regularly by usage of media and technology – Regularly (internet users), November 2009
                                                                                                            • Appendix – How Has the Recession Impacted on Media Usage?

                                                                                                              • Media consumers are using more often
                                                                                                                • Figure 76: Most popular media being used more often in response to the recession, by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 77: Next most popular media being used more often in response to the recession, by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 78: Other most popular media being used more often in response to the recession, by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 79: Repertoire of media being used more often in response to the recession, by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 80: Media being used more often in response to the recession by most popular regular TV viewing habits, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 81: Media being used more often in response to the recession, by next most popular regular TV viewing habits, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 82: Media being used more often in response to the recession, by regular radio listening habits, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 83: Media being used more often in response to the recession, by regular newspaper and magazine readership habits, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 84: Media being used more often in response to the recession, by regular internet usage habits, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 85: Media being used more often in response to the recession, by finance product ownership, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 86: Media being used more often in response to the recession, by most popular current financial situation, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 87: Media being used more often in response to the recession, by next most popular current financial situation, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 88: Media being used more often in response to the recession, by other current financial situation, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 89: Media being used more often in response to the recession, by least popular current financial situation, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 90: Media being used more often in response to the recession, by agreement with future financial statements, November 2009
                                                                                                              • Media consumers are using less often
                                                                                                                • Figure 91: Most popular media being used less often in response to the recession, by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 92: Next most popular media being used less often in response to the recession, by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 93: Other media being used less often in response to the recession, by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 94: Repertoire of media being used less often in response to the recession, by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 95: Media being used less often in response to the recession by most popular regular tv viewing habits, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 96: Media being used less often in response to the recession by next most popular regular tv viewing habits, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 97: Media being used less often in response to the recession, by regular radio listening habits, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 98: Media being used less often in response to the recession, by regular newspaper and magazine readership habits, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 99: Media being used less often in response to the recession, by regular internet usage habits, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 100: Media being used less often in response to the recession, by most popular financial products owned, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 101: Media being used less often in response to the recession, by most popular current financial situation, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 102: Media being used less often in response to the recession, by next most popular current financial situation, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 103: Media being used less often in response to the recession, by other current financial situation, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 104: Media being used less often in response to the recession, by least popular current financial situation, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 105: Media being used less often in response to the recession, by agreement with future financial statements, November 2009
                                                                                                            • Appendix – The Impact of Recession on Purchases

                                                                                                              • Purchases deferred because of the recession
                                                                                                                • Figure 106: Most popular consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 107: Next most popular consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 108: Consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by most popular regular TV viewing habits, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 109: Consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by other regular TV viewing habits, November 2009 (continued)
                                                                                                                • Figure 110: Consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by regular radio listening habits, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 111: Consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by regular magazine and newspaper habits, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 112: Consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by most popular media being used more often, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 113: Consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by next most popular media being used more often, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 114: Consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by other media being used more often, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 115: Consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by most popular media being used less often, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 116: Consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by next most popular media being used less often, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 117: Consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by other media being used less often, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 118: Consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by most popular consumer durable deferred purchase, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 119: Consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by next most popular consumer durable deferred purchase, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 120: Consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by financial products owned, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 121: Consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by most popular present financial situation, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 122: Consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by next most popular present financial situation, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 123: Consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by most popular change of financial priorities over last year, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 124: Consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by next most popular change of financial priorities over last year, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 125: Consumer durable deferred purchase due to recession, by agreement with future financial statements, November 2009
                                                                                                              • Purchases made despite the recession
                                                                                                                • Figure 126: Most popular consumer durable bought despite recession, by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 127: Next most popular consumer durable bought, by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 128: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by most popular regular TV viewing habits, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 129: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by next most popular regular TV viewing habits, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 130: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by regular radio listening habits, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 131: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by regular magazine and newspaper habits, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 132: Consumer durable bought by Usage of media and technology – Regularly, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 133: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by most popular media being used more often, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 134: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by next most popular media being used more often, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 135: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by other media being used more often, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 136: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by most popular media being used less often, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 137: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by next most popular media being used less often, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 138: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by other media being used less often, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 139: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by most popular consumer durable bought despite recession, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 140: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by next most popular consumer durable bought despite recession, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 141: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by financial products owned, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 142: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by present financial situation, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 143: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by present financial situation, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 144: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by most popular change of financial priorities over last year, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 145: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by next most popular change of financial priorities over last year, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 146: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by most popular agreement with future financial statements, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 147: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by next most popular agreement with future financial statements, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 148: Consumer durable bought despite recession, by agreement with future financial statements, November 2009
                                                                                                            • Appendix – Recession-driven Behaviour and Intentions

                                                                                                                • Figure 149: Most popular statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 150: Next most popular statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 151: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by demographics (newspaper), November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 152: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by demographics (magazines), November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 153: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by demographics (satellite/cable TV), November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 154: Repertoire of statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by demographics, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 155: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by most popular usage of media and technology – Regularly (TV viewers), November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 156: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by next most popular usage of media and technology – Regularly (TV viewers), November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 157: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by usage of media and technology – Regularly (radio listeners), November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 158: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by usage of media and technology – Regularly, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 159: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession (nets), by statements on cutting back to save money during recession (nets), November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 160: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by usage of media and technology – Regularly, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 161: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by most popular things do response to the recession – Do more now, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 162: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by next most popular things do response to the recession – Do more now, November 2009 (continued)
                                                                                                                • Figure 163: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by other things do response to the recession – Do more now, November 2009 (continued)
                                                                                                                • Figure 164: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by most popular things do response to the recession – Do less now, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 165: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by next most popular things do response to the recession – Do less now, November 2009 (continued)
                                                                                                                • Figure 166: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by other things do response to the recession – Do less now, November 2009 (continued)
                                                                                                                • Figure 167: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by most popular statements on cutting back to save money during recession, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 168: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by next most popular statements on cutting back to save money during recession, November 2009 (continued)
                                                                                                                • Figure 169: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by own financial products, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 170: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by financial situation at the moment, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 171: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by impact of recession on financial situation, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 172: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by most popular change of financial priorities over last year, November 2009
                                                                                                                • Figure 173: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by next most popular change of financial priorities over last year, November 2009 (continued)
                                                                                                                • Figure 174: Statements on cutting back to save money during recession, by list of factors looking into future, November 2009

                                                                                                            Companies Covered

                                                                                                            • Aldi Stores Ltd (UK & Ireland)
                                                                                                            • Apple Computer UK Ltd
                                                                                                            • Asda Group Ltd
                                                                                                            • Associated Newspapers Ltd
                                                                                                            • Audit Bureau of Circulations
                                                                                                            • Bank of England
                                                                                                            • Blockbuster Entertainment Ltd (UK)
                                                                                                            • British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
                                                                                                            • British Sky Broadcasting Group plc (BSkyB)
                                                                                                            • BT Group plc
                                                                                                            • Co-operative Group
                                                                                                            • Daily Mail
                                                                                                            • Daily Mail and General Trust Group plc
                                                                                                            • Evening Standard
                                                                                                            • Financial Times Group
                                                                                                            • Freeview
                                                                                                            • French Connection (Retail)
                                                                                                            • Government Actuary's Department (GAD)
                                                                                                            • Guardian Media Group
                                                                                                            • J. Sainsbury
                                                                                                            • Lidl (UK)
                                                                                                            • LOVEFiLM International Ltd
                                                                                                            • Market & Opinion Research International (MORI)
                                                                                                            • Marks & Spencer
                                                                                                            • Metro (The)
                                                                                                            • mmO2 plc
                                                                                                            • Napster Inc.
                                                                                                            • Netto Foodstores Ltd
                                                                                                            • News International PLC
                                                                                                            • Nokia Corporation (UK)
                                                                                                            • Observer (The)
                                                                                                            • Orange plc (UK)
                                                                                                            • Research in Motion Uk Ltd.
                                                                                                            • T-Mobile (UK) Ltd
                                                                                                            • talkSPORT
                                                                                                            • Telegraph Group Limited
                                                                                                            • Tesco Plc
                                                                                                            • The Sunday Times
                                                                                                            • The Times Newspaper
                                                                                                            • Tiscali UK
                                                                                                            • Trinity Mirror plc
                                                                                                            • Twitter, Inc.
                                                                                                            • UTV
                                                                                                            • Virgin Group Ltd.
                                                                                                            • Virgin Media Ltd
                                                                                                            • Virgin Mobile
                                                                                                            • Vodafone Group Plc (UK)
                                                                                                            • Waitrose
                                                                                                            • Wm Morrison Supermarkets
                                                                                                            • YouTube, Inc.

                                                                                                            Impact of The Recession on Media Usage - UK - January 2010

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