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Lifestyles of the Under- and Unemployed - US - July 2013

“Many Americans have not recovered from the financial impact of the Great Recession resulting in a rise in the percentage of Americans who are downwardly mobile. These adults need products and services commonly associated with a middle-class lifestyle buy at budget rates as well as services (childcare, transportation) that extend their hours of operation to support those working non-traditional hours.”

– Fiona O’Donnell, Senior Lifestyles & Leisure Analyst

Some issues addressed in this report include:

  • Downward mobility
  • Contingent workforce
  • Mismatched skills
  • Job creation

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Table of contents

  1. Scope and Themes

    • What you need to know
      • Definitions
        • Mintel’s consumer survey
          • Experian Marketing Services consumer survey
            • Bureau of Labor Statistics survey of households
              • Data sources
                • Demographic data
                  • Consumer survey data
                    • Abbreviations and terms
                      • Abbreviations
                        • Terms
                        • Executive Summary

                            • The new normal: high underemployment
                              • Figure 1: Unemployment rate (percent) actual and projected, 2007-17
                            • Market drivers
                              • Figure 2: GDP (percent change from previous period), Q1 2007-Q3 2013
                            • Profile of the under- and unemployed based on BLS definitions
                              • Unemployed
                                • Underemployed
                                  • Profile of the under- and unemployed based on Mintel’s expanded definition
                                    • Marketing strategies
                                      • Issues and insights
                                        • Consumer research highlights
                                          • Attitudes toward debt
                                            • Figure 3: Select attitudes toward debt, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, April 2013
                                          • Methods for saving money on groceries
                                            • Figure 4: Methods for saving money on groceries, by underemployed and unemployed, April 2013
                                          • What we think
                                          • Issues and Insights

                                              • Downward mobility
                                                • The issues:
                                                  • The implications:
                                                    • Contingent workforce
                                                      • The issues:
                                                        • The implications:
                                                          • Mismatched skills
                                                            • The issues:
                                                              • The implications:
                                                                • Job creation
                                                                  • The issues:
                                                                    • The implications:
                                                                    • Trend Application

                                                                        • Inspire Trend: Let’s Make a Deal
                                                                          • Inspire Trend: Nouveau Poor
                                                                            • Mintel Futures: Access Anything, Anywhere
                                                                            • Market Drivers

                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                • “Great Recession” and economic doldrums
                                                                                  • Figure 5: GDP (percent change from previous period), Q1 2007-Q1 2013
                                                                                  • Figure 6: Inflation-adjusted “real” GDP, 2007-17
                                                                                • “Jobless” recovery
                                                                                  • Figure 7: Unemployment and underemployment rate, January 2007-April 2013
                                                                                  • Figure 8: Monthly net change in non-farm payroll, January 2005-May 2013
                                                                                  • Figure 9: Unemployment rate (percent) actual and projected, 2007-17
                                                                                • Government spending
                                                                                  • Stimulus
                                                                                    • Figure 10: Net annual change in public sector jobs, 2003-13
                                                                                  • Sequestration
                                                                                    • Shift to contingent workforce
                                                                                      • Figure 11: Workforce changes over next five years, 2011
                                                                                    • Skills and occupational mismatch
                                                                                    • Overview – Under- and Unemployed

                                                                                      • Key points
                                                                                        • More than 23 million adults are underemployed
                                                                                          • The ranks of the long-term unemployed remain high
                                                                                            • Figure 12: Annual average number of unemployed and underemployed persons, by category, 2006-May 2013
                                                                                        • Profile of the Unemployed

                                                                                          • Key points
                                                                                            • Downturn hits men somewhat harder than women
                                                                                              • Figure 13: Number and rate of unemployment aged 16 and over, by gender, 2012
                                                                                            • Unemployment disproportionately affecting young adults
                                                                                              • Figure 14: Rate of unemployment by share of labor force aged 16 and over, by age and gender, 2012
                                                                                            • Blacks much more likely to be unemployed
                                                                                              • Figure 15: Rate of unemployment by share of labor force aged 16 and over, by race and Hispanic origin, 2012
                                                                                            • Construction and leisure and hospitality industries lead joblessness
                                                                                              • Figure 16: Rate of unemployment by share of labor force aged 16 and over, by select industries and gender, 2012
                                                                                          • Profile of the Underemployed

                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                              • About one in seven adults aged 16+ are considered underemployed
                                                                                                • Figure 17: Rate of underemployment aged 16 and over, by gender, December 2012
                                                                                              • Educational attainment key factor in underemployment
                                                                                                • Figure 18: Rate of underemployment aged 16 and over, by educational attainment, December 2012
                                                                                              • Blacks and Hispanics disproportionately underemployed
                                                                                                • Figure 19: Rate of unemployment by share of labor force aged 16 and over, by race/Hispanic origin, December 2012
                                                                                            • Types of Stores Shopped

                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                • Walmart is dominant store outlet for the under- or unemployed
                                                                                                  • Figure 20: Stores shopped, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                • Unemployed favor Walmart and Dollar Stores over other value options
                                                                                                  • Figure 21: Stores shopped, by underemployed and unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                • More than 40% of under- or unemployed men shop at electronics stores
                                                                                                  • Figure 22: Stores shopped, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed by gender, April 2013
                                                                                              • Innovations and Innovators

                                                                                                • Overview
                                                                                                  • Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and online education
                                                                                                    • Freelancers Union
                                                                                                      • Talent exchanges
                                                                                                        • The return of layaway plan
                                                                                                          • Citi Simplicity credit card
                                                                                                            • United Colors of Bennetton
                                                                                                              • Starbucks, “Create Jobs for USA”
                                                                                                              • Marketing Strategies

                                                                                                                • Overview
                                                                                                                  • Value-priced products need not reek cheap
                                                                                                                    • Pricing tiers for national brands
                                                                                                                      • Loyalty programs that reward with discounts on essentials
                                                                                                                        • Coupons, deals, and other promotional pricing
                                                                                                                        • Employment Status Details

                                                                                                                          • Key points
                                                                                                                            • Difficult choices: take less pay or lower skilled work, or be out of work
                                                                                                                              • Figure 23: Under- and unemployment details, April 2013
                                                                                                                            • An expanded definition of underemployment results in up to 63.2 million adults
                                                                                                                              • Figure 24: Under- and unemployment details, by age, April 2013
                                                                                                                            • Many of the underemployed are taking a job requiring a lower skill level
                                                                                                                              • Figure 25: Details of underemployed, by gender and age groups, April 2012
                                                                                                                          • Life Events in the Past Year

                                                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                                                              • Employment downgrades lead to major career changes
                                                                                                                                • Figure 26: Job-related life events experienced in the last 12 months, by experienced employment downgrade in the last 12 months, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                              • Job upheaval high for adults who faced a death in the family
                                                                                                                                • Figure 27: Life events experienced in the last 12 months, by experienced employment downgrade in the last 12 months, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                            • Expectations for the Coming Year

                                                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                                                • Majority of laid off adults are worse off today than a year ago
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 28: Economic situation compared with 12 months ago and outlook for the next 12 months, by experienced employment downgrade in the last 12 months, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                                • Under- and unemployed are pessimistic about job prospects
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 29: Employment-related events experienced in the last 12 months, by events expect to experience in the next 12 months, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                              • Use of Employment-related Websites

                                                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                                                  • Laid off or downgraded adults likely to use employment websites
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 30: Visitation to employment and research/education websites, by experienced employment downgrade in the last 12 months, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                                  • CareerBuilder most-visited employment website
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 31: Employment websites visited, by experienced employment downgrade in the last 12 months, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                                • Household Financial Situation

                                                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                                                    • Underemployment may have long-lasting financial implications
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 32: Household financial situation, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                    • Unemployed face financial hurdles
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 33: Household financial situation, by underemployed and unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                    • Women may face greater financial consequences in the long run
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 34: Household financial situation, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed by gender, April 2013
                                                                                                                                  • Attitudes Toward Debt

                                                                                                                                    • Key points
                                                                                                                                      • Taking responsibility for debt is universal; anxiety about it is not
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 35: Attitudes toward debt, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                      • Unemployed slightly different views about debt than the underemployed
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 36: Attitudes toward debt, by underemployed and unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                      • Under- and unemployed adults 18-44 view debt harshly
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 37: Attitudes toward debt, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed by age group, April 2013
                                                                                                                                    • Savings Behaviors

                                                                                                                                      • Key points
                                                                                                                                        • Under- and unemployed adults are living on the edge
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 38: Savings behaviors, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                        • Many underemployed have little or no liquid savings
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 39: Savings behaviors, by underemployed and unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                        • Little to fall back on for under- or unemployed aged 45+
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 40: Savings behaviors, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by age group, April 2013
                                                                                                                                      • Methods for Saving Money on Groceries

                                                                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                                                                          • Like most consumers, the under- or unemployed take price-saving actions
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 41: Methods for saving money on groceries, by underemployed and unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                          • Under- or unemployed women most likely look for sale items first
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 42: Methods for saving money on groceries, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by gender, April 2013
                                                                                                                                        • Frequency of Purchasing Store Brands

                                                                                                                                          • Key points
                                                                                                                                            • Under- or unemployed more likely to buy store brands
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 43: Frequency of purchasing store brands–always/usually, by net of under- nor unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                            • A change to a job requiring less skill is good for store brand sales
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 44: Frequency of purchasing store brands–always/usually, by details of underemployment and unemployment, April 2013
                                                                                                                                            • Under/unemployed men favor store brands
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 45: Frequency of purchasing store brands–always/usually, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed by gender, April 2013
                                                                                                                                          • Luxuries vs. Essentials

                                                                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                                                                              • Most view healthcare as essential
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 46: Classified as essential, by under- or unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                              • Under- or unemployed men the least likely to say healthcare is essential
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 47: Classified as an essential, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by gender, April 2013
                                                                                                                                              • Generational differences exist for essential items
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 48: Classified as an essential, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by age group, April 2013
                                                                                                                                              • Dining out and cable TV are luxuries worth the cost
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 49: Classified as a luxury worth the cost, by underemployed and unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                              • Employment status has little bearing on TV/movie subscription activity
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 50: TV and movie subscriptions, by underemployed and unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                              • Some differences by gender for luxuries deemed worthy of the cost
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 51: Classified as a luxury worth the cost, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by gender, April 2013
                                                                                                                                            • Lifestyle and Leisure

                                                                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                                                                • More than half of under- or unemployed adults eat a balanced diet
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 52: Lifestyle habits, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                • Job downgrade = more participation in leisure activities
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 53: Leisure activities participated in during the last 12 months, by experienced employment downgrade in the last 12 months, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                                                • Participation rates for hobbies is higher for the under- and unemployed
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 54: Hobbies participated in during the last 12 months, by experienced employment downgrade in the last 12 months, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                                              • Impact of Race and Hispanic Origin

                                                                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                                                                    • Non-white under/unemployed adults more likely to hold underwater mortgage
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 55: Household financial situation, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by white/non-white, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                    • Shared attitudes regarding responsibility for debt
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 56: Attitudes toward debt, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by white/non-white, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                    • Under/unemployed Hispanics more judgmental about debt
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 57: Attitudes toward debt, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by Hispanic origin, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                    • Under- or unemployed whites most likely to look for sales
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 58: Methods for saving money on groceries, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by white/non-white, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                    • Store brands more popular with non-white, under/unemployed adults
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 59: Frequency of purchasing store brands – always/usually, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by white/non-white, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                    • Non-white adults more likely to classify higher education as essential
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 60: Classified as an essential, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by white/non-white, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                    • Education and technology classified as essential for Hispanic underemployed
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 61: Classified as an essential, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by Hispanic origin, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 62: Classified as a luxury worth the cost, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by Hispanic origin, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                  • Appendix – Types of Stores Shopped

                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 63: Stores shopped, by details of underemployment and unemployment, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 64: Stores shopped, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by age group, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 65: Stores shopped, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by household income, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 66: Stores shopped, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by white/non-white, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 67: Stores shopped, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by Hispanic origin, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                  • Appendix – Employment Status Details

                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 68: Under- and unemployment details, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 69: Under- and unemployment details, by gender, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 70: Gender, age, and gender by age, by underemployment details, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 71: Household income, by underemployment details, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 72: Race/Hispanic origin, by underemployment details, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 73: Regions, by underemployment details, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 74: Generations, by underemployment details, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 75: Experienced employment downgrade in the last 12 months, by gender, age, and household income, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 76: Experienced employment downgrade in the last 12 months, by gender and age groups, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 77: Experienced employment downgrade in the last 12 months, by race/Hispanic origin, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 78: Experienced employment downgrade in the last 12 months, by race/Hispanic origin by age groups, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 79: Experienced employment downgrade in the last 12 months, by household size, presence of children in household and marital status by presence of children, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 80: Purchases/investments experienced in the last 12 months, by experienced employment downgrade in the last 12 months, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                                                  • Appendix – Life Events and Expectations

                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 81: Employment status, employment-related events experienced in the last 12 months, and expect to experience in the next 12 months, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 82: Employment status, 2006-12
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 83: Employment-related events experienced in the last 12 months, 2006-12
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 84: Employment-related events expect to experience in the next 12 months, 2006-12
                                                                                                                                                  • Appendix – Household Financial Situation

                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 85: Household financial situation, by details of underemployment and unemployment, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 86: Household financial situation, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by age group, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 87: Household financial situation, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by household income, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                  • Appendix – Attitudes Toward Debt

                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 88: Attitudes toward debt, by details of underemployment and unemployment, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 89: Attitudes toward debt, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by gender, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 90: Attitudes toward debt, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by household income, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                  • Appendix – Savings Behaviors

                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 91: Savings behaviors, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by gender, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 92: Savings behaviors, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by household income, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 93: Savings behaviors, by details of underemployment and unemployment, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                  • Appendix – Methods for Saving Money on Groceries

                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 94: Methods for saving money on groceries, by details of underemployment and unemployment, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 95: Methods for saving money on groceries, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by age group, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 96: Methods for saving money on groceries, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by household income, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                  • Appendix – Frequency of Purchasing Store Brands

                                                                                                                                                    • Always/usually (net)
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 97: Frequency of purchasing store brands – always/usually, by underemployed and unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 98: Frequency of purchasing store brands – always/usually, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by household income, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                    • Always
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 99: Frequency of purchasing store brands – always, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 100: Frequency of purchasing store brands – always, by underemployed and unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 101: Frequency of purchasing store brands – always, by details of underemployment and unemployment, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 102: Frequency of purchasing store brands – always, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by gender, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 103: Frequency of purchasing store brands – always, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by age group, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 104: Frequency of purchasing store brands – always, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by household income, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 105: Frequency of purchasing store brands – always, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by white/nonwhite, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 106: Frequency of purchasing store brands – always, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by Hispanic origin, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 107: Frequency of purchasing store brands – always/usually, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by Hispanic origin, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                  • Appendix – Luxuries vs. Essentials

                                                                                                                                                    • Essential
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 108: Classified as an essential, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 109: Classified as an essential, by details of underemployment and unemployment, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 110: Classified as an essential, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by household income, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                    • Classified as luxury
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 111: Classified as a luxury, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 112: Classified as a luxury, by underemployed and unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 113: Classified as a luxury, by details of underemployment and unemployment, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 114: Classified as a luxury, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by gender, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 115: Classified as a luxury, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by age group, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 116: Classified as a luxury, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by household income, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 117: Classified as a luxury, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by white/nonwhite, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 118: Classified as a luxury, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by Hispanic origin, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                    • Classified as luxury worth the cost
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 119: Classified as a luxury worth the cost, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 120: Classified as a luxury worth the cost, by details of underemployment and unemployment, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 121: Classified as a luxury worth the cost, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by age group, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 122: Classified as a luxury worth the cost, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by household income, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                    • TV and movie subscriptions
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 123: TV and movie subscriptions, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 124: TV and movie subscriptions, by details of underemployment and unemployment, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 125: TV and movie subscriptions, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by gender, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 126: TV and movie subscriptions, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by age group, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 127: TV and movie subscriptions, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by household income, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 128: TV and movie subscriptions, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by white/nonwhite, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 129: TV and movie subscriptions, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by Hispanic origin, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                  • Appendix – Lifestyle and Leisure

                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 130: Lifestyle habits, by underemployed and unemployed, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 131: Lifestyle habits, by details of underemployment and unemployment, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 132: Lifestyle habits, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by gender, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 133: Lifestyle habits, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by age group, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 134: Lifestyle habits, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by household income, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 135: Lifestyle habits, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by white/nonwhite, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 136: Lifestyle habits, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by Hispanic origin, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 137: Memberships, by experienced employment downgrade in the last 12 months, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 138: Hobbies participated in during the last 12 months, experienced employment downgrade in the last 12 months, October 2011-November 2012
                                                                                                                                                  • Appendix – Race or Hispanic Origin

                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 139: Household financial situation, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by Hispanic origin, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 140: Savings behaviors, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by white/nonwhite, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 141: Savings behaviors, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by Hispanic origin, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 142: Methods for saving money on groceries, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by Hispanic origin, April 2013
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 143: Classified as a luxury worth the cost, by net of under- or unemployed and neither under- nor unemployed, by white/nonwhite, April 2013

                                                                                                                                                  Companies Covered

                                                                                                                                                  • Amazon North America
                                                                                                                                                  • Best Buy stores (USA)
                                                                                                                                                  • BJ's Wholesale Club, Inc
                                                                                                                                                  • Casey's General Stores Inc
                                                                                                                                                  • Costco Wholesale Corporation
                                                                                                                                                  • Dillard's, Inc
                                                                                                                                                  • Family Dollar Stores, Inc
                                                                                                                                                  • J C Penney Company, Inc
                                                                                                                                                  • Kohl's Corporation
                                                                                                                                                  • Macy's, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                  • Nordstrom
                                                                                                                                                  • Sears Holdings Corporation
                                                                                                                                                  • Target Corporation
                                                                                                                                                  • Walmart Stores (USA)

                                                                                                                                                  Lifestyles of the Under- and Unemployed - US - July 2013

                                                                                                                                                  £3,277.28 (Excl.Tax)