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Marketing Beauty to Black Women - US - August 2009

In order to successfully market branded beauty products to African-American women it is important to first understand her concept of beauty and her definition of her own personal beauty in order to connect with her through relevant messaging.

Beauty is individual to today’s Black woman. For the most part, she is not trying to live up to European standard of beauty that are incompatible with her skin color, her features, her hair texture and her body type. These women find themselves beautiful “as they are” rather than in relation to some standard outside themselves.

Beauty product brands that wish to connect with today’s Black woman should reflect her concept of beauty rather than represent mainstream imaging and messages, which may be ignored by a Black audience who is looking for more.

Marketing Beauty to Black Women will address the evolution of Black beauty standards throughout history beginning with early messaging that reflected and in some cases, drove, the desire for lighter skin and straighter hair in order to be happy, to attract a man or to positively represent the race.

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Table of contents

  1. Scope and Themes

    • What you need to know
      • Definition
        • Sources
          • Consumer survey data
            • Advertising creative
              • Abbreviations and terms
                • Abbreviations
                  • Terms
                  • Executive Summary

                      • Black women and cosmetics
                        • All about the skin
                          • Black women and beauty services
                            • Who is today’s Black woman?
                              • Black women and the media
                              • Insights and Opportunities

                                  • African-American beauty outlook
                                    • Natural hair
                                      • Hair color
                                        • Anti-aging products
                                          • Lifestyle
                                            • Health and beauty
                                            • Inspire Insights

                                                • Trend: Ego Is All
                                                  • What's it about?
                                                    • What we've seen
                                                      • Specifics
                                                        • Implications
                                                          • Trend: Authentic Beauty
                                                            • What’s it about?
                                                              • What we’ve seen
                                                                • Specifics
                                                                  • Implications
                                                                  • African-American Beauty

                                                                      • Key points
                                                                        • History of African-American Beauty
                                                                          • Background
                                                                            • Skin color—a dividing line
                                                                              • The 20th Century
                                                                                • Skin lighteners, hair growers and hair straighteners
                                                                                  • Hair care
                                                                                    • Bleaching creams
                                                                                      • Black is beautiful
                                                                                        • The Afro—hair becomes political
                                                                                          • Black cosmetics
                                                                                            • Black models and actresses
                                                                                              • The changing face of Black women
                                                                                                • African-American beauty in the new millennium
                                                                                                  • Defining their own beauty
                                                                                                    • Figure 1: Attitudes towards personal beauty, by age, by “agree,” June 2009
                                                                                                    • Figure 2: Attitudes towards personal beauty, by household income, by “agree,” June 2009
                                                                                                  • My Black is beautiful
                                                                                                    • Keeping it real
                                                                                                      • Hair makes a statement
                                                                                                        • Figure 3: Black women’s attitudes towards their hair, by age, by “agree,” June 2009
                                                                                                        • Figure 4: Black women’s attitudes towards their hair, by household income, by “agree,” June 2009
                                                                                                      • Absent in the fashion conversation
                                                                                                        • The Michelle Obama factor
                                                                                                          • Figure 5: Attitudes towards Michelle Obama’s influence on beauty, by age, by “agree,” June 2009
                                                                                                          • Figure 6: Attitudes towards Michelle Obama’s influence on beauty, by household income, by “agree,” June 2009
                                                                                                      • Demographics of Today’s Black Woman

                                                                                                          • Age
                                                                                                            • All women
                                                                                                              • Figure 7: Women, by age, 2004-14
                                                                                                            • Black women
                                                                                                              • Figure 8: Black women, by age, 2004-14
                                                                                                            • Marital status
                                                                                                              • Marital status of all women – by race/Hispanic origin
                                                                                                                • Figure 9: Marital status, by race and Hispanic origin, 2008
                                                                                                              • Marital status of Black women
                                                                                                                • Figure 10: Deferred marriage and childbearing among Black women, 2007
                                                                                                                • Figure 11: Marital status of Black women, by age, 2008
                                                                                                              • Her income
                                                                                                                • Income of all women
                                                                                                                  • Figure 12: Household income of U.S. women, all races, 2007
                                                                                                                • Income of Black women
                                                                                                                  • Figure 13: Household income of Black women, 2007
                                                                                                                • Educational attainment
                                                                                                                  • Educational attainment – all women
                                                                                                                    • Figure 14: Education level of all women, 2008
                                                                                                                  • Educational attainment – Black women
                                                                                                                    • Figure 15: Education level of Black women, 2008
                                                                                                                • Black Women and Cosmetics

                                                                                                                    • Color cosmetic challenges for Black women
                                                                                                                      • Makeup use
                                                                                                                        • Makeup use by race/Hispanic origin
                                                                                                                          • Figure 16: Types of makeup used, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                        • Black women’s makeup use
                                                                                                                          • Figure 17: Types of makeup used, Black women, by age, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                        • Foundation
                                                                                                                          • Foundation use by race/Hispanic origin
                                                                                                                            • Figure 18: Type of foundation used, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                            • Figure 19: Mean usage of foundation in previous week, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                          • Black women’s foundation use
                                                                                                                            • Figure 20: Types of foundation used, Black women, by age, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                            • Figure 21: Frequency of foundation used, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                          • Blush
                                                                                                                            • Blusher use by race/Hispanic origin
                                                                                                                              • Figure 22: Blusher use, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                              • Figure 23: Type of blusher used, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                              • Figure 24: Mean usage of blusher in previous week, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                            • Black women’s blusher use
                                                                                                                              • Figure 25: Blusher used, Black women, by age, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                              • Figure 26: Types of blusher used, Black women, by age, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                              • Figure 27: Frequency of blusher use, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                            • Eye makeup
                                                                                                                              • Eye makeup use by race/Hispanic origin
                                                                                                                                • Figure 28: Eye makeup used, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                                • Figure 29: Types of eye makeup used, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                              • Black women’s eye makeup use
                                                                                                                                • Figure 30: Type of eye makeup used, Black women, by age, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                                • Figure 31: Frequency of eye makeup used, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                              • Lipstick and lip gloss
                                                                                                                                • Lipstick and lip gloss use by race
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 32: Lipstick or lip gloss use, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 33: Types of lipstick or lip gloss used, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 34: Mean usage of lipstick or lip gloss in previous week, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                                • Black women’s lipstick and lip gloss use
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 35: Lipstick and lip gloss used, Black women, by age, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 36: Types of lipstick and lip gloss used, Black women, by age, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 37: Frequency of lipstick or lip gloss use, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                                • Natural cosmetics
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 38: Frequency of natural cosmetics use, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 39: Frequency of natural cosmetics use, Black women, by household income, June 2009
                                                                                                                              • Fingers and Toes

                                                                                                                                  • Nail polish
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 40: Nail polish used, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 41: Mean usage of nail polish in previous week, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 42: Attitudes towards nail care, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2009
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 43: Attitudes towards nail enhancement, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2009
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 44: Types of at-home nail care products and treatments used, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2009
                                                                                                                                  • Black women’s nail polish use
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 45: Nail polish used, Black women, by age, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 46: Frequency of fingernail polish use, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 47: Frequency of toenail polish use, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                                  • Manicures and pedicures
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 48: Use of nail salons/services, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2009
                                                                                                                                  • Black women’s manicure use
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 49: Frequency of salon manicures, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 50: Frequency of salon manicures, Black women, by household income, June 2009
                                                                                                                                  • Black women’s pedicure use
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 51: Frequency of salon pedicures, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 52: Frequency of salon pedicures, Black women, by household income, June 2009
                                                                                                                                • Shopping for Cosmetics

                                                                                                                                  • Sources and influencers
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 53: Usual source of makeup, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2009
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 54: Cosmetic preference influencers, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2009
                                                                                                                                  • Cosmetic use in tough economic times
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 55: Cosmetic shopping and usage changes due to the economy, by race/Hispanic origin, February 2009
                                                                                                                                  • Black women and cosmetic shopping
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 56: Top seven sources of makeup purchases in past three months, Black women, by age, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 57: Top seven sources of makeup purchases in past three months, Black women, by household income, February 2008-March 2009
                                                                                                                                • Skin Care Insights

                                                                                                                                  • Overview
                                                                                                                                    • Anti-aging products—a growth segment
                                                                                                                                      • Sun protection should be emphasized
                                                                                                                                        • Oily skin, sensitive skin
                                                                                                                                          • Black facial care
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 58: Frequency of using select skin care products, Black women, June 2009
                                                                                                                                          • Black facial care by age
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 59: Frequency of using facial cleanser, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 60: Frequency of using toner, Black women, by age, by frequency, June 2009
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 61: Frequency of using facial moisturizer, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                                          • Anti-aging treatment use
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 62: Frequency of using anti-aging treatments, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                                          • Acne treatment use
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 63: Frequency of using acne treatments, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                                          • The body
                                                                                                                                            • Dry skin care
                                                                                                                                              • Black bath products and skin care
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 64: Frequency of using body wash or shower gel, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 65: Frequency of using body splash or fragrance, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 66: Frequency of using body lotion, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                                              • Aromatherapy products
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 67: Frequency of using aromatherapy products, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 68: Frequency of using aromatherapy products, Black women, by household income, June 2009
                                                                                                                                            • Black Women and Beauty Services

                                                                                                                                                • Hair and beauty salons
                                                                                                                                                  • Frequency of visiting
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 69: Frequency of visiting the hair salon, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 70: Frequency of visiting the hair salon, Black women, by household income, June 2009
                                                                                                                                                  • Facials and other skin care
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 71: Frequency of salon facial or other skincare treatment, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 72: Frequency of salon facial or other skincare treatment, Black women, by household income, June 2009
                                                                                                                                                  • Spa services
                                                                                                                                                    • Frequency of visiting
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 73: Frequency of visiting a day spa, Black women, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 74: Frequency of visiting a day spa, Black women, by household income, June 2009
                                                                                                                                                    • Plastic Surgery
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 75: Attitudes towards plastic surgery to body and face, Black women, by age, by “agree,” June 2009
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 76: Attitudes towards plastic surgery to body and face, Black women, by household income, by “agree,” June 2009
                                                                                                                                                  • Black Women and the Media

                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 77: Black women’s attitudes towards media portrayal of African-Americans, by age, by “agree,” February 2009
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 78: Black women’s attitudes towards the media, by age, by “agree,” June 2009
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 79: Black women’s attitudes towards the media, by household income, by “agree,” June 2009
                                                                                                                                                  • Advertising Black Beauty Products

                                                                                                                                                    • Print advertising
                                                                                                                                                      • Lipstick and lip gloss
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 80: L’Oréal Colour Riche lipstick, print ad, August 2008
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 81: Revlon Crème Gloss, print ad, May 2009
                                                                                                                                                      • Foundations and powders
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 82: Maybelline Dream Liquid mousse, print ad, May 2009
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 83: Maybelline Mineral Power powder foundation, print ad, April 2009
                                                                                                                                                      • Lotions and skin care
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 84: Vaseline cocoa butter formulas, print ad, November 2008
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 85: Aveeno Skin Relief moisturizing lotion with oat essence, print ad, November 2008
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 86: Olay Quench body lotion, print ad, November 2009
                                                                                                                                                      • Sun protection
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 87: Aveeno Active Naturals sunblock spray, print ad, May 2009
                                                                                                                                                      • Aromatherapy
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 88: Aveeno Active Naturals Stress Relief Body wash, print ad, May 2009
                                                                                                                                                      • Television commercials
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 89: Television ad: Dr. Miracle’s Feel It Formula “You Need a Miracle”, January 2008
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 90: Television ad: CoverGirl Queen Collection, Natural Hue Foundation Compact, September 2007
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 91: Television ad: CoverGirl Wetslicks Fruit Spritzers, Rihanna, July 2007
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 92: Television ad: CoverGirl Exact Eyelights mascara, Rihanna, December 2008
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 93: Television ad: L’Oréal Infallible Never Fail lip color, Beyoncé, August 2007
                                                                                                                                                    • Cluster Analysis

                                                                                                                                                        • Divas
                                                                                                                                                          • Everyday Women
                                                                                                                                                            • Earth Sisters
                                                                                                                                                              • Cluster characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 94: Beauty marketing clusters, June 2009
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 95: Attitudes toward personal beauty, by beauty marketing clusters, June 2009
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 96: Use of various beauty services, by beauty marketing clusters, June 2009
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 97: Use of beauty products, by beauty marketing clusters, June 2009
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 98: Media attitudes, by beauty marketing clusters, June 2009
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 99: Attitudes towards personal beauty, by beauty marketing clusters, June 2009
                                                                                                                                                              • Cluster demographics
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 100: Beauty marketing clusters, by age, June 2009
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 101: Beauty marketing clusters by household income, June 2009
                                                                                                                                                              • Cluster methodology
                                                                                                                                                              • Characteristics of the Black Consumer

                                                                                                                                                                • Demographics
                                                                                                                                                                  • U.S. population is becoming more diverse
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 102: Population, by race/Hispanic origin, 1970-2020
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 103: Asian/Pacific Islander, Black, and Hispanic populations, 1970-2020
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 104: Population by race and Hispanic origin, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                    • U.S. Black population
                                                                                                                                                                      • Black population by age
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 105: U.S, Black population, by age, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 106: U.S. population, by generation, 2008
                                                                                                                                                                      • U.S. Black geographic concentration
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 107: Black geographic concentration, by region, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                        • Black population by state
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 108: Top 10 states, by total Black population, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 109: Top 10 states, by Black population as a percentage of total population, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                        • Black buying power by state
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 110: Top 10 states, by Black buying power, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                        • Generational insights among Black women
                                                                                                                                                                          • Black generations
                                                                                                                                                                            • Black metros
                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 111: Top 10 metropolitan areas with the largest number of Black residents, 2005-2007
                                                                                                                                                                            • Black income and purchasing power
                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 112: Household income distribution for all households and Black households, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 113: Purchasing power, by race/Hispanic origin, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                            • Income of Black households vs. total U.S. households
                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 114: Increase in percentage of Black households with incomes of $50K or more vs. total U.S. households
                                                                                                                                                                            • Black affluents
                                                                                                                                                                              • Home ownership and household size
                                                                                                                                                                                • Black home ownership
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 115: Percentage of homeowners, Black vs. total homeowners, top 10 metros, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Average household size
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 116: Average household size, by race/Hispanic origin of householder, 2001 and 2006
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Black immigrants
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Country of origin/heritage
                                                                                                                                                                                      • African immigrants
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 117: U.S. immigrants, baccalaureate and advanced degrees, by continent/region of origin, 2000
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Caribbean immigrants
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Top five countries of origin
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Geographic location
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Neighborhood characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Appendix: Black Beauty Websites and Blogs

                                                                                                                                                                                                Companies Covered

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Avon North America
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Blistex Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Estée Lauder Companies Inc. (The)
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kmart Corporation
                                                                                                                                                                                                • L'Oréal USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Macy's, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Nordstrom
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Organic Trade Association
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Procter & Gamble Company (The)
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Procter & Gamble USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Revlon USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Sephora
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Skin Cancer Foundation
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Target Corporation
                                                                                                                                                                                                • U.S. Department of Homeland Security
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Walgreen Co
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Walmart Stores (USA)

                                                                                                                                                                                                Marketing Beauty to Black Women - US - August 2009

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