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Portion Control - US - April 2009

As companies introduce new “better for you” prepared foods and the government continues to view obesity as an “epidemic,” Americans have continued to gain weight. Although government estimates now indicate that the rate of obesity is no longer on the rise, health experts agree that obesity has become a serious social problem that will impact the lives of millions and cost taxpayers billions of dollars.

This has created an opportunity for forward-thinking companies to offer portioned meals and portion control products to help consumers avoid the temptation of overeating. This report is designed to assist companies that have developed or are planning to develop such products. More specifically, this report answers the following questions:

  • How have average portion sizes changed over the past 20 years?
  • How do consumers define “portion,” and how do they measure portions?
  • In general, do Americans make an effort to limit the amount of food or type of foods they eat?
  • What is the prevalence of “grazing” vs. eating three complete meals per day?
  • What environments and eating situations tend to cause overeating and which discourage it?
  • What drives people to monitor their diet and caloric intake?
  • How strong is demand for 100-calorie packs of popular snack foods?
  • What types of portioned pre-packaged meal products are displaying sales growth, and why?
  • What companies and brands are succeeding in the portion control market and why?
  • How are companies promoting their portion control foods and dieting systems?
  • What types of foods are most popular in the U.S.?

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Table of contents

  1. Scope and Themes

    • What you need to know
      • Definition
        • Data sources
          • Consumer survey data
            • Abbreviations and terms
              • Abbreviations
              • Executive Summary

                  • In recent years, portions have increased along with the rate of obesity
                    • Record high obesity rate drives need for portion control products that reflect popular taste profiles
                      • Most successful pre-packaged portioned meals are low-calorie, high-fiber or “natural”
                        • The notion of portion remains a bit confusing
                          • Social context has an influence on how much one eats
                            • Weekday/weekend eating patterns similar; women more health-oriented
                              • Nearly half of women interested in 100-calorie packs
                                • Interest in portion control and cost drive resistance to the 100-calorie pack
                                  • Despite higher obesity rates, blacks more comfortable with weight
                                  • Insights and Opportunities

                                    • Cooking at home on the rise as consumers seek to create healthier meals
                                      • Figure 1: Incidence of cooking more at home and healthier eating, by age, October 2008
                                    • Popular cuisine styles optimize appeal of portion control products
                                        • Figure 2: Ten most popular cuisines among casual and serious cooking enthusiasts, April 2008
                                      • Importance of customization and overall nutrition in addition to weight loss/maintenance benefits
                                        • Low-calorie soups and water additives provide satiation, vegetables: Larger portions with fewer calories
                                          • Capitalizing on the recession: Using meal kits to create low cost portionable meals
                                            • Maximize value with natural, traceable ingredients
                                              • Figure 3: Interest in ingredients, food origins and additives, all vs. dieters, July 2007-September 2008
                                            • The mom factor—teaching portion size at a young age
                                              • Figure 4: Interest in portion control products, all vs. moms, January 2009
                                          • Inspire Insights

                                              • Trend: Simplicity and Convenience
                                                • What’s it all about?
                                                  • What we’ve seen
                                                    • Implications
                                                      • Trend: Mood from Food
                                                        • What’s it all about?
                                                          • What we’ve seen
                                                            • Implications
                                                            • Ballooning Portions

                                                              • Key points
                                                                • Over the last 20 years, portion sizes have increased along with caloric intake and obesity
                                                                  • Figure 5: Average daily per capita calories consumed*, by food group, 1970-2004
                                                                • Increase in average portion sizes reflect increases in daily caloric intake
                                                                  • Figure 6: Estimated increase in average portion sizes, 1984-2004
                                                                • Increase in plate sizes contributes to overeating
                                                                  • Some companies are now adding value by reducing portion size
                                                                  • Market Drivers

                                                                    • Key points
                                                                      • Most Americans are overweight or obese
                                                                        • Figure 7: Trended Nationwide (States, D.C., and Territories) incidence of overweight and obesity, 1995-2007
                                                                      • Southern states have a high concentration of obese consumers
                                                                        • Figure 8: States with highest rates of obesity, 2007
                                                                      • Most acknowledge “slightly overweight,” but still underestimate
                                                                        • Figure 9: Perception of weight relative to height, by gender, January 2009
                                                                      • Older Americans more likely to be obese and to consider themselves overweight
                                                                        • Figure 10: Perception of weight relative to height, by age, January 2009
                                                                      • Age segments with highest self-reported overweight proportion growing quickly
                                                                        • Figure 11: Population, by age, 2004-14
                                                                      • Desire to lose weight and reduce cholesterol top reasons for monitoring diet
                                                                        • Figure 12: Incidence of and reasons for watching diet, by gender, July 2007-September 2008
                                                                      • Older adults more likely to be watching diet for a variety of reasons
                                                                        • Figure 13: Incidence of and reasons for watching diet, by age, July 2007-September 2008
                                                                    • Brand Qualities

                                                                      • Key points
                                                                        • Lean Cuisine: Healthy frozen gourmet for weight loss
                                                                          • Healthy Choice: Traditional product offering made contemporary
                                                                              • Figure 14: Brands with FDMx sales of $100 million or greater for single size frozen dinners/entrées (part 1), 2006 and 2008
                                                                              • Figure 15: Brands with FDMx sales of $100 million or greater for single size frozen dinners/entrées (Part 2), 2006 and 2008
                                                                            • Smaller brands showing strong growth and natural appeal
                                                                              • Figure 16: Brands with FDMx sales of less than $100 million, for single size frozen dinners/entrées, 2006 and 2008
                                                                          • Innovation and Innovators

                                                                            • NutriSystem: Dieting not just for women
                                                                              • 100-calorie treats
                                                                                • Twinkie Bites: Old favorites in smaller packages
                                                                                  • Full Circle Organic Chocolate Wafers: Combining the appeal of treats, organics and portion control
                                                                                    • Luna Sport Moons Energy Chews: Appealing to health-conscious women looking for a boost of energy
                                                                                      • Phix Energy Drink Mix: Helping consumers make the most of water
                                                                                      • Advertising and Promotion

                                                                                        • Overview
                                                                                          • Websites provide nutritional information in community format to attract customers
                                                                                            • Going after the moderates segment: Kraft’s South Beach Living Foods
                                                                                              • Figure 17: South Beach Living Foods By Kraft, ad 1 2008
                                                                                              • Figure 18: South Beach Living Foods By Kraft, ad 2, 2008
                                                                                            • Kashi focuses on the Dieting Regulator segment, with many affluents
                                                                                              • Figure 19: Kashi Frozen Entrées, 2009
                                                                                            • The Hungry-Man pitch: Real Men eat a pound of fried meat and mashed potatoes
                                                                                              • Figure 20: Swanson Hungry-Man Dinners, 2008
                                                                                          • Understanding Portions

                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                              • The distinction between what one eats and measured serving sizes
                                                                                                  • Figure 21: Definition of “portions,” by gender, January 2009
                                                                                                • Affluents somewhat more likely to regard “portions” as a measured amount of food
                                                                                                  • Figure 22: Definition of “portions,” by household income, January 2009
                                                                                              • Contextual Influences on Eating Patterns

                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                  • Indulgence most likely to occur at home and work functions
                                                                                                    • Figure 23: Food limitations, by occasion, January 2009
                                                                                                  • Women more likely to limit both amount and type of food they eat at home
                                                                                                    • Figure 24: Food limitations at home, by gender, January 2009
                                                                                                  • Less demand for portion control when eating away from home
                                                                                                    • Figure 25: Food limitations at a friend’s house or party, by gender, January 2009
                                                                                                    • Figure 26: Food limitations at work functions, by gender, January 2009
                                                                                                    • Figure 27: Food limitations at a restaurant, by gender, January 2009
                                                                                                  • Adults 45+ more likely to monitor type and amount of food eaten when with friends
                                                                                                    • Figure 28: Food limitations at a friend’s house or party, by age, January 2009
                                                                                                    • Figure 29: Food limitations at work functions, by age, January 2009
                                                                                                  • Self-regulation slightly more likely to occur on weekdays
                                                                                                    • Figure 30: Eating habits, weekdays and weekends, January 2009
                                                                                                • Eating Habits and Attitudes towards Diet

                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                    • About four in ten eat three complete meals per day
                                                                                                      • Figure 31: Eating habits on weekdays, by age, January 2009
                                                                                                      • Figure 32: Eating habits on weekends, by age, January 2009
                                                                                                    • Women tend to be more health conscious and interested in nutritional information
                                                                                                      • Figure 33: Eating habits and attitudes, by gender, July 2007-September 2008
                                                                                                    • Women more likely to measure while men treat themselves with large portions
                                                                                                      • Figure 34: Attitudes towards food and food portions, by gender, January 2009
                                                                                                    • Young adults more likely to treat themselves
                                                                                                      • Figure 35: Attitudes towards food and food portions, by age, January 2009
                                                                                                    • Most restaurant portions remain large
                                                                                                      • Figure 36: Incidence of various portion sizes and options in U.S. restaurants, April 2009
                                                                                                  • Interest in and Attitudes towards 100-Calorie Packs

                                                                                                    • Key points
                                                                                                      • Nearly half of female respondents interested in 100-calorie packs
                                                                                                        • Figure 37: 100-calorie pack interest, by gender, January 2009
                                                                                                        • Figure 38: Portion-control packages purchase and attitudes, by gender, January 2009
                                                                                                      • Increasing interest in portion control products with trans fat-free and heart healthy appeals
                                                                                                        • Figure 39: Interest in specific type of food or drink product, by household income, January 2009
                                                                                                        • Figure 40: Interest in specific type of food or drink product, by gender, January 2009
                                                                                                    • Resistance to the 100-Calorie Pack

                                                                                                      • Key points
                                                                                                        • They’re just not that into you… portion-control packaging, that is
                                                                                                          • Figure 41: Reasons for not buying portion control food/drink packages, by gender, January 2009
                                                                                                        • Young adults more likely to cite taste difference to explain lack of interest
                                                                                                          • Figure 42: Reasons for not buying portion control food/drink packages, by age, January 2009
                                                                                                      • Race and Hispanic Origin

                                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                                          • Black and Hispanic women have very high rates of obesity
                                                                                                            • Figure 43: Prevalence of obesity and overweight, by gender and race/Hispanic orgin, 2006
                                                                                                          • Blacks somewhat less likely to perceive themselves as overweight
                                                                                                            • Figure 44: Perception of weight relative to height, by race/Hispanic origin, January 2009
                                                                                                          • Blacks somewhat more likely to watch their diet due to concerns about diabetes and heart health
                                                                                                            • Figure 45: Incidence of and reasons for watching diet, by race/Hispanic origin, July 2007-September 2008
                                                                                                          • Blacks significantly less likely to feel they often overeat
                                                                                                            • Figure 46: Eating habits and attitudes, by race/Hispanic origin, July 2007-September 2008
                                                                                                          • Blacks somewhat more likely to measure their own snack packages
                                                                                                            • Figure 47: Reasons for not buying portion control food/drink packages, by race/Hispanic origin, January 2009
                                                                                                        • Cluster Analysis

                                                                                                            • No Limits (37% of sample)
                                                                                                              • Moderates (44% of sample)
                                                                                                                • Dieting Regulators (19% of sample)
                                                                                                                  • Cluster characteristics
                                                                                                                    • Figure 48: Portion control clusters, January 2009
                                                                                                                    • Figure 49: Definition of “portions,” by portion control clusters, January 2009
                                                                                                                    • Figure 50: Food limitations, by portion control clusters, January 2009
                                                                                                                    • Figure 51: Eating habits, by portion control clusters, January 2009
                                                                                                                    • Figure 52: Perception of weight relative to height, by portion control clusters, January 2009
                                                                                                                    • Figure 53: Interest in specific type of food or drink product, by portion control clusters, January 2009
                                                                                                                    • Figure 54: Attitudes towards food and food portions, by portion control clusters, January 2009
                                                                                                                  • Cluster demographics
                                                                                                                    • Figure 55: Portion control clusters, by gender, January 2009
                                                                                                                    • Figure 56: Portion control clusters, by age, January 2009
                                                                                                                    • Figure 57: Portion control clusters, by household income, January 2009
                                                                                                                    • Figure 58: Portion control clusters, by race/Hispanic origin, January 2009
                                                                                                                  • Cluster methodology
                                                                                                                  • Custom Consumer Groups

                                                                                                                    • Educated women have highest incidence of dieting
                                                                                                                        • Figure 59: Lifestyle segments most likely to diet to lose or maintain weight, July 2007-September 2008
                                                                                                                      • Mature, working-class consumers driven to diet by concerns about heart health
                                                                                                                          • Figure 60: Lifestyle segments Least likely to diet to lose or maintain weight, July 2007-September 2008
                                                                                                                      • Appendix: Other Useful Consumer Tables

                                                                                                                          • Figure 61: Definition of “portions,” by age, January 2009
                                                                                                                          • Figure 62: Definition of “portions,” by race/Hispanic origin, January 2009
                                                                                                                          • Figure 63: Perception of weight relative to height, by household income, January 2009
                                                                                                                          • Figure 64: Reasons for watching diet, by age, July 2007-September 2008
                                                                                                                          • Figure 65: Reasons for watching diet, by household income, July 2007-September 2008
                                                                                                                          • Figure 66: Portion-control packages purchase and attitudes, by age, January 2009
                                                                                                                          • Figure 67: Portion-control packages purchase and attitudes, by household income, January 2009
                                                                                                                          • Figure 68: Attitudes towards food and food portions, by household income, January 2009
                                                                                                                          • Figure 69: Attitudes towards food and food portions, by race/Hispanic origin, January 2009
                                                                                                                          • Figure 70: Interest in specific type of food or drink product, by age, January 2009
                                                                                                                          • Figure 71: Interest in specific type of food or drink product, by race/Hispanic origin, January 2009
                                                                                                                          • Figure 72: Eating habits and attitudes, by age, July 2007-September 2008
                                                                                                                          • Figure 73: Eating habits and attitudes, by race/Hispanic origin, July 2007-September 2008
                                                                                                                          • Figure 74: Eating habits, by gender, January 2009
                                                                                                                          • Figure 75: Food limitations at various locations, by age, January 2009
                                                                                                                          • Figure 76: Use of non-prescription diet products/services, by gender, July 2007-September 2008
                                                                                                                          • Figure 77: Reasons for not buying portion control food/drink packages, by household income, January 2009
                                                                                                                          • Figure 78: Use of non-prescription diet products/services, by age, July 2007-September 2008
                                                                                                                          • Figure 79: Prevalence of high blood pressure and stroke, by gender and ethnicity, 2006
                                                                                                                          • Figure 80: Prevalence of total cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease, by gender and ethnicity, 2006
                                                                                                                          • Figure 81: Prevalence of high total and LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol levels, by gender and ethnicity, 2006
                                                                                                                          • Figure 82: Prevalence of physician-diagnosed diabetes and prediabetes, by gender and ethnicity, 2006
                                                                                                                      • Appendix: Trade Associations

                                                                                                                        Companies Covered

                                                                                                                        • American Beverage Association, The
                                                                                                                        • American Dietetic Association (ADA)
                                                                                                                        • American Heart Association, Inc.
                                                                                                                        • American Obesity Association
                                                                                                                        • Amy's Kitchen Inc.
                                                                                                                        • Burger King Corporation
                                                                                                                        • ConAgra Foods, Inc
                                                                                                                        • Department of Health
                                                                                                                        • Food and Drug Administration
                                                                                                                        • Food Marketing Institute
                                                                                                                        • Greenfield Online
                                                                                                                        • Grocery Manufacturers Association (GMA)
                                                                                                                        • Grocery Manufacturers of America (GMA)
                                                                                                                        • Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation
                                                                                                                        • HJ Heinz Company
                                                                                                                        • Institute of Medicine
                                                                                                                        • Jenny Craig Inc.
                                                                                                                        • Kellogg Company
                                                                                                                        • Kraft Foods Inc. (U.S.A.)
                                                                                                                        • Nestlé USA
                                                                                                                        • NutriSystem, Inc.
                                                                                                                        • Pinnacle Foods Group Inc.
                                                                                                                        • Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
                                                                                                                        • Safeway Inc
                                                                                                                        • U.S. Department of Agriculture
                                                                                                                        • Walmart Stores (USA)
                                                                                                                        • Weight Watchers International Inc.
                                                                                                                        • Whole Foods Market Inc

                                                                                                                        Portion Control - US - April 2009

                                                                                                                        £3,174.67 (Excl.Tax)