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Railway Engineering - UK - March 2017

“The largest rail infrastructure project over the next two decades is set to be the development of the national high speed rail network HS2. The hybrid bill, effectively the planning permission for the first phase of HS2, received Royal Assent in February 2017. Major enabling works contracts for the project were already awarded in 2016, while some £11.8 billion worth of civils contracts are due to be awarded in the early summer. A hybrid bill for phase 2b of HS2 (Crewe to Manchester and West Midlands to Leeds) is to be presented to parliament in 2019.”
– Claudia Preedy - B2B Analyst

This Report answers the following key questions:

  • How has UK rail infrastructure investment developed in the last five years?
  • What has been the financial performance of the key players in the UK rail sector’s supply industry in recent years?
  • What are the key drivers for UK railway investment?
  • What are Network Rail’s expenditure plans for Control Period Five?
  • What is the projected future demand for rolling stock in Great Britain?

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Table of contents

  1. Executive Summary

      • The market
        • Crossrail and HS2 accounted for nearly a third of government funding for the railway industry in 2015/16
          • Figure 1: Government railway funding, 2012-16
        • Network Rail spending on renewal schemes is higher than the allowance set by rail regulator during the first two years of CP5
          • Figure 2: Rail renewal expenditure by asset, 2015/16
        • Network Rail encounters major difficulties in delivering enhancement schemes in 2014/15, prompting a review and re-plan of the programme
          • Spending on rail enhancements up by 10% in 2015/16
            • Average age of rolling stock rises to 21 years in 2015/16
              • Some 30 major rail projects currently in infrastructure pipeline
                • HS2 set to be the largest rail infrastructure project over the next two decades
                  • Figure 3: Cost of enhancement projects during CP5, 2014/15-2018/19
                • Market factors
                  • Network Rail’s funding and delivery outputs are agreed in five-year blocks called control periods
                    • Increase in passenger journeys to drive investment in rail infrastructure and capacity
                      • Recommendations set out in Shaw report could result in biggest shake-up of Network Rail since privatisation
                        • Companies
                          • What we think
                          • Key Insights

                              • What are the key recommendations in the Shaw report, which looks into the future shape and financing of Network Rail?
                                • What have been the key developments since the publication of Shaw report?
                                  • What are the key changes in the re-plan of the CP5 enhancement programme following Sir Peter Hendy’s Review in 2015?
                                    • How is the UK passenger rolling stock fleet expected to develop?
                                    • Introduction

                                        • Definitions
                                          • Methodology
                                            • Abbreviations
                                              • Market positioning
                                              • UK Economy

                                                • Overview
                                                  • Figure 4: UK GDP quarterly development, 2003-16
                                                  • Figure 5: UK GDP in economic downturns and recoveries since 1979
                                                • Inflation
                                                  • Interest rates
                                                    • House prices
                                                      • Figure 6: UK House price changes, 2004-16
                                                    • Consumer spending
                                                      • Manufacturing
                                                        • Figure 7: UK manufacturing, 2014-16
                                                      • Business investment
                                                        • Figure 8: UK GFCF 2003-16
                                                      • Imports
                                                        • Exports
                                                        • Market Factors

                                                          • Key Points
                                                            • Rail network funding and regulation
                                                              • Sir Peter Hendy’s re-plan for Network Rail’s enhancement programme 2014-19
                                                                • The Shaw report
                                                                  • Drivers of investment in rail industry
                                                                    • Railways Act 2005
                                                                      • High Speed Two (HS2) and proposed major schemes
                                                                      • Rail Finance

                                                                        • Key Points
                                                                          • Overview
                                                                            • Figure 9: Government railway funding, by type, 2012-16
                                                                            • Figure 10: Private investment in railways, by type, 2012-16
                                                                        • Infrastructure Investment

                                                                          • Key Points
                                                                            • Introduction
                                                                              • Figure 11: Rail infrastructure in Great Britain, 2012-16
                                                                              • Figure 12: Rail infrastructure in Great Britain, 2012-16
                                                                              • Figure 13: Major rail infrastructure projects delivered during CP4, 2009-14
                                                                            • Network Rail embarks on largest rail enhancement and investment programme in CP5 2014-19
                                                                              • Enhancement milestones in the first two years of CP5
                                                                                • Capital expenditure
                                                                                  • Figure 14: Rail infrastructure renewals, enhancements & maintenance expenditure in Great Britain, 2011-16
                                                                                  • Figure 15: Rail infrastructure renewals, enhancements & maintenance expenditure in Great Britain, 2012-16
                                                                                • Expenditure analysis
                                                                                  • Figure 16: Renewal expenditure by asset, 2015 and 2016
                                                                                  • Figure 17: Private sector investment in track and signalling, 2012-16
                                                                                  • Figure 18: Private sector investment in stations, 2012-16
                                                                                  • Figure 19: Analysis of enhancement expenditure in England and Wales, by type, 2010-14
                                                                                  • Figure 20: Analysis of enhancement expenditure on non-PR08 funded schemes by type, 2010-14
                                                                                  • Figure 21: Analysis of enhancement expenditure in Scotland, by type, 2010-14
                                                                                  • Figure 22: Analysis of enhancement expenditure in Great Britain, by type, 2015-16
                                                                              • Rolling Stock

                                                                                • Key Points
                                                                                  • Introduction
                                                                                      • Figure 23: Average age of rolling stock, by sector, 2012-16
                                                                                      • Figure 24: Average age of rolling stock, by sector, 2012-16
                                                                                      • Figure 25: Average age of rolling stock, by company, 2012-16
                                                                                      • Figure 26: Number of passenger journeys, by sector, 2012-16
                                                                                      • Figure 27: Share of passenger journeys, by sector, 2015/16
                                                                                      • Figure 28: Distance covered by freight trains, 2012-16
                                                                                      • Figure 29: Rolling stock parc, as of March 2016
                                                                                    • Capital expenditure
                                                                                        • Figure 30: Private sector rolling stock investment in Great Britain, 2012-16
                                                                                        • Figure 31: Private sector rolling stock investment in Great Britain, 2012-16
                                                                                    • Supply Sources

                                                                                      • Key Points
                                                                                        • Production
                                                                                          • Overview
                                                                                            • Hitachi and Bombardier Transportation only major train manufacturers with UK plants
                                                                                              • Bombardier Transportation UK
                                                                                                • Hitachi Rail Europe
                                                                                                  • CAF set to open UK assembly plant in 2018
                                                                                                    • Alstom also considering UK manufacturing if firm wins major UK contracts
                                                                                                      • UK production of rolling stock set for further growth
                                                                                                        • Figure 32: UK production of locomotives, rolling stock and other equipment, 2011-15
                                                                                                      • Segmentation
                                                                                                        • Figure 33: Segmentation of the UK production of locomotives, rolling stock and other equipment, by type, 2011-15
                                                                                                      • Imports
                                                                                                        • Overview
                                                                                                          • Figure 34: UK imports of locomotives, rolling stock and other equipment, 2012-16
                                                                                                        • Segmentation
                                                                                                          • Figure 35: Segmentation of UK imports of locomotives, rolling stock and other equipment, by type, 2012-16
                                                                                                          • Figure 36: UK imports of locomotives, rolling stock and other equipment, by type, 2016
                                                                                                        • Exports
                                                                                                          • Overview
                                                                                                            • Figure 37: UK exports of locomotives, rolling stock and other equipment, 2012-16
                                                                                                          • Segmentation
                                                                                                            • Figure 38: Segmentation of UK exports of locomotives, rolling stock and other equipment, by type, 2012-16
                                                                                                        • Investment Profiles

                                                                                                          • Key Points
                                                                                                            • Introduction
                                                                                                              • Figure 39: Train operating companies, as of February 2017
                                                                                                            • Train Operating Companies
                                                                                                              • Abellio Greater Anglia
                                                                                                                  • Figure 40: Key statistics for Greater Anglia, 2014-16
                                                                                                                • Arriva Trains Wales
                                                                                                                  • Figure 41: Key statistics for Arriva Trains Wales, 2014-16
                                                                                                                • c2c
                                                                                                                    • Figure 42: Key statistics for c2c, 2014-16
                                                                                                                  • Chiltern Railways
                                                                                                                    • Figure 43: Key statistics for Chiltern Railways, 2014-16
                                                                                                                  • Cross Country
                                                                                                                    • Figure 44: Key statistics for Cross Country, 2014-16
                                                                                                                  • Virgin Trains East Coast (formerly East Coast)
                                                                                                                      • Figure 45: Key statistics for Virgin Trains East Coast, 2014-16
                                                                                                                    • East Midlands Trains
                                                                                                                        • Figure 46: Key Statistics for East Midlands Trains, 2014-16
                                                                                                                      • Eurostar
                                                                                                                        • Govia Thameslink Railway (formerly First Capital Connect)
                                                                                                                            • Figure 47: Key statistics for Govia Thameslink Railways, 2013-15
                                                                                                                          • Great Western Railway
                                                                                                                            • New fleet of Intercity Express Trains to be introduced from 2017
                                                                                                                              • Great Western electrification project to be delayed
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 48: Key statistics for Great Western, 2014-16
                                                                                                                                • First Hull Trains
                                                                                                                                  • Abellio ScotRail (formerly First ScotRail)
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 49: Key statistics for Abellio ScotRail, 2014-16
                                                                                                                                  • TransPennine Express
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 50: Key Statistics for TransPennine Express, 2014-16
                                                                                                                                    • Grand Central
                                                                                                                                      • Heathrow Connect
                                                                                                                                        • Heathrow Express
                                                                                                                                          • London Midland
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 51: Key statistics for London Midland, 2014-16
                                                                                                                                            • London Overground
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 52: Key statistics for London Overground, 2014-16
                                                                                                                                              • Merseyrail
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 53: Key statistics for Merseyrail, 2013-15
                                                                                                                                                • Northern Rail
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 54: Key statistics for Northern Rail, 2014-16
                                                                                                                                                  • North Yorkshire Moors Railway
                                                                                                                                                    • Southeastern
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 55: Key Statistics for Southeastern, 2014-16
                                                                                                                                                      • South West Trains
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 56: Key Statistics for South West Trains, 2016
                                                                                                                                                      • TFL Rail
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 57: Key Statistics for TFL Rail, 2014-16
                                                                                                                                                      • Virgin Trains West Coast
                                                                                                                                                        • New rail franchise to be introduced combining InterCity West Coast services with High Speed 2 services
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 58: Key statistics for Virgin Trains West Coast, 2014-16
                                                                                                                                                        • West Coast Railway
                                                                                                                                                          • Freight Operators
                                                                                                                                                            • Colas Rail
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 59: Key statistics for Colas Rail, 2016
                                                                                                                                                              • Direct Rail Services
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 60: Key statistics for Direct Rail Services, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                • DB Cargo UK (formerly DB Schenker Rail)
                                                                                                                                                                  • Freightliner Group
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 61: Key Statistics for Freightliner in the UK, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                  • GB Railfreight
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 62: Key statistics for GB Railfreight, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                    • Mendip Rail
                                                                                                                                                                      • Rolling Stock Operating Companies
                                                                                                                                                                        • Angel Trains
                                                                                                                                                                          • Porterbrook Leasing Company
                                                                                                                                                                            • Eversholt Rail Group
                                                                                                                                                                              • QW Rail Leasing
                                                                                                                                                                                • Network Rail
                                                                                                                                                                                  • London & Continental Railways/HS1
                                                                                                                                                                                    • High Speed 2 Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Supply Industry Structure

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Key Points
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Industry Development
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Hitachi starts production at new UK manufacturing plant in 2016, joining Bombardier as the country’s only rolling stock manufacturers
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Spanish rolling stock manufacturer CAF plans to open UK assembly plant in 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Alstom also considering UK manufacturing if firm wins major UK contracts
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Industry structure
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 63: Analysis of the changes in the structure of the railway & tramway rolling stock manufacturing industry, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Structure by employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 64: Analysis of the employment structure of the railway & tramway rolling stock manufacturing industry, 2015-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Structure by turnover
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 65: Analysis of the financial structure of the railway & tramway rolling stock manufacturing industry, 2015-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Company profiles
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Alstom Transport UK

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Company strategy:
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 66: Financial analysis of Alstom Transport UK, 2014-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bombardier Transportation UK

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 67: Financial analysis of Bombardier Transportation UK, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Company strategy and outlook:
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Amec Foster Wheeler

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Rail business
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Company outlook:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 68: Financial analysis of AMEC Foster Wheeler, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Amey/Amey Rail

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Company strategy and outlook:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 69: Financial analysis of Amey UK, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Amey Rail
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Company performance:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 70: Financial analysis of Amey Rail, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Angel Trains

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 71: Financial analysis of Angel Trains, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Company strategy and outlook:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Balfour Beatty Group

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Balfour Beatty announces several profit warnings during 2014 and 2015 amid major challenges from construction contracts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Recent rail sector developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 72: Financial analysis of Balfour Beatty, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 73: Financial analysis of Balfour Beatty by segment, 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Knorr-Bremse Group

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 74: Financial analysis of Knorr-Bremse Rail Systems (UK), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Siemens Rail Automation Holdings

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 75: Financial analysis of Siemens Rail Automation Holdings, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Company strategy and review:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Babcock Rail

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 76: Financial analysis of Babcock Rail, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Company review and outlook:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Network Rail

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Network Rail is delivering its biggest ever investment programme
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Network Rail encounters major difficulties in delivering enhancement programme at the start of CP5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 77: Financial analysis of Network Rail, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Company review and outlook:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Eversholt Rail (UK)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 78: Financial analysis of Eversholt Rail (UK), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Porterbrook Leasing Company

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Recent company activity:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Company strategy:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 79: Financial analysis of Porterbrook Leasing Company, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hitachi Rail Europe

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Intercity trains
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Commuter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 80: Financial analysis of Hitachi Rail Europe, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Company strategy:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Forecast

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Key Points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Market size
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • ORR’s original funding settlement for CP5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • ORR introduces new targets for Network Rail’s asset management for CP5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Move towards framework agreements during CP5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sir Peter Hendy’s Review and re-plan for CP5 enhancement programme
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Funding for CP5 enhancement schemes to be enhanced by £2.5 billion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Network Rail implements Enhancements Improvement Programme
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Bowe Review
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Shaw Report
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Developments since the publication of the Shaw report
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Infrastructure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Rail infrastructure projects pipeline
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 81: Rail infrastructure pipeline, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 82: Rail infrastructure projects pipeline, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Additional funding for rail infrastructure announced in 2016 autumn statement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • High Speed Two (HS2) and proposed major schemes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Network Rail renewal expenditure in CP5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 83: Forecast rail renewal expenditure for CP5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Enhancements expenditure in CP5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 84: Cost of enhancement projects during CP5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Crossrail
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Thameslink Programme
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Electrification schemes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Other committed schemes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Other named schemes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • HLOS capacity metric schemes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Borders
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Other Scottish projects
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Rolling stock
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Long term passenger rolling stock strategy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 85: Fleet size requirements for passenger fleet under a low growth forecast, 2019-45
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 86: Fleet size requirements for passenger fleet under a medium growth forecast, 2019-45
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 87: Fleet size requirements for passenger fleet under a high growth forecast, 2019-45
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 88: Role of electric rolling stock under the medium growth forecast, 2016-45
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Further Sources & Contacts

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Institution of Railway Signal Engineers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Light Rail Transit Association
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Office of Rail Regulation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Rail Delivery Group (formerly ATOC)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Railway Industry Association
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Trade magazines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • European Railway Review
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • International Railway Journal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • IRSE News
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Modern Railways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Rail
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Rail Engineer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Railnews
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Rail Professional
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • RailStaff
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Rail Technology Magazine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Railway Gazette International
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Railway Strategies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Trade exhibitions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Traffex 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Railtex 2017

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Companies Covered

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      To learn more about the companies covered in this report please contact us.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Railway Engineering - UK - March 2017

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