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Sports Tourism Worldwide - December 2012

Sports tourism has been one of the fastest-growing niche segments of the tourism sector in recent years, according to the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). Sports can be either a permanent demand driver for a destination (for example a ski resort) or an occasional one (for example an Olympic venue). Specifically, sports tourism, as covered in this report, encompasses active participation in sporting activities, such as cycling, golf, sailing and skiing, as well as attendance at sporting events, which attract numerous participants and have a significant, but often fleeting, impact on the destination, such as the Olympics, FIFA World Cup matches, Formula 1, American football Super Bowl games and the Baseball World series.

Sports tourism has emerged as a key component of tourism supply, with tourism destinations increasingly developing tourism products involving leisure sports. These targeted offerings enable destinations to differentiate themselves from their competitors, thus sharpening their competitive edge through attracting travellers who seek out natural environments, which can provide healthy and active holidays. Indeed, the economies of cities, regions and even countries around the world are increasingly dependent on visiting golfers and skiers or travelling football, rugby or cricket supporters. In some countries, sport can account for as much as 25% of all tourism receipts, according to the UNWTO.

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Table of contents

  1. Introduction

      • Key findings
        • Abbreviations
        • Data Sources

          • Overview

            • Demographic trends
              • Immigration – a wild card
                • Asia and Latin America offer potential
                  • Figure 1: Distribution of the population of the world & major areas by broad age groups, 2011 and 2050
                • Economic outlook
                  • BRIC growth will continue to support tourism
                    • Figure 2: Overview of the WEO projections (% change unless noted otherwise), October 2012
                  • Outlook for spending on leisure travel and tourism
                    • Figure 3: Outlook for growth in spending* on leisure travel & tourism by major world region, 2011-17
                  • Major leisure tourism country markets
                    • Figure 4: Outlook for growth in spending* on leisure travel & tourism by major country, 2011-17
                  • The case of Canada
                    • Domestic travel the driver
                      • Figure 5: Canadian sports tourism expenditure compared to aggregate tourism expenditure, 2008 and 2010
                    • Regional trend in sports tourism in Canada
                      • Figure 6: Sports tourism visits by province/region, 2008 and 2010
                      • Figure 7: Total tourism visits by province/region, 2008 and 2010
                  • Active Participation

                      • Figure 8: Sports participation in the US*, 2011
                    • Adventure tourism
                      • Figure 9: Activities cited by adventure tour operators, 2007*
                    • A growth segment
                      • Global market size
                        • Adventure-travel business trends
                          • The Adventure Tourism Development Index
                            • Figure 10: Countries ranked by the Adventure Tourism Development Index, 2009-11
                          • Government policies supporting sustainable development
                            • Safety
                              • Natural resources
                                • Health
                                  • Adventure resources
                                    • Entrepreneurship
                                      • Humanitarian
                                        • Infrastructure
                                          • Cultural resources
                                            • Adventure image/brand
                                              • ATDI expert panel
                                                • Norway and Finland moving up in ranking
                                                  • Poland and South Korea too…
                                                    • Biggest movers
                                                      • Comparison between two top-ranked countries
                                                        • Figure 11: A comparison of the rating of the top two developed/developing countries, 2011
                                                      • Extreme sports
                                                        • Global market size
                                                          • Potential for growth
                                                            • Cycle tourism
                                                              • Global market size
                                                                • Growth potential
                                                                  • Cycling tourist profile
                                                                    • Main source markets and destinations
                                                                      • Cycle tourism in English-speaking countries
                                                                        • Figure 12: Estimated cycling market size in English-speaking countries, 2009*
                                                                      • Cycle tourism in Europe
                                                                        • EuroVelo is Europe’s long-distance cycle route network
                                                                          • Iron Curtain Trail
                                                                            • Big cities too…
                                                                              • Cycle tourism estimates by country/region
                                                                                • Figure 13: Overnighting cycle tourists by route, 2003, 2006, 2010 and 2011
                                                                              • UK catching up
                                                                                • Trend in cycle tourism difficult to track
                                                                                  • Figure 14: Survey of experts on European cycle tourism, 2012
                                                                                • Importance of EuroVelo evaluated
                                                                                  • Figure 15: Survey of experts on European cycle tourism about the importance of EuroVelo, 2012
                                                                                • An uneven development
                                                                                  • Strong increases observed at Switzerland’s Veloland
                                                                                    • Denmark on the decline
                                                                                      • Evidence of growth elsewhere…
                                                                                        • Germany most important domestic and outbound market
                                                                                          • Figure 16: Source markets of cycle tourists for selected cycle routes, regions & countries, (2001), 2004, 2006, 2007 & 2011
                                                                                        • Mainly independent travel
                                                                                          • Tour operators
                                                                                            • Diving tourism
                                                                                              • Global market size
                                                                                                • Growth plateauing
                                                                                                  • Figure 17: Trend in PADI-certified divers, 1970-2011
                                                                                                • Diving holidays
                                                                                                  • Brief diver profile
                                                                                                    • European market
                                                                                                      • Main source markets
                                                                                                        • Figure 18: Estimated breakdown of the diver population by country/region, 2012
                                                                                                      • Leading destinations
                                                                                                        • Diving tour operators
                                                                                                          • Caradonna Worldwide Dive Adventures
                                                                                                            • Dressel Divers
                                                                                                              • Golf tourism
                                                                                                                • Global market size
                                                                                                                  • Average golfer profile
                                                                                                                    • Golf participation and equipment
                                                                                                                      • US golfer profile
                                                                                                                        • Casual versus dedicated players
                                                                                                                          • US golfers as consumers
                                                                                                                            • Figure 19: Goods & services US golfers intend to purchase in the near term, 2011
                                                                                                                            • Figure 20: How US golfers use the internet, 2010
                                                                                                                          • Golfing in Europe
                                                                                                                            • Figure 21: Golf course and players* by European country, January 2012
                                                                                                                          • Trend in European participation
                                                                                                                            • Figure 22: Affiliated players and regular golf courses in Europe by country, 2011
                                                                                                                          • Golf tour operators
                                                                                                                            • The IAGTO’s activities
                                                                                                                              • Golf travel conferences
                                                                                                                                • Outstanding player awards
                                                                                                                                  • UK outbound golf travel
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 23: UK golf-break destinations, survey completed in 2011
                                                                                                                                  • Good golfers play more
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 24: Average number of different courses & rounds played by outbound UK golfers, by category & corresponding handicap range, 2011
                                                                                                                                  • Turkey on the rise
                                                                                                                                    • Empty-nesters likely to spend more…
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 25: Expenditure on golf breaks compared to five years ago, 2011
                                                                                                                                    • Important channels for researching golfing holidays
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 26: Ranking of channels for researching golfing holidays, 2011
                                                                                                                                    • Self-catering favoured
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 27: Ranking in importance of factors influencing venue/destination choice, 2011
                                                                                                                                    • Booking window
                                                                                                                                      • Important factors impacting international golf breaks
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 28: Ranking in importance of factors influencing venue/destination choice, 2011
                                                                                                                                      • clubstohire.com offers a solution
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 29: Airline fees for golf equipment, 2012
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 30: Clubstohire rental rates, 2012
                                                                                                                                      • Sailing tourism
                                                                                                                                        • Global market size
                                                                                                                                          • Growth potential
                                                                                                                                            • Profile of sailing tourists
                                                                                                                                              • Leading destinations
                                                                                                                                                • Leading tour operators
                                                                                                                                                  • The Moorings
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 31: The Moorings’ destinations & charter types, 2012
                                                                                                                                                  • Sunsail
                                                                                                                                                    • Neilson
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 32: Neilson’s sailing-holiday products by location, 2012
                                                                                                                                                    • Ski tourism
                                                                                                                                                      • Cross-country and ski touring
                                                                                                                                                        • Global market size
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 33: Ski resorts & lifts worldwide by region, 2011
                                                                                                                                                        • Stagnating trend in ski visits
                                                                                                                                                          • 110 million skiers worldwide
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 34: Skiers and skier visits worldwide by region, 2011
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 35: Cross-border skiers worldwide by region, 2011
                                                                                                                                                          • Future growth potential in Asia and Eastern Europe
                                                                                                                                                            • Major destination countries
                                                                                                                                                              • Major ski markets
                                                                                                                                                                • Widely practised but heavily concentrated in a few countries
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 36: Ski infrastructure & demand in selected countries worldwide, 2011
                                                                                                                                                                • Austria
                                                                                                                                                                  • Bulgaria
                                                                                                                                                                    • Canada
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 37: Principal Canadian ski resorts, 2012
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 38: Canadian multi-ski-resort owners, 2012
                                                                                                                                                                    • China
                                                                                                                                                                      • France
                                                                                                                                                                        • Germany
                                                                                                                                                                          • Italy
                                                                                                                                                                            • Japan
                                                                                                                                                                              • Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                • South Korea
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                    • UK outbound ski market
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 39: Overview of the UK outbound ski market by segment, 2007/08-2011/12
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 40: Destination shares of UK outbound ski visits, 2010/11 and 2011/12
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 41: Year-on-year trend of Sterling against selected European currencies, 2011/12
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 42: Cost comparison of selected European ski destinations for the UK tourist, 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 43: Trend in client numbers of major ski tour operators on the UK market, 2011/12
                                                                                                                                                                                    • US
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 44: Ownership structure of North American ski resorts, 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 45: Number of ski areas by US state, 2010/11*
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 46: Total number of US skier visits by region, 2000/01-2011/12
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 47: Skiers and snowboarders in the US, 2009/10-2011/12
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 48: US skiers and snowboarders by gender, 2011/12*
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 49: Skiers and snowboarders by age segment, 2011/12*
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Surfing tourism
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Surfing in Hawaii
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Surfing spots in Hawaii
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 50: Surfing spots in the Hawaiian Islands, 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Surfing propensity
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 51: Incoming tourists participating in surfing/bodyboarding by Hawaiian Island/town location & source market, 2010-11
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 52: Incoming tourists participating in surfing/bodyboarding by life stage, visitation status & source market, 2010-11
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Australia a leading surfing destination
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Domestic market
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 53: Domestic visitors for whom surfing was an activity, 2004-08*
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 54: Domestic visitor nights where surfing was an activity, 2004-08*
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Incoming market
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 55: International visitors & overnights for whom surfing was an activity, 2004-08*
                                                                                                                                                                                          • International source markets
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 56: International visitors to Australia who engaged in surfing, 2008*
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Incoming surfer profile
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Spectator or Event Tourism

                                                                                                                                                                                              • The pros and cons of major sporting events
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Sporting event tourism profile
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Commonwealth Games
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • FIFA
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • World Cup boosted German economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 57: Percentage increase in hotel guest numbers, June-July 2006*
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • South Africa – lustre fades as memories of World Cup dim
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Host cities selected for World Cup 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • 2022 World Cup impact on Qatar’s economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Formula 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Formula 1 racing team make-up
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Formula One Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The role of the FIA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Only Monaco not held on a race track
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Point-scoring system
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 58: Point scoring* for Formula 1 races, 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The spoils of victory
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Grand Prix preparation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Pre-race qualifying trials held on Friday and Saturday
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The start is crucial
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Pit stops
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The finish – steps to declare the winner
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • A major spectator attraction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Formula 1 Grande Prêmio Petrobras do Brasil 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • VIP seating arrangements
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Formula 1 returns to the US
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Not enough overtaking for US audiences
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Formula 1 generated losses for destinations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • First race in four years
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economic impact of F1 races on Austin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • TV viewing will promote Austin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Calculation methodology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Displacement and leakage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Critiques of the study
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Are F1 fans such big spenders?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Testing the accuracy of large-event economic impact studies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Post-event analyses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • London 2012 Olympics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Analysing the economic impact
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Legacy effects
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Construction the big contributor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 30% of economic impact still to come
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Tourism impacts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The ‘feel-good’ factor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Intangible more important than tangible?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Not all parties were happy, however
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lessons from previous major events
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Super Bowl (American football)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • 46th Super Bowl in Indianapolis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 59: Economic impact of the 46th Super Bowl on the Indianapolis regional economy, 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 60: Indianapolis Super Bowl tax collection overview, 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • World Series (baseball)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 61: World Series by team & city location, 2005-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Back-to-back World Series boost Arlington Texas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • St Louis 2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Philadelphia 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Denver 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Sporting events can boost hotel markets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Super Bowl
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 62: Destinations that have hosted, or are scheduled to host, Super Bowl, 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • NCAA Final Four fills hotel rooms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Olympic Games
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • London hotels score big gains
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hotel prices had to come down to earth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • GOPPAR up sharply
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 63: Performance figures for London hotels, August 2012 & year to date
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Non-rooms revenue a heavy contributor to profits
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 64: Hotel performance* for the Olympic period, 27 July-12 August 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • An uncertain outlook, however
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Some provincial UK hotel markets also saw an Olympic lift
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 65: Performance figures for UK provincial hotels, August 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A strong GOPPAR gain for Cardiff
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Birmingham and Manchester also benefited
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Not all cities positively impacted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sponsorship pays the bills
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 66: Top 25 sponsorship deals, 2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sponsorship to overtake ticket revenues
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Attendance is capacity-constrained at first-class events
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 67: Global sports market* by component, 2008-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 68: Global sports market* by major region, 2008-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Growth in BRICs above average but slowing down
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Brazil and Russia to host major events
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 69: BRICs sports market* by country, 2008-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Conflicting demands between commercial interests and sporting fair play
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sponsors want to know if they are getting their money’s worth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Fine-tuned parcelling out of brand rights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Data mining used to target sponsors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Social media also being used
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Rebound in sports sponsorship
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Emerging-market sponsors enter the field
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 70: The top 25 sponsorship deals in 2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • What Next?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Golf potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Outlook for ski tourism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Changing ethnic mix another challenge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Russia and China have excellent growth prospects
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Full speed ahead for Formula 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Russia and Brazil in the spotlight
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Sochi Winter Olympics 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Rio de Janeiro Summer Olympics 2016

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sports Tourism Worldwide - December 2012

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