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The Black Apparel and Footwear Consumer - October - 2013

“Black consumers spend a tremendous amount of their discretionary income on apparel and footwear. Although the recent recession did impact apparel expenditures, steady increases have been observed in the last two years. Black consumers tend to be style conscious and follow the latest fashion trends. This consumer loves to shop and shop a wide range of stores – brick and mortar as well as online.”

– Tonya Roberts, Multicultural Analyst

Some questions answered in this report include:

  • Compared to 2010, how have Black consumers’ attitudes and behaviors toward apparel and footwear changed?
  • What influences Black consumers’ decisions to buy clothing and apparel? Where are they shopping?
  • What role does their image play in what they wear and what their children wear? What are some missed opportunities?

Black consumers love to shop and they spend a large amount of their disposable income on clothing and footwear. Style is very important to Black consumers and they see it as a way to express their individuality. Many Black consumers also view themselves as trendsetters and feel that staying on top of the latest fashions is important in their lives. Therefore, there is a tremendous opportunity for retailers to reach out to this audience with fashion forward clothing and footwear that appeals to their sense of style.

This report explores the following as it relates to Black consumers and apparel and footwear:

  • How have expenditures changed since the last report?
  • How important are designer brand names?
  • Where do they typically buy clothing and footwear?
  • How does shopping vary by gender. Does it vary based on whether they’re buying for themselves vs. their children?
  • Are they shopping at different stores for shoes vs. clothes?
  • Given the importance of image to Black consumers, to what extent do clothing and footwear play a role in helping to shape the image they want to project to others?
  • How important is their image and self-perception?
  • What does their style say about them? Do they consider themselves trendsetters?

This report is an update on Mintel’s Black Apparel and Footwear – US, August 2010, and covers the following products:

  • Clothing and apparel for adults and children;
  • Footwear for adults and children.

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Table of contents

  1. Scopes and Themes

    • What you need to know
      • Definition
        • Data sources
          • Consumer survey data
            • Abbreviations and terms
              • Abbreviations
                • Terms
                  • Expenditure Data
                    • Definition
                      • Data sources
                        • Terms
                        • Executive Summary

                            • Category expenditures
                              • Figure 1: Average annual expenditures, Black consumers, by expenditure category, 2002-10
                            • The consumer
                              • Figure 2: Changes in Black spending on apparel and footwear in last year, 2010 vs 2013
                            • Attitudes toward fashion
                              • Figure 3: Attitudes toward personal appearance, all Black consumers, July 2013
                              • Figure 4: Attitudes toward fashion and style, all Black consumers, July 2013
                            • Shopping for adult apparel
                              • Figure 5: Percentage of total apparel and footwear spend, by category among Black consumers, 2012
                            • Shopping for adult shoes
                              • Figure 6: Types of stores shopped for children’s and adult footwear, all Black consumers, July 2013
                              • Figure 7: Types of stores shopped for adult footwear, Black consumers by age, July 2013
                            • Shopping for children’s apparel and footwear
                              • Figure 8: Attitudes toward style and fashion among kids aged 6-11, by race/ethnicity, 2012
                              • Figure 9: Teen’s attitudes toward style and fashion, by race/ethnicity, 2012
                            • Attitudes toward shopping
                              • Figure 10: Attitudes toward retail store sales and pricing, by race/ethnicity, 2013
                            • The Black male shopper
                              • Figure 11: Agreement with attitudes toward shopping, by gender, July 2013
                            • Cluster Analysis
                              • Figure 12: Black consumers target clusters, July 2013
                            • What we think
                            • Issues and Insights

                                • Compared to 2010, how have Black consumers’ attitudes and behaviors toward apparel and footwear changed?
                                  • Attitudes toward shopping
                                    • Figure 13: Changes in Black spending on apparel and footwear, by household income and gender, 2010 vs 2013
                                  • Online shopping
                                    • Economic impact
                                      • Caring for clothes
                                        • What influences Black consumers’ decisions to buy clothing and apparel? Where are they shopping?
                                          • What role does their image play in what they wear and what their children wear? What are some missed opportunities?
                                          • Trend Applications

                                              • Trend: Man in the Mirror
                                                • Trend: The Real Thing
                                                  • Futures trend: Access Anything, Anywhere
                                                  • Clothing and Footwear Expenditures

                                                    • Key points
                                                      • Black consumers spent nearly $2 billion on apparel and footwear in 2010
                                                        • Figure 14: Average annual expenditures – Black CUs, by expenditure category, 2002-10
                                                        • Figure 15: Average annual expenditures, non-Black CUs, by expenditure category, 2002-10
                                                      • Blacks spend more than non-Blacks on footwear and children’s apparel
                                                        • Figure 16: Average expenditures for apparel and footwear, by segment and Black vs other races, at current prices, 10-year rolling averages, 2002-12
                                                      • Footwear and women’s clothing represent highest share of expenditures
                                                        • Figure 17: Average expenditures by black households for apparel and footwear, by segment, at current prices, three-year rolling averages, 2007-17
                                                        • Figure 18: Category market share by black households for apparel and footwear, by segment, at current prices, 2010-12
                                                    • Attitudes Toward Fashion

                                                      • Key points
                                                        • Black consumers want to look their best and it’s even more important the older they get
                                                          • Figure 19: Attitudes toward personal appearance, all Black consumers, July 2013
                                                          • Figure 20: Attitudes toward shopping and product preferences, July 2013
                                                        • Blacks display a unique sense of style – staying on trend is a must
                                                          • Figure 21: Attitudes toward fashion and style, July 2013
                                                        • Black consumers dress for success
                                                          • Figure 22: Attitudes toward fashion and style, July 2013
                                                        • Style is more important to younger consumers than cost but they struggle finding clothes that fit
                                                          • Figure 23: Agreement with attitudes toward fashion and style, by age, July 2013
                                                        • Lower-income groups have a greater sense of style
                                                          • Figure 24: Agreement with attitudes toward fashion and style, by household income, July 2013
                                                        • Inspiration doesn’t necessarily come from fashion magazines
                                                          • Figure 25: Motivation for buying new clothes, by race and ethnicity, 2013
                                                        • Black consumers prefer designer brands and buy them at discount stores
                                                          • Figure 26: Attitudes toward clothing brands, by race and ethnicity, 2013
                                                      • Shopping for Adult Apparel

                                                        • Key points
                                                            • Figure 27: Percentage of total sales by apparel/footwear category among Black consumers, 2012
                                                          • Black consumers shop at mid-priced and discount department stores more than other types of stores
                                                            • Figure 28: Type of stores shopped for adult and children's apparel, all Black consumers, July 2013
                                                          • Younger Blacks significantly more likely to shop high-end stores, athletic stores and online stores
                                                              • Figure 29: Case study: “My Adidas” by Run-DMC
                                                              • Figure 30: Type of store shopped for adult apparel, by age, July 2013
                                                            • Income drives where people shop, except athletic, specialty and online stores
                                                              • Figure 31: Type of store shopped for adult apparel, by household income, July 2013
                                                          • Shopping for Adult Shoes

                                                            • Key points
                                                              • Black consumers spend significantly more on shoes than other consumers
                                                                • Blacks buy shoes from a wide variety of stores but children’s shoes are purchased at athletic and discount department stores
                                                                  • Figure 32: Type of stores black consumers shop for children's and adult footwear, July 2013
                                                                • Younger Blacks more likely to shop for shoes at athletic, online and high-end stores
                                                                  • Figure 33: Type of stores shopped for adult footwear, by age, July 2013
                                                                • Higher-income Blacks more likely to have shopped for shoes in last year
                                                                  • Figure 34: Type of store shopped for adult footwear, by household income, July 2013
                                                              • Shopping for Children’s Apparel and Footwear

                                                                • Key points
                                                                  • Black kids aged 6-11 love to shop and are far more fashion conscious than others
                                                                    • Figure 35: Attitudes toward style and fashion among kids aged 6-11, 2012
                                                                  • Black teens lead the pack when it comes to fashion
                                                                    • Figure 36: Teen’s attitudes toward style and fashion, 2013
                                                                  • Younger Black consumers shop for kid’s clothes at stores like babyGap and Babies “R” Us
                                                                    • Figure 37: Type of stores shopped for children’s clothes, by age, July 2013
                                                                  • Higher-income Blacks more likely to buy kid’s clothes at mid-priced and high-end department stores
                                                                    • Figure 38: Types of stores shopped for children’s clothes, by household income, July 2013
                                                                  • Black consumers shop a wide variety of stores for children’s shoes
                                                                    • Figure 39: Type of stores shopped for children's footwear, by age, July 2013
                                                                  • High-income earners are more likely to buy children’s shoes. Lower-income Blacks buy from stores like Walmart
                                                                    • Figure 40: Types of stores shopped for children's footwear, by household income, July 2013
                                                                • Attitudes Toward Shopping

                                                                  • Key points
                                                                      • Figure 41: Frequency of visits to shopping malls in a typical month, by race/Hispanic origin, December 2012
                                                                    • Blacks enjoy browsing and make a social outing out of shopping at malls
                                                                      • Figure 42: Reasons for visiting a shopping mall, by race/Hispanic origin, December 2012
                                                                    • Black consumers are significantly more likely than White consumers to be impulse buyers
                                                                      • Figure 43: Attitudes/opinions toward shopping malls, by race/Hispanic origin, December 2012
                                                                    • Black consumers seek mall improvements that enhance their shopping experience
                                                                      • Figure 44: Innovations/improvements desired at shopping malls, by race/Hispanic origin, December 2012
                                                                    • Blacks prefer shopping at malls that are close to home
                                                                      • Figure 45: Attitudes toward shopping distance and use of public transportation, December 2012
                                                                    • Black consumers shop a variety of stores and are more receptive to shopping someplace new
                                                                      • Figure 46: Attitudes toward store selection and brands, by race/ethnic origin, 2013
                                                                    • Atmosphere and customer service help drive where Black consumers shop
                                                                      • Figure 47: Attitudes toward store atmosphere and customer service, by race/ethnic origin, 2013
                                                                    • Sales are important but are less likely than other factors to bring Blacks into stores
                                                                      • Figure 48: Attitudes toward store sales and pricing, by race/ethnic origin, 2013
                                                                    • Black consumers more likely to enjoy window shopping
                                                                      • Figure 49: Attitudes toward social aspect and enjoyment of shopping, by race/ethnic origin
                                                                    • Black consumers are willing to travel the distance to get what they want
                                                                      • Figure 50: Attitudes toward store location and distance traveled, by race/ethnic origin, 2013
                                                                    • Some wait for sales while others shop less expensive stores and outlets
                                                                      • Figure 51: Changes in shopping behavior for clothing and footwear, July 2013
                                                                    • Attitudes toward shopping and fashion varies by where Black consumers shop
                                                                      • Figure 52: Attitudes toward style and fashion, by type of store shopped, July 2013
                                                                    • Regardless of where Blacks shop, they consider themselves fashion forward
                                                                      • Figure 53: Attitudes toward style and fashion by type of store shopped, July 2013
                                                                    • Black consumers admit they spend more than they should on looking good
                                                                      • Figure 54: Attitudes toward brands and clothing by type of store shopped, July 2013
                                                                    • Black consumers make sacrifices for their kids and buy them what they want
                                                                      • Figure 55: Attitudes toward shopping for children’s clothing by type of store shopped, July 2013
                                                                  • The Black Male Shopper

                                                                    • Key points
                                                                      • Black men like to shop
                                                                        • Figure 56: Agreement with attitudes toward shopping, by gender, July 2013
                                                                      • Black men make sacrifices for their kids to have what they want
                                                                        • Figure 57: Agreement with attitudes toward shopping, by gender, July 2013
                                                                      • Men are more likely to shop athletic stores, discount retailers, high-end stores and online
                                                                        • Figure 58: Type of stores shopped for adult footwear, by gender, July 2013
                                                                      • Black men are less like to shop stores like Target and Walmart
                                                                        • Figure 59: Types of stores shopped for adult clothing, by gender, July 2013
                                                                      • Style trumps cost among Black men
                                                                        • Figure 60: Agreement with attitudes toward fashion and style, by gender, July 2013
                                                                      • Four out of 10 Black men wear a different cologne every day
                                                                        • Figure 61: Agreement with attitudes toward shopping and product preferences, by gender, July 2013
                                                                    • Cluster Analysis

                                                                        • Figure 62: Target clusters, July 2013
                                                                      • Cluster 1: Modest Matures
                                                                        • Demographics
                                                                          • Characteristics
                                                                            • Opportunity
                                                                              • Cluster 2: Fashion Gurus
                                                                                • Demographics
                                                                                  • Characteristics
                                                                                    • Opportunity
                                                                                      • Cluster 3: Image Movers and Shakers
                                                                                        • Demographics
                                                                                          • Characteristics
                                                                                            • Opportunity
                                                                                              • Cluster demographic tables
                                                                                                • Figure 63: Target clusters, by demographic, July 2013
                                                                                              • Cluster characteristic tables
                                                                                                • Figure 64: Agreement with attitudes toward shopping and product preferences, by target clusters, July 2013
                                                                                                • Figure 65: Types of stores shopped for children's clothing, by target clusters, July 2013
                                                                                                • Figure 66: Types of stores shopped for adult clothing, by target clusters, July 2013
                                                                                                • Figure 67: Types of stores shopped for any type of clothing, by target clusters, July 2013
                                                                                                • Figure 68: Types of stores shopped for children’s footwear, by target clusters, July 2013
                                                                                                • Figure 69: Types of stores shopped for adult footwear, by target clusters, July 2013
                                                                                                • Figure 70: Type of stores shopped for any footwear, by target clusters, July 2013
                                                                                                • Figure 71: Stores black consumer purchase from for clothing and footwear, by target clusters, July 2013
                                                                                                • Figure 72: Agreement with attitudes toward fashion and style, by target clusters, July 2013
                                                                                                • Figure 73: Agreement with attitudes toward shopping, by target clusters, July 2013
                                                                                                • Figure 74: Changes in shopping behavior in last year – any clothing shopped, by target clusters, July 2013
                                                                                                • Figure 75: Changes in shopping behavior in last year – any footwear shopped, by target clusters, July 2013
                                                                                                • Figure 76: Changes in shopping behavior in last year – any store shopped, by target clusters, July 2013
                                                                                            • Marketing Strategies

                                                                                              • Overview of the brand landscape
                                                                                                • Brand analysis: Adidas
                                                                                                  • Figure 77: Run-DMC’s My Adidas song, Run-DMC gear by Adidas
                                                                                                  • Figure 78: Adidas, “Basketball is Everything”
                                                                                                • Brand analysis: Nike
                                                                                                  • Figure 79: Nike ad “Calvin & Johnson” featuring Calvin Johnson and Sean “Puffy” Combs
                                                                                                  • Figure 80: Nike Ad, “Speed Delivered” featuring Victor Cruz and J. Cole
                                                                                                • Brand analysis: Reebok
                                                                                                  • Figure 81: Alicia Keys for Reebok
                                                                                                • Brand analysis: Macy’s
                                                                                                  • Figure 82: Macy’s “What’s in Store? – Diddy Dash” featuring Sean “Puffy” Combs
                                                                                                • Brand analysis: Walmart
                                                                                                • US Black Population

                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                    • US population by race/Hispanic origin
                                                                                                      • Figure 83: Population, by race/Hispanic origin, 2008-18
                                                                                                      • Figure 84: Population, by race/Hispanic origin, 1970-2020
                                                                                                      • Figure 85: Asian, Black, and Hispanic populations, 1970-2020
                                                                                                    • Age
                                                                                                      • Generations by race
                                                                                                        • Figure 86: US population by race, and by generation, 2011
                                                                                                      • Black population by age
                                                                                                        • Figure 87: US Black population, by age, 2008-18
                                                                                                        • Figure 88: US Population, by age, 2008-18
                                                                                                      • US Black geographic concentration
                                                                                                        • Figure 89: Black geographic concentration, by region, 2007
                                                                                                      • Black population by state
                                                                                                        • Figure 90: States with largest Black population, 2011
                                                                                                        • Figure 91: States with largest Black population, by distribution, 2008
                                                                                                      • Population by geographic concentration
                                                                                                        • Figure 92: States (including District of Columbia) ranked with the highest share of Black residents, 2011
                                                                                                      • Black metro areas
                                                                                                        • Figure 93: Metropolitan status of Black households, 2006 and 2011
                                                                                                        • Figure 94: Top 10 metropolitan areas with the largest number of Black residents, 2010
                                                                                                      • Black households
                                                                                                        • Figure 95: Average household size, by race/Hispanic origin/race of householder, 2001 and 2011
                                                                                                        • Figure 96: Presence and ages of children in the household, by race/Hispanic origin, 2011
                                                                                                        • Figure 97: Marital status, by race and Hispanic origin, 2011
                                                                                                    • Appendix – Additional Tables

                                                                                                        • Figure 98: Attitudes toward shopping, by gender, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 99: Attitudes toward self-image, by age, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 100: Stores shopped at for clothing in the last year, by gender, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 101: Stores shopped at for clothing in the last year, by age, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 102: Stores shopped at for footwear in the last year, by age, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 103: Stores shopped at for clothing in the last year, by household income, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 104: Attitudes toward shopping, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 105: Attitudes toward shopping, by age, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 106: Attitudes toward shopping, by household income, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 107: Changes in shopping behavior for clothing, by age, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 108: Changes in shopping behavior for clothing – Any clothing shopped, by household income, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 109: Changes in shopping behavior for footwear, by age, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 110: Changes in shopping behavior for footwear, by household income, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 111: Changes in shopping behavior for clothing and footwear, by age, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 112: Changes in shopping behavior for clothing, by household income, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 113: Attitudes toward fashion and style by type of footwear store shopped in the last year, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 114: Attitudes toward fashion and style by type of footwear store shopped in the last year, July 2013 (continued)
                                                                                                        • Figure 115: Attitudes toward shopping by type of footwear store shopped in the last year, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 116: Attitudes toward shopping by type of footwear store shopped in the last year, July 2013 (continued)
                                                                                                        • Figure 117: Target clusters, by gender, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 118: Target clusters, by age, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 119: Target clusters, by household income, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 120: Target clusters, by education, July 2013
                                                                                                        • Figure 121: Target clusters, by employment, July 2013
                                                                                                    • Appendix – Trade Associations

                                                                                                      Companies Covered

                                                                                                      • Adidas (USA)
                                                                                                      • Gianni Versace S.p.A.
                                                                                                      • GlobalHue
                                                                                                      • Macy's, Inc.
                                                                                                      • National Football League Inc.
                                                                                                      • Nike
                                                                                                      • Nordstrom
                                                                                                      • Reebok International Ltd
                                                                                                      • Walmart Stores (USA)
                                                                                                      • YouTube, Inc.

                                                                                                      The Black Apparel and Footwear Consumer - October - 2013

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