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The Chinese Consumer - China - April 2016

“China is gradually progressing into an energy-saving, environmental-friendly and technology-driven economy in which mass industrial production is giving way to domestic consumption to act as the key growth engine. Ever-increasing disposable income and an optimistic economic outlook encourages Chinese consumers to spend more money in almost every sector of life – from everyday staples to discretionary items and activities – in pursuit of higher living quality and desired lifestyles. There are lucrative opportunities for market players – manufacturers, retailers and consumer service operators – to cater to people’s evolving emotional and material needs.”
– Laurel Gu, Research Manager

This Report looks into the trends in China’s economic development and changes in consumers’ spending patterns. This includes spending in different market segments including in-home food and beverages, foodservice, beauty and personal care products, pharmaceutical products, clothing and accessories, home and household care products, technology and communication, and leisure and entertainment, transportation and holidays, as well as spending on housing and personal finances.

The Report also conducts in-depth consumer analysis under the scope of an evolving population structure, social and economic situation and retail environment. It can be relevant to market players in different industry segments as well as overseas players looking to invest in China. Marketers as well as advertisers can also benefit from a greater understanding of how to interact with Chinese consumers.

This report discusses the following key topics:

  • Consumer spending in 2015
  • Market dynamics: Mass markets vs niche markets
  • Forecast for the next five years

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Table of contents

  1. Overview

    • What you need to know
      • Covered in this Report
        • Demographic classification
          • Household income
          • Executive Summary

              • Overview of the Chinese economy and people in 2015
                • The economy
                  • Figure 1: Annual GDP (RMB billion) and year-on-year growth rate, 2006-15
                • The people
                  • Figure 2: Total China population and trends, by urban and rural, 2006-15
                • Consumer expenditure
                  • Consumer spending in 2015
                    • Figure 3: Consumer expenditure, by sector (RMB billion), 2015
                  • Market dynamics: Mass markets vs niche markets
                    • Figure 4: % change in total expenditure, by market sectors, 2014-15; % of surveyed consumers who claim to have spent more in 2015 as compared to 2014, by market sectors, January 2016
                  • Forecast for the next five years
                      • Figure 5: Best- and worst-case forecast total value sales, 2010-20
                    • Consumer trends in lifestyle and spending habits
                      • Consumers evolving into healthier lifestyles
                        • Overall happiness is yet to be lifted
                          • Majority of consumers have increased spending
                            • Figure 6: Changes in spending, January 2016
                          • Experiential discretionary spending drives overall expenditure
                            • Figure 7: Most common ways used to reward oneself, January 2016
                          • Online shopping booms
                            • Figure 8: Changes in the amount spent in different shopping channels, January 2016
                            • Figure 9: Shopping habits – Internet usage, January 2016
                          • Overseas shopping rises as threat to domestic spending
                            • What we think
                            • China Today – The Economy

                              • Tertiary industry leads economic growth
                                • Figure 10: Annual GDP (RMB billion) and year-on-year growth rate, 2006-15
                                • Figure 11: GDP contributions by industrial sectors, 2011-15
                              • Moving towards a technology-driven, environmentally-friendly economy
                                • Figure 12: % increase in fixed asset investment, by industries, 2014-15
                                • Figure 13: % increase in the output of selected industrial products, 2014-15
                              • Domestic consumption drives economic growth
                                • Online retailing acting as a main driver of domestic consumption
                                  • Figure 14: Retail sales of consumer goods (RMB billion), by online and offline channels, 2011-15
                              • China Today – The People

                                • Urbanisation continues
                                  • Figure 15: Total China population and trends, by urban and rural, 2006-15
                                • Increasing disposable income drives demand for higher living quality
                                  • Figure 16: Annual disposable income and trends, 2011-15
                                  • Figure 17: Kitchen and bathroom of a rural household, 2015
                                • The internet brings urban life to rural consumers
                                  • Figure 18: Internet penetration, by urban and rural, 2011-15
                                • Offsetting the aging problems
                                  • Figure 19: Age structure of the Chinese population, by gender, 2014
                              • Expenditure Overview

                                • Sector breakout
                                  • Figure 20: Consumer expenditure, by sector (RMB Billion), 2015
                                • Steadily slowing growth expected to continue
                                  • Figure 21: Best- and worst-case forecast total value sales, 2010-20
                                • Winners in the next five years
                                  • Holidays
                                    • Leisure and entertainment
                                      • Trading-up in food and beverages
                                        • Figure 22: Fastest-growing market sectors, at current prices, by % growth, 2015-20 (est)
                                      • Slower growth sectors for the next five years
                                        • Alcoholic drinks
                                          • Foodservice
                                            • Home and household
                                              • Figure 23: Slower-growing market sectors, at current prices, by % growth, 2015-20 (est)
                                          • In-home Food

                                            • What you need to know
                                              • What we think
                                                • Rising food prices drive steady year-on-year growth
                                                  • Figure 24: Chinese in-home food expenditure, 2010-15
                                                • Opting for more convenient and healthier food drives further growth
                                                  • Figure 25: Best- and worst-case forecast for in-home food, at current prices, 2010-20
                                                • Winners for 2016
                                                  • Losers for 2016
                                                    • Key consumer findings
                                                      • Consumers spend more on food for healthier diets
                                                        • Treat food reveals opportunity to trade up
                                                          • Natural ingredients and healthy processing methods are key attributes of healthy food
                                                          • Foodservice (Eating out and Takeaways)

                                                            • What you need to know
                                                              • What we think
                                                                • Demand for experiential consumption can outweigh the impact of the economic slowdown
                                                                  • Figure 26: Chinese foodservice expenditure, 2010-15
                                                                • Eagerness for healthier diets will drive future growth
                                                                  • Figure 27: Best- and worst-case forecast for foodservice market, at current prices, 2010-20
                                                                • Winners for 2016
                                                                  • Losers for 2016
                                                                    • Key consumer findings
                                                                      • Dining out is the number one leisure activity
                                                                        • Consumers are willing to invest for healthier diets, while seasonal and organic ingredients remain influential
                                                                          • Expanding into more non-mainstream dining period and snacking varieties
                                                                          • Non-alcoholic Drinks

                                                                            • What you need to know
                                                                              • What we think
                                                                                • Category structure changes towards healthier and category-blurring products
                                                                                  • Figure 28: Chinese non-alcoholic drinks expenditure, 2010-15
                                                                                • Continuously increasing spending for healthy non- alcoholic drinks
                                                                                  • Figure 29: Best- and worst-case forecast for non-alcoholic drinks, at current prices, 2010-20
                                                                                • Winners for 2016
                                                                                  • Losers for 2016
                                                                                    • Key consumer findings
                                                                                      • Most consumers are keeping the same spending habit on non-alcoholic drinks
                                                                                        • Figure 30: Changes in the amount spent in food and drink sectors, by demographics, January 2016
                                                                                      • Flavoured water has an inherently unhealthy image but this could be reversed if flavours are sourced naturally
                                                                                        • Looking for category-fused options
                                                                                          • Interest in demographic-specific soft drink products
                                                                                          • Alcoholic Drinks Out of Home

                                                                                            • What you need to know
                                                                                              • What we think
                                                                                                • Wine and beer growth help on-trade consumer expenditure
                                                                                                  • Figure 31: Consumer expenditure on alcoholic drinks out of home, 2010-15
                                                                                                • Aspiration for high-quality products and sociable lifestyles will drive future growth
                                                                                                  • Figure 32: Best- and worst-case forecast value sales of the alcoholic drinks out of home, at current prices, 2010-20
                                                                                                • Winners for 2016
                                                                                                  • Losers for 2016
                                                                                                    • Key consumer findings
                                                                                                      • Majority spent about the same on on-trade alcoholic drinks compared with last year
                                                                                                        • Dining out and entertaining are key drivers for alcoholic drinks out-of-home consumption
                                                                                                          • Lack of category competitiveness according to consumer segmentation and targeting
                                                                                                          • Alcoholic Drinks In Home

                                                                                                            • What you need to know
                                                                                                              • What we think
                                                                                                                • E-commerce helps off-trade consumer expenditure
                                                                                                                  • Figure 33: Consumer expenditure on alcoholic drinks in home, 2010-15
                                                                                                                • Aspiration for category premiumisation and shopping habits of convenience will drive future growth
                                                                                                                  • Figure 34: Best- and worst-case forecast value sales of the alcoholic drinks in home, at current prices, 2010-20
                                                                                                                • Winners for 2016
                                                                                                                  • Losers for 2016
                                                                                                                    • Key consumer findings
                                                                                                                      • Consumers have increased spending priority and switched shopping habits online
                                                                                                                        • Price comparison and brand loyalty are key drivers for upgraded consumption and spending
                                                                                                                        • Beauty and Personal Care

                                                                                                                          • What you need to know
                                                                                                                            • What we think
                                                                                                                              • The beauty sector is resistant to economic slowdown
                                                                                                                                • Figure 35: Chinese beauty and personal care expenditure, 2010-15
                                                                                                                              • Booming mobile shopping will support future growth
                                                                                                                                • Figure 36: Best- and worst-case forecast for beauty and personal care, at current prices, 2010-20
                                                                                                                              • Winners for 2016
                                                                                                                                • Losers for 2016
                                                                                                                                  • Key consumer findings
                                                                                                                                    • Spending on beauty remains strong
                                                                                                                                      • Women love to reward themselves with beauty goodies
                                                                                                                                        • The contrast between the lowest income and highest income groups presents great opportunities for the beauty market
                                                                                                                                          • Take a holistic approach of beauty
                                                                                                                                          • OTC and Pharmaceuticals

                                                                                                                                            • What you need to know
                                                                                                                                              • What we think
                                                                                                                                                • Widening access and big health awareness fuel growth
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 37: Chinese OTC pharmaceuticals expenditure, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                • The aging population will continue to fuel future growth
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 38: Best- and worst-case forecast for OTC pharmaceuticals, at current prices, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                • Winners for 2016
                                                                                                                                                  • Losers for 2016
                                                                                                                                                    • Key consumer findings
                                                                                                                                                      • Spending on health stands strong
                                                                                                                                                        • Healthcare services have great potential amongst women
                                                                                                                                                          • Consumers show awareness of the importance of both mental health and body health
                                                                                                                                                          • Clothing and Accessories

                                                                                                                                                            • What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                              • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                • Greater competition as consumers go casual
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 39: Chinese clothing & accessories expenditure, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                • Aspiration for healthier and trendier lifestyles will drive future growth
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 40: Best- and worst-case forecast for clothing & accessories, at current prices, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                • Winners for 2016
                                                                                                                                                                  • Losers for 2016
                                                                                                                                                                    • Key consumer findings
                                                                                                                                                                      • Consumers have spent more on clothing and accessories than any other segment
                                                                                                                                                                        • Clothing and accessories the leading self-reward purchase type
                                                                                                                                                                          • Menswear buying veering towards more stylish looks
                                                                                                                                                                          • Household Care

                                                                                                                                                                            • What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                              • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                • A steadily-growing market thanks to the increasing number of households
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 41: Chinese household care expenditure, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                • Consumers’ evolving living standards will drive future growth
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 42: Best- and worst-case forecast for household expenditure, at current prices, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                • Winners for 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Losers for 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Key consumer findings
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Opportunity for imported and premium household care products
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Females no longer the sole target of household care products
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Technology and Communications

                                                                                                                                                                                          • What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                            • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Steady growth within the technology and communications sector
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 43: Chinese technology and communication expenditure, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Steady growth expected in the next five years
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 44: Best- and worst-case forecast for technology and communication expenditure, at current prices, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Winners for 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Losers for 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Key consumer findings
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Consumers are spending more on technology and communication
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • No significant difference across tier one, two and three cities
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The premiumisation of technology products
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The rise of domestic brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Leisure and Entertainment

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Evolving spending priorities drove leisure spending in recent years
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 45: Chinese leisure and entertainment expenditure, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Cultural sophistication will drive future growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 46: Best- and worst-case forecast for leisure and entertainment expenditure, at current prices, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Winners for 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Losers for 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Key consumer findings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Consumers prioritising spending on leisure and entertainment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Increased frequency of taking part in out-of-home leisure and entertainment activities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Consumers would like to be connected rather than alone during leisure time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Leisure activities targeting families are popular
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Consumers getting used to pay for virtual leisure products
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Home

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • E-commerce helps to trade up home expenditure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 47: Chinese home expenditure, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Aspiration for healthier and trendier lifestyles will drive future growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 48: Best- and worst-case forecast for home expenditure, at current prices, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Winners for 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Losers for 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Key consumer findings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Consumers deprioritise trading up in household appliances
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Increased varieties bought and upgraded consumption are key drivers for household appliance spending
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Home furnishing rises to be amongst the most popular online shopping product categories
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Affluent households are more likely to buy household appliances online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Transport

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The growth of transport market slows down due to decreasing demand for new passenger cars
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 49: Chinese transport expenditure, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Chinese enthusiasm for cars will drive future growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 50: Best- and worst-case forecast for transport, at current prices, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Winners for 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Losers for 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Key consumer findings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Running errands for family and daily-commuting are the top two reasons for first car purchase
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Safety is the top reason pushing consumers’ car replacement behaviour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • People have high purchase intentions when it comes to new energy cars
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Holidays

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Great demanding on travelling still needs to be meet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 51: Chinese holiday expenditure, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Outbound travelling will drive future growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 52: Best- and worst-case forecast for holiday expenditure, at current prices, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Winners for 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Losers for 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Key consumer findings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Holidays as a reward
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Growing family travellers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Love for local cuisines continue
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Personal Finance and Housing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Life insurance boosts growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 53: Chinese personal finance and housing expenditure, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mild growth for the coming years
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 54: Best- and worst-case forecast for personal finance and housing, at current prices, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Winners for 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Losers for 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Key consumer findings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Insurance products are not only a protection but also a financial tool
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Increased adoption of financial tools
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Rising of financial products
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Miscellaneous

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • To-your-door consumer services booming
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 55: Chinese miscellaneous expenditure, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Aspiration for healthier and trendier lifestyles will drive future growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 56: Best- and worst-case forecast for miscellaneous expenditure, at current prices, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Winners for 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Losers for 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Key consumer findings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Smartphone-based consumer services apps market booming
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Elderly care services likely to grow strongly in coming years
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Consumer – What You Need to Know

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Consumers evolving into healthier lifestyles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Overall happiness is yet to rise
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The majority are increasing their spending
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Experiential discretionary spending drives overall expenditure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online and overseas shopping are rising
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Changes in General Lifestyle

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The majority spent more in 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 57: Changes in spending, by age and income, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • More items on the shopping list
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 58: Changes in spending, by demographics, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Moving towards healthier and more relaxing lifestyles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 59: Changes in general lifestyles, by demographics, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 60: Changes in leisure lifestyles, by demographics, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Overall happiness are yet to increase
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 61: Agreement with statement “I feel happier”, by demographics, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 62: Changes in lifestyles, by agreement with statement “I feel happier”, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Trends in Spending Priorities

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Most consumers increased spending on clothing, eating, leisure and technology products
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 63: Changes in the amount spent in different sectors, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Spending on holidays will continue to grow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 64: % of consumers who have spent more on selected market sectors, by age and gender, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Beauty brands can focus on young females and social occasions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 65: % of consumers who have spent more in selected sectors, by income, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ways of Rewarding Oneself

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Clothing and accessories, food and domestic holidays are most common ways used for self-treating
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 66: Most common ways used to reward oneself, by gender, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • High income consumers find greater indulgence in travelling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 67: Selected ways used to reward oneself, by income, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Changes of Spending in Different Shopping Channels

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online shopping is the big winner
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 68: Changes in the amount spent in different shopping channels, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Convenience of access drives spending via online channels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 69: Reason for increased spending in different shopping channels, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Shopping for premium products from overseas and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 70: Increased spending in different shopping channels due to upgrading, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Price increases are more of an issue in brick-and-mortar stores than virtual channels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 71: Increased spending in different shopping channels due to price rose, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Trends in Shopping Habits

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Increasing loyalty
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 72: Shopping habits – Loyalty towards retailers/brands, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Buy as you like
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 73: Shopping habits – Impulse purchase, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Better product quality will drive online retailers to grow further
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 74: Shopping habits – Internet usage, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Meet the Mintropolitans

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • More holidays and exercise to drive lifestyle evolution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 75: Changes in general lifestyles, by target groups, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Overseas shopping will soon tap into the mass market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 76: % of consumers who have spent more in different channels, by target groups, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Experiential expenditure to drive discretionary spending
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 77: Most common ways used to reward oneself, by gender, January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The next big things
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 78: Shopping habits, by target groups. January 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Appendix – Methodology and Abbreviations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Methodology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mintropolitans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Why Mintropolitans?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Who are they?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 79: Demographic profile of Mintropolitans vs Non-Mintropolitans, by gender, age and personal income
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 80: Demographic profile of Mintropolitans vs Non-Mintropolitans, by marital status, city tier and education level
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Abbreviations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Companies Covered

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Chinese Consumer - China - April 2016

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