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The Diet of the Black Consumer - US - May 2011

It is important to state that the cultural insights, implications, and health-related information contained in this report are not applicable to the foreign-born Black population, which represents more than 8.5% of the total Black population. Black African and Caribbean immigrants have no cultural or generational ties to the U.S. soul food diet and are unlikely to consume soul food items in any significant quantity. Black African and Caribbean immigrants are less likely to suffer from health problems related to the lifelong, multigenerational consumption of soul food, fast food, and processed foods compared to African Americans. Therefore, references to African Americans or Black consumers in this report are not meant to include the Black immigrant population.

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Table of contents

  1. Scope and Themes

    • What you need to know
      • Definition
        • Sources
          • Consumer survey data
            • Advertising
              • Abbreviations and terms
                • Abbreviations
                  • Terms
                  • Executive Summary

                      • Weight loss and the Black consumer
                        • Weight loss is particularly challenging for Black women
                          • Black consumers and dieting
                            • Diet trends
                              • Black male attitudes toward weight loss
                                • Weight-loss products and programs
                                  • Weight-management products
                                    • Breakfast/nutritional drinks
                                      • Energy/diet snacks and bars
                                        • Vitamins and minerals
                                        • Insights and Opportunities

                                          • Awareness of weight issue is key in gaining results
                                            • Understanding the importance of the right role models
                                              • Helping Black children avoid obesity
                                                • Facing the challenge of bringing the soul food diet into the 21st century
                                                • Inspire Insights

                                                  • Obesity and the Black Consumer

                                                    • Key points
                                                      • Obesity in the U.S.
                                                        • Overweight and obesity levels by state
                                                          • Figure 1: Top 15 obese or overweight U.S. states and territories, ranked by BMI, 2009
                                                        • Childhood obesity levels by state
                                                          • Figure 2: Top 10 U.S. states for childhood obesity, 2007-09
                                                        • Health and obesity among African Americans
                                                          • Black adult obesity levels by state
                                                            • Figure 3: Top 10 U.S. states for Black adult obesity, 2007-09
                                                          • African Americans view body size and quality of their diet differently
                                                            • Black women and media imagery
                                                              • Celebrity weight-loss role models
                                                                • It’s about a lifestyle change
                                                                  • Challenges to effective weight loss by African Americans
                                                                    • Denial of weight and health issues is a significant problem
                                                                        • Figure 4: Consumers who believe they are overweight (30 lbs. or more), by race/Hispanic origin, April 2009-June 2010
                                                                      • Norming up
                                                                        • Poverty and environmental factors
                                                                            • Figure 5: Selected nutritional information about McDonald’s Big Mac Extra Value Meal, 2011
                                                                          • Pharmacology reliance/dependency
                                                                            • Influence of genetic factors and lifestyle
                                                                              • Cultural factors
                                                                                • Reliance on religion
                                                                                    • Figure 6: Beliefs about the role of God in health outcomes, 2007-08
                                                                                  • Social factors including peer pressure
                                                                                    • High rate of television viewing
                                                                                        • Figure 7: Average hours per month spent viewing television, by race/Hispanic origin, 2010
                                                                                      • Inaccurate perception of body size
                                                                                        • Defeatist attitude
                                                                                          • Attitudes toward a healthy diet
                                                                                              • Figure 8: Attitudes toward a healthy diet, by race/Hispanic origin, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                            • Age is not necessarily a factor in healthy eating behaviors
                                                                                                • Figure 9: Attitudes toward a healthy diet among Black adults, by age and gender, July 2009-Sept. 2010
                                                                                              • Higher education levels may positively impact healthy eating behaviors
                                                                                                  • Figure 10: Attitudes toward a healthy diet among Black adults, by level of education, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                • Attitudes toward food and diet
                                                                                                    • Figure 11: Attitudes toward food and diet, by race/Hispanic origin, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                  • Black women’s eating behaviors affect the entire family
                                                                                                      • Figure 12: Attitudes toward food and diet, by age and gender, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                    • Income not a factor in unhealthy eating behaviors of Black women
                                                                                                      • Figure 13: Attitudes toward food and diet among Black women, by household income July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                    • Attitudes toward food and diet among teens
                                                                                                        • Figure 14: People of respect among urban teens, 2008
                                                                                                      • Family focus may be key to eliminating obesity among Black teens
                                                                                                          • Figure 15: Teen attitudes toward diet and food, by race/Hispanic origin, April 2009 -June 2010
                                                                                                        • The role of fast food in obesity
                                                                                                          • Fast food consumption is often unavoidable in Black neighborhoods
                                                                                                              • Figure 16: Attitudes toward fast food, by race/Hispanic origin, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                            • Black teens today are more likely to have been raised on fast food
                                                                                                                • Figure 17: Teens’ attitudes toward fast food, by race/Hispanic origin, July 2009-Sept. 2010
                                                                                                            • Black Consumers and Dieting

                                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                                • Eating behaviors and attitudes of Black adults
                                                                                                                    • Figure 18: Perception of personal eating behavior, Black adults, by age and gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                  • Household income does not necessarily impact healthy eating behaviors
                                                                                                                      • Figure 19: Likelihood of limiting types and amounts of food eaten, by household income, October 2010
                                                                                                                    • Reasons for limiting amount and/or kinds of food eaten
                                                                                                                        • Figure 20: Reasons for limiting amount and/or kind of food eaten, by age and gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                      • Pounds to shed
                                                                                                                        • Figure 21: Number of pounds consumers would like to shed, by gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                      • There may be some generational differences in weight-loss goals
                                                                                                                          • Figure 22: Number of pounds consumers would like to shed, by age, October 2010
                                                                                                                      • Dieting Behaviors and Attitudes

                                                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                                                          • Likelihood of dieting
                                                                                                                            • Figure 23: Likelihood of dieting, by race/Hispanic origin, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                          • Culturally based nutritional education is vital to weight-loss efforts
                                                                                                                            • Reasons for dieting
                                                                                                                              • More Black adults who watch their diet do so for health-related reasons
                                                                                                                                • Figure 24: Reasons for dieting, by race/Hispanic origin, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                              • More young Black adults lose weight to improve their appearance
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 25: Reasons for dieting, Black adults, by age and gender, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                • Black adults aged 55 and over face more urgent priorities when dieting
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 26: Reasons for dieting of Black adults aged 55 and over, by gender, July 2009-Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                • Food and diet trends
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 27: Interest in food/diet trends among Black adults, by age and gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                              • Attitudes Toward Dieting

                                                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                                                  • Dieting challenges
                                                                                                                                    • It’s important that healthier foods provide a delicious taste
                                                                                                                                      • Younger Black women face multiple challenges to healthy eating
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 28: Factors that make dieting difficult, by age and gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                                      • Attitudes toward diets
                                                                                                                                        • Young Black women are more likely to feel discouraged about dieting to lose weight
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 29: Attitudes toward diets, by age and gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                                        • Educational attainment has some positive impact on dieting attitudes
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 30: Attitudes toward diets, by educational attainment, October 2010
                                                                                                                                      • Weight-loss Trends

                                                                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                                                                          • Diet trends/weight-loss products and services
                                                                                                                                            • Black consumers use functional foods to address health concerns
                                                                                                                                              • More young Black men and women interested in weight-loss pills or surgery
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 31: Interest in different weight loss/diet trends, Black adults, by gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                                              • Types of diet program/product used
                                                                                                                                                • Meal replacement programs not popular among Black adults
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 32: Type of diet program currently being used, by race/Hispanic origin, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                                  • Black men aged 35+ rely on nonprogram weight-loss strategies
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 33: Type of diet program currently being used, Black adults, by gender and age, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                                  • Diet pills are appealing to Black men, women with lower household income
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 34: Type of diet program currently being used, Black adults, by gender and household income, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                                  • Teens and diets
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 35: Current dieting status, teens, by race/Hispanic origin, April 2009 -June 2010
                                                                                                                                                  • Black teens unlikely to use meal replacement diet plans due to the cost
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 36: Type of diet program currently being used by teens, by race/Hispanic origin, April 2009 -June 2010
                                                                                                                                                • Weight-management Products

                                                                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                                                                    • Opportunities in the Black consumer market
                                                                                                                                                      • Ensure
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 37: Ensure Rich Dark Chocolate Shake Immune Balance
                                                                                                                                                      • EAS AdvantEdge
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 38: EAS AdvantEdge Complete Nutrition Shake
                                                                                                                                                      • Muscle Milk
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 39: CytoSport Muscle Milk Nutritional Shake
                                                                                                                                                      • Kellogg’s Special K
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 40: Kellogg’s Special K Protein Shake Weight Control
                                                                                                                                                      • Designer Whey
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 41: Designer Whey Weight Control Protein Supplement
                                                                                                                                                    • Nutritional Drinks

                                                                                                                                                      • Key points
                                                                                                                                                        • Usage and frequency
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 42: Usage of liquid breakfast and/or nutritional supplements used, by race/Hispanic origin, July 2009-Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                                        • Household income is a significant factor in liquid supplement use
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 43: Usage of liquid breakfast and/or nutritional supplements used, Black adults, by gender and household income, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                                        • Household income impacts consumption
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 44: Type of liquid breakfast and/or nutritional supplements used, by race/Hispanic origin, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                                        • Black men and women use liquid breakfast and/or nutritional supplements for different reasons
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 45: Type of liquid breakfast and/or nutritional supplements used, Black adults, by gender, July 2009-Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                                        • Brands preferred by consumers
                                                                                                                                                          • Black households use products that help manage blood sugar levels
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 46: Brands of liquid breakfast and/or nutritional supplements used by consumers, by race/Hispanic origin, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                                          • Black men and women use liquid breakfast and/or nutritional supplements for different reasons
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 47: Brands of liquid breakfast and/or nutritional supplements used by Black households, by gender, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                                        • Energy/Diet Snacks and Bars

                                                                                                                                                          • Key points
                                                                                                                                                            • Usage and quantity
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 48: Usage and average number of energy/diet snacks eaten, by race/Hispanic origin, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                                            • Preferred brands
                                                                                                                                                              • Black men and women choose brands for different reasons
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 49: Preferred brand of energy/diet snacks eaten, Black adults, by gender, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                                              • Black adults aged 35 and older are more likely use energy/diet snacks for weight loss
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 50: Preferred brand of energy/diet snacks eaten, Black adults, by age, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                                            • Vitamins and Minerals

                                                                                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                • Usage and frequency
                                                                                                                                                                  • Vitamin and mineral use is lower among Black adults
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 51: Consumption of vitamins and/or minerals in tablets, capsules, or liquid form and quantity, by race/Hispanic origin, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                                                  • Fewer Black adults rely on their doctors’ advice on medical/health matters
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 52: Attitudes toward vitamins and/or minerals, by race/Hispanic origin, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                                                  • Young Black men are less likely to take vitamins and/or minerals
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 53: Consumption of vitamins and/or minerals in tablets, capsules, or liquid form and quantity, Black adults, by gender and age, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                                                  • Household income impacts attitudes toward vitamins and/or minerals
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 54: Attitudes toward vitamins and/or minerals, Black adults, by gender and household income, July 2009 -Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                                                  • Type of vitamins and/or minerals consumed
                                                                                                                                                                    • The Black consumer by gender
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 55: Type of vitamins and/or minerals in tables, capsules, or liquid form consumed, by gender, July 2009-Sept. 2010
                                                                                                                                                                  • Marketing Strategies

                                                                                                                                                                    • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                      • Television
                                                                                                                                                                        • Gerber Graduates for Preschoolers a disappointment
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 56: Gerber Graduates Healthy Meals, TV ad, March 2010
                                                                                                                                                                        • UnitedHealthcare encourages the consumption of vegetables
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 57: United Healthcare, little boy and girl discuss vegetables, TV ad, June 2010
                                                                                                                                                                        • Weight Watchers and Jennifer Hudson, a powerful combination
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 58: Weight Watchers, Jennifer Hudson a jean size smaller, TV ad, April 2010
                                                                                                                                                                        • New York City Department of Health pulls no punches when it comes to obesity
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 59: New York City Department of Health, Are you pouring on the pounds? TV ad, January 2011
                                                                                                                                                                        • Print advertising
                                                                                                                                                                          • Ragu helps busy Black parents provide vegetables to their children
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 60: Ragu, Keisha, Magazine ad
                                                                                                                                                                          • Dreamfields is a good example for functional food marketers
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 61: Dreamfields, high fiber pasta products, Magazine ad
                                                                                                                                                                          • Boost Glucose Control ad provides valuable information
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 62: Boost Glucose Control nutritional drinks, Magazine ad
                                                                                                                                                                          • Online
                                                                                                                                                                            • First Lady Michelle Obama’s Let’s Move campaign
                                                                                                                                                                              • Mama’s Health
                                                                                                                                                                                • Community Vitality from Aetna
                                                                                                                                                                                • Cluster Analysis

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Disinterested Weight-Watchless
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Demographics
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Interested Diet Watchers
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Demographics
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Somewhat Interested Limiters
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Demographics
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Characteristic tables:
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 63: Black diet clusters, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 64: Attitudes about food consumption, by Black diet clusters, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 65: Reasons for limiting food intake, by Black diet clusters, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 66: Interest in food and diet trends, by Black diet clusters, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 67: Interest in weight-loss or diet trends, by Black diet clusters, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 68: Challenges to limiting food intake, by Black diet clusters, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 69: Attitudes about nutrition and nutritional information, by Black diet clusters, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Demographic tables
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 70: Black diet clusters, by gender, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 71: Black diet clusters, by age, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 72: Black diet clusters, by household income, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 73: Black diet clusters, by education attainment, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 74: Black diet clusters, by employment, October 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Cluster methodology:
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • U.S. Black Population

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • U.S. population by race/Hispanic origin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 75: U.S. population, by race and Hispanic origin, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 76: Population, by race/Hispanic origin, 1970-2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 77: Asian, Black, and Hispanic populations, 1970-2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • U.S. Black population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Black population by age
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 78: U.S. Black population, by age, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • U.S. Black geographic concentration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 79: Black geographic concentration, by region, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Black population by state
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 80: States with largest Black population, 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 81: States with the highest share of Black residents, 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Black metros
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 82: Metropolitan status of Black households, 2001 and 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 83: Top 10 metropolitan areas with the largest number of Black residents, 2006-08
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Black purchasing power
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Black income
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 84: Household income distribution for all households and Black households, 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Income of Black households versus total U.S. households
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 85: Share of Black households with incomes of $50K or more versus total U.S. households, 2002 and 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Purchasing power by race/Hispanic origin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 86: Purchasing power, by race/Hispanic origin, 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 87: Top 10 states with the largest share of Black buying power, 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 88: Top 10 states, by rate of growth of Black buying power, 1990-2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Black households
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 89: Average household size, by race/Hispanic origin/race of householder, 2001 and 2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Country of origin/heritage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • African immigrants
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 90: U.S. immigrants, baccalaureate and advanced degrees, by continent/region of origin, 2000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Caribbean immigrants
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Top five countries of origin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Geographic location
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Neighborhood characteristics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Appendix: Trade Associations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Companies Covered

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • ABC, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Aetna Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • American Diabetes Association
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • American Dietetic Association (ADA)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • American Heart Association, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Atkins Nutritionals, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Clif Bar Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • EAS, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Food and Drug Administration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Gatorade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Gerber Products Company
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Jenny Craig Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kashi Co. Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Kellogg Company
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • McDonald's U.S.A.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • National Academy of Sciences
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • National Association of Chain Drug Stores (NACDS)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • National Institutes of Health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • National Medical Association
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • NutriSystem, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Slim-Fast Foods Company
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Starbucks Corporation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • State Farm Insurance Companies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Wendy's Company
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • U.S. Bureau of the Census
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • U.S. Department of Agriculture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • U.S. Department of Homeland Security
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Walmart Stores (USA)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Weight Watchers International Inc.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Diet of the Black Consumer - US - May 2011

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