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Waste Management - UK - June 2015

"Generally, most people now understand that resources are becoming scarcer and that it is down to both individuals and companies to make the most of them and to also reduce the amount of waste they initially generate. However, with populations rising and the most developed global economies seeing improved activity, new technologies and processes are needed to counteract these threats to achieving lower waste arisings levels."
– Lewis Cone, B2B Analyst

This report will explore the following key questions regarding waste management in the UK:

  • What are the key determinants driving the waste management industry?
  • Has the industry recovered alongside the economy after the financial crisis? If so, how has it developed and changed since the recession?
  • How have government schemes influenced market demand and supply?
  • How have regulations and the threat of climate change changed the industry’s approach?
  • What are the key issues that the industry needs to address to diversify its service and compete in the long term?
  • What does the future hold for UK waste management?

Waste management in the UK has changed significantly over the last decade, particularly in the last six years as the EU implemented several directives, regarding landfill, recycling and reuse, for member states to abide by. The UK has reduced the amount of waste deposited at landfill sites and has been fairly active in recycling, composting and anaerobic digestion. Progress has also been made towards improving recyclate quality and moving from ‘down-cycling’ to closed-loop recycling.

However, English recycling rates have stagnated over the last two years, while those in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have continued to improve. With the economy expected to experience stable GDP growth over the next four years, the UK faces a tough challenge in reducing overall waste arisings and improving disposal, treatment and collection efficiencies. The European Commission’s new waste directives, expected to be announced later this year, will drive any future UK policy action.

The waste management industry responded well to the first wave of EU directives implemented from 2012, but with stagnating recycling rates and the improving economic climate, the industry will have to do even more to tackle the factors that drive waste generation. The expected announcement by the European Commission detailing its plans for waste management in late 2015 will give the UK government a definitive direction to follow over the forthcoming years.

However, significant changes also depend on the government’s own policy direction, such as whether to ban food waste from landfill. The potential overcapacity problem at waste treatment sites will have a knock-on effect across the industry so it is important that companies continue to diversify and find the most efficient ways of managing waste materials without incurring the greatest financial and environmental costs.

 

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Table of contents

  1. Executive Summary

      • Market size
        • Figure 1: Waste Arisings in the UK, by Source, 2010-2014, (% of Total)
      • Market trends
        • Figure 2: Household Waste in England, by Collection Method, 2009/10 and 2013/14, (000 Tonnes)
        • Figure 3: Landfill Capacity in England and Wales, 2009-2013, (Million Cubic Metres)
        • Figure 4: Regional Recycling Rates, England, 2013/14, (%)
      • Market factors
        • The current lack of a national or EU-driven waste framework has caused uncertainty about the direction waste management should undertake
          • The use of new technology and increasing innovation in the industry has reduced the threat of environmental damage and helped improve the efficiency of waste recovery
            • The economic recovery has led to new challenges in reducing waste arisings
              • Waste treatment facilities are under threat from overcapacity, but exporting scrap material is helping negate this problem
                • Companies
                  • Forecast
                    • Figure 5: UK Waste Arisings Forecast, 2015-2019, (Million Tonnes)
                  • UK household waste is expected to fall at a stable rate to 2019
                    • Figure 6: UK Household Waste Arisings Forecast, 2015-2019, (Million Tonnes)
                  • What we think
                  • Key Insights

                      • Has the ‘circular economy’ changed waste management behaviour?
                        • What innovations are we seeing in the market?
                          • What has been the impact of the removal of previous EU regulations?
                            • How have the largest companies adapted to the upturn in economic activity while still pursuing a ‘circular economy’?
                              • What impact will the government have on market development over the coming years?
                                • What challenges will the industry face in the future? Could they lead to market opportunities?
                                • Introduction

                                    • Definitions
                                      • Methodology
                                        • Abbreviations
                                          • Market positioning
                                          • UK Economy

                                            • Key points
                                              • Overview
                                                • Figure 7: UK GDP, 2003-2014 Q2, (% Quarterly Growth and GDP in £ Billion)
                                                • Figure 8: Quarters after GDP Peak, 1979, 1990 and 2008, (Number of Quarters and GDP as % of Pre-Downturn Peak)
                                              • Inflation
                                                • Interest rates
                                                  • House prices
                                                    • Consumer spending
                                                      • Manufacturing
                                                        • Business investment
                                                          • Imports
                                                            • Exports
                                                            • Market Factors

                                                              • Key points
                                                                • Review of Waste Policy 2010-2011
                                                                • Waste Arisings

                                                                  • Key points
                                                                    • Waste arising
                                                                      • Figure 9: Waste Arisings in the UK, by Source, 2010-2014, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                      • Figure 10: Waste Arisings in the UK, by source, 2010 and 2014, (% of Total)
                                                                    • Household waste
                                                                      • Figure 11: Analysis of the Trends in Household Waste Arisings in the UK, by Country, 2010-2014, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                      • Figure 12: Analysis of the Composition of Household Waste in the UK, 2014, (Millions of Tonnes and %)
                                                                      • Figure 13: Analysis of the Composition of Household Waste in the UK, 2014
                                                                    • Commercial waste
                                                                      • Figure 14: Analysis of the Trends in Commercial Waste Arisings in the UK, 2010-2014, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                      • Figure 15: Analysis of the Trends in Commercial Waste Arisings in the UK, 2010-2014, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                      • Figure 16: Analysis of the Packaging Element of Commercial Waste, 2014, (%)
                                                                      • Figure 17: Analysis of Commercial & Industrial Waste Arisings, by Sector, 2009-2012, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                      • Figure 18: Analysis of Commercial & Industrial Waste Arisings, by Sector, 2012, (% of Total C&I Waste)
                                                                      • Figure 19: Analysis of Commercial Waste Arisings by Sector, 2014, (000 Tonnes and %)
                                                                    • Industrial waste
                                                                      • Figure 20: Analysis of the Trends in Industrial Waste Arisings in the UK, 2010-2014, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                      • Figure 21: Analysis of the Trends in Industrial Waste Arisings in the UK, 2010-2014, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                      • Figure 22: Analysis of Industrial Waste Arisings by Sector, 2014, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                      • Figure 23: Analysis of the Trends in Construction and Demolition Waste Arisings in the UK, 2010-2014, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                      • Figure 24: Analysis of the Trends in Construction and Demolition Waste Arisings in the UK, 2010-2014, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                      • Figure 25: Analysis of the Trends in Mining and Quarrying Waste Arisings in the UK, 2010-2014, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                      • Figure 26: Analysis of the Trends in Mining and Quarrying Waste Arisings in the UK. 2010-2014, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                    • Sewage sludge
                                                                      • Figure 27: Analysis of the Trends in Sewage Sludge Arisings in the UK, 2010-2014, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                      • Figure 28: Analysis of the Trends in Sewage Sludge Arisings in the UK, 2010-2014, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                    • Hazardous waste
                                                                      • Figure 29: Analysis of the Trends in Hazardous Waste Deposits, 20102014, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                      • Figure 30: UK Hazardous Waste, by Sector, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                      • Figure 31: Hazardous Waste Production in England and Wales, by EWC Chapter, 2009-2013, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                  • Collection

                                                                    • Key points
                                                                      • Household
                                                                          • Figure 32: Household Waste In England, by Collection Method, 2009/10- 2013/14, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                          • Figure 33: Household Waste in England, by Collection Method, 2009/10 and 2013/14, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                          • Figure 34: England Recycling Tonnage, by Material, 2010/11- 2013/14, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                          • Figure 35: Regional Analysis of Waste Collection Net Expenditure, 2012/13, by Collection Service, (£000)
                                                                          • Figure 36: Analysis of Waste Collection Net Expenditure, by Collection Service, 2012/13, (£ Million)
                                                                          • Figure 37: Analysis of Waste Collection Net Expenditure, by Region, 2012/13, (% of Total Expenditure)
                                                                          • Figure 38: Regional Analysis of Waste Collection Expenditure, 2012/13, by Expenditure per Head of Population, (£)
                                                                        • Commercial and industrial
                                                                            • Figure 39: Analysis of the Collection of Commercial and Industrial Waste in the UK, by Type of Collection, 2014, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                            • Figure 40: Analysis of the Collection of Commercial and Industrial Waste in the UK, by Type of Collection, 2014, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                        • Waste Treatment

                                                                          • Key points
                                                                            • The market
                                                                                • Figure 41: Transfer and Treatment Deposits in England and Wales, by Site Type, 2009-2013, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                                • Figure 42: Landfill Capacity in England and Wales, By Site Type, 2009-2013, (Million Cubic Metres)
                                                                                • Figure 43: Landfill Capacity in England and Wales, by Site Type, 2009-2013, (Million Cubic Metres)
                                                                                • Figure 44: Analysis of Commercial & Industrial Waste Disposal in England, by Management Type, 2009-2012, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                            • Waste Disposal

                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                • Municipal Waste Disposal
                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                    • England
                                                                                        • Figure 45: Regional Recycling Rates, England, 2013/2014, (%)
                                                                                        • Figure 46: Regional Recycling Rates, England, 2013/2014, (%)
                                                                                        • Figure 47: Carbon Impact of Local Authority Waste Management in England 2011/12 (Tonnes of Waste and CO2)
                                                                                      • Scotland
                                                                                        • Wales
                                                                                          • Northern Ireland
                                                                                              • Figure 48: Regional Recycling Rates, Northern Ireland, 2013/14, (as a % of LAC municipal waste arisings)
                                                                                              • Figure 49: Regional Recycling Rates, Northern Ireland, 2013/14, Top/Bottom Five Regions, (as a % of LAC municipal waste arisings)
                                                                                          • Hazardous Waste Disposal

                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                            • Licenses

                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                  • Figure 50: Number of Permitted and Active Waste Facilities Operational in England and Wales, 2012, (Number and Million Tonnes Managed)
                                                                                                  • Figure 51: Number of Permitted and Active Waste Facilities Operational in England, 2013, (Number and 000 Tonnes Managed)
                                                                                              • Landfill Disposal

                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                    • Figure 52: Landfill Deposits by Site Type in England and Wales, 2009-2013, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                                                    • Figure 53: Landfill Deposits, England and Wales, 2009-2013, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                                                • Incineration

                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                      • Figure 54: Waste Incinerated in England and Wales, by Type, 2013, (000 tonnes)
                                                                                                  • Fuel

                                                                                                    • Key points
                                                                                                        • Figure 55: Contribution to Electricity Generation of Waste, in the UK, 2009-2013, (GWh)
                                                                                                    • Producer Responsibility Obligations

                                                                                                      • Key points
                                                                                                        • Packaging
                                                                                                          • Figure 56: Packaging Recycling Targets, 2014-2017 (%)
                                                                                                        • WEEE
                                                                                                            • Figure 57: Effect of WEEE Regulations, 2014, (000 Tonnes Equipment Collected)
                                                                                                          • Batteries
                                                                                                              • Figure 58: Portable Batteries Placed on the UK Market, 2011-2014, (000 Tonnes) and Waste Batteries Collected and Treated, 2014, (Tonnes)
                                                                                                            • Vehicles
                                                                                                                • Figure 59: End of Life Vehicles, Reused, Recycled or Recovered, 2008-2012, (Units)
                                                                                                            • Glass

                                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                                  • Figure 60: UK Glass Packaging Recycling Rate, 2010-2014, (Units and % Recycled)
                                                                                                              • Cans

                                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                                    • Figure 61: UK Steel Packaging Recycling Rate, 2008-2012, (%)
                                                                                                                    • Figure 62: UK Aluminium Packaging Recycling Rate, 2008-2012, (%)
                                                                                                                • Paper

                                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                                      • Figure 63: Recovered Paper Domestic Usage and Production of Paper and Board in the UK, 2014, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                                                                      • Figure 64: UK Paper & Board Packaging Recycling Rate, 2008-2012, (%)
                                                                                                                  • Plastics

                                                                                                                    • Key points
                                                                                                                        • Figure 65: UK Plastic Packaging Recycling Rate, 2008-2012, (%)
                                                                                                                    • Oils, Chemicals and Solvents

                                                                                                                      • Key points
                                                                                                                          • Figure 66: Analysis of Oil and Oil/Water Mixtures Waste Deposits Handled and Treated/Landfilled in England, 2009-2013, (Tonnes)
                                                                                                                        • Textiles
                                                                                                                        • Domestic Metal Recycling

                                                                                                                          • Key points
                                                                                                                              • Figure 67: Metal Recycling of Waste in England and Wales, 2008-2013, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                                                                          • Industrial Metal Recycling

                                                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                                                                • Figure 68: De-pollution of Vehicles in England and Wales, 2009-2013, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                                                                            • Compost

                                                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 69: Composting of Waste in England and Wales, 2009-2013, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 70: Biological Treatment of Waste in England and Wales, 2009-2013, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                                                                              • Tyres

                                                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                                                • Regional Waste Disposal Expenditure

                                                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 71: Regional Analysis of Waste Disposal Net Expenditure, 2012/13, by Disposal Service, (£000)
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 72: Analysis of Waste Disposal Net Expenditure, by Disposal Service, 2012/13, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 73: Analysis of Waste Disposal Net Expenditure, by Region, 2012/13, (% of Total Expenditure)
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 74: Regional Analysis of Waste Disposal Expenditure, 2012/13, by Expenditure per Head of Population, (£)
                                                                                                                                • Industry Structure

                                                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                                                    • Industry development
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 75: Analysis of the Changes in the Structure of the Collection of Non-Hazardous Waste Industry, 2010-2014, (Number of Local Units and Businesses)
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 76: Analysis of the Changes in the Structure of the Collection of Non-Hazardous Waste Industry, 2010-2014, (Number of Local Units and Businesses)
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 77: Analysis of the Changes in the Structure of the Collection of Hazardous Waste Industry, 2010-2014, (Number of Local Units and Businesses)
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 78: Analysis of the Changes in the Structure of the Treatment and Disposal of Non-Hazardous Waste Industry, 2010-2014, (Number of Local Units and Businesses)
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 79: Analysis of Changes in the Structure of the Treatment and Disposal of Non-Hazardous Waste Industry, 2010-2014, (Number of Local Units and Businesses)
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 80: Analysis of the Changes in the Structure of the Treatment and Disposal of Hazardous Waste Industry, 2010-2014, (Number of Local Units and Businesses)
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 81: Analysis of the Changes in the Structure of the Dismantling of Wrecks Industry, 2010-2014, (Number of Local Units and Businesses)
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 82: Analysis of the Changes in the Structure of the Recovery of Sorted Materials Industry, 2010-2014, (Number of Local Units and Businesses)
                                                                                                                                      • Structure by employment
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 83: Analysis of the Employment Structure of the Waste Collection, Treatment and Disposal Activities and Materials Recovery Industries, 2012-2014, (Number of Local Units and Local Unit Employment Size)
                                                                                                                                      • Structure by turnover
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 84: Analysis of the Financial Structure of the Waste Collection, Treatment and Disposal Activities and Materials Recovery Industry, 2012-2014, (£ 000 and % of Total Turnover)
                                                                                                                                    • Company Profiles

                                                                                                                                      • Biffa

                                                                                                                                            • Figure 85: Financial Analysis of Biffa Group, 2010-2014, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                          • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                          • Biffa Waste Services

                                                                                                                                                • Figure 86: Financial Analysis of Biffa Waste Services, 2010-2014, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                              • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                              • UK Waste Management

                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 87: Financial Analysis of UK Waste Management, 2010-2014, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                                • Cory Environmental

                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 88: Financial Analysis of Cory Environmental, 2009-2013, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                    • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                                    • FCC Environment UK (formerly Focsa Services)

                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 89: Financial Analysis of FCC Environment UK, 2009-2013, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                        • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                                        • MRS Environmental Services

                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 90: Financial Analysis of MRS Environmental Services, 2009-2013, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                          • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                                          • Shanks Group

                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 91: Financial Analysis of Shanks Group, 2010-2014, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                              • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                                              • SUEZ Environnement (formerly SITA UK)

                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 92: Financial Analysis of SUEZ Environnement (formerly SITA UK), 2009-2013, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                                  • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                                                  • Veolia Environmental Services (UK)

                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 93: Financial Analysis of Veolia Environmental Services (UK), 2009-2013 (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                                      • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                                                      • Viridor

                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 94: Financial Analysis of Viridor, 2010-2014, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                                          • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 95: Analysis of Profiled Companies’ Turnover, 2009-2013, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                                        • Forecast

                                                                                                                                                                          • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                            • Waste arisings
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 96: UK Waste Arising Forecast, 2015-2019, (Million Tonnes and %)
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 97: UK Waste Arisings Forecast, 2015-2019, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                                                                                                                              • Household waste arisings
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 98: UK Household Waste Arising Forecast, 2015-2019, (Million Tonnes and %)
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 99: UK Household Waste Arisings Forecast, 2015-2019, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                                                                                                                              • Construction and demolition waste arisings
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 100: UK Construction and Demolition Waste Arising Forecast, 2015-2019, (Million Tonnes, %)
                                                                                                                                                                              • Waste collection
                                                                                                                                                                                • Waste treatment, disposal and recovery
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Waste treatment overcapacity
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Landfill directive and tax
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Waste crime
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Export-led growth
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Industry
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Further Sources and Contacts

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Trade associations
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Renewable Energy Association
                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Chartered Institute of Wastes Management
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Environmental Services Association
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Recycling Association Ltd
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Trade magazines
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • CIWM Journal
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Environmental Health News
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The ENDS Report
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Environment Times
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Envirotec
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • FM World
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Local Authority Waste and Recycling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Materials Recycling World
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Recycling & Waste World
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Resource Management & Recovery
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Waste Management World
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Trade exhibitions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • LARAC Wales Conference 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sustainability Live 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Resource Efficiency & Waste Management Solutions (RWM) 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Renewables Event 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Energy from Waste 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Plastics Recycling Expo 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Plant and Waste Recycling Show 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • WEEE Conference
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • UK AD & Biogas 2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Companies Covered

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                To learn more about the companies covered in this report please contact us.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Waste Management - UK - June 2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                £995.00 (Excl.Tax)