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Waste Management - UK - June 2016

“Investment in new waste treatment infrastructure is expected to slow over the next few years as the requirements for municipal residual processing infrastructure are close to being met. According to Eunomia‘s eighth Residual Waste Infrastructure Review, published in June 2015, the UK is just three years away from eliminating the residual waste treatment gap. However, this claim is opposed by a number of firms in the waste industry including Veolia, SUEZ, and the Green Investment Bank (GIB).”

– Claudia Preedy, B2B Analyst

This report looks at the following areas:

  • Following the referendum vote to leave the EU in June 2016, is the UK still expected to implement elements of the EU Circular Economy package in a future waste policy?
  • Is investment in the UK waste treatment infrastructure set to slow over the next few years?
  • Has the “landfill tax escalator” encouraged increased investment in alternative treatment facilities?
  • What have been the recent trends in M&A activity in the waste management sector?
  • Are households with less frequent residual bin collections likely to recycle more?

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Table of contents

  1. Executive Summary

      • Market size
        • Figure 1: Waste Arisings in the UK, by Source, 2011-15, (% of Total)
      • Market trends
        • Figure 2: Household Waste in England, by Collection Method, 2010/11 and 2014/15, (000 Tonnes)
        • Figure 3: Landfill Capacity in England and Wales, 2010-14, (Million Cubic Metres)
        • Figure 4: Regional Recycling Rates, England, 2014/15, (%)
      • Market factors
        • Uncertainties whether UK will adopt EU Circular Economy Package following Brexit vote
          • Investment in new waste treatment infrastructure is expected to slow
            • Local authorities in England need to step up efforts to achieve EU 50% recycling target by 2020
              • The consumer
                • Companies
                  • Forecast
                    • Figure 5: UK Waste Arisings Forecast, 2016-20, (Million Tonnes)
                  • What we think
                  • Key Insights

                      • Following the referendum vote to leave the EU in June 2016, is the UK still expected to implement elements of the EU Circular Economy package in a future waste policy?
                        • Is investment in the UK waste treatment infrastructure set to slow over the next few years?
                          • Has the “landfill tax escalator” encouraged increased investment in alternative treatment facilities?
                            • What have been the recent trends in M&A activity in the waste management sector?
                              • Are households with less frequent residual bin collections likely to recycle more?
                              • Introduction

                                  • Definitions
                                    • Methodology
                                      • Abbreviations
                                        • Market positioning
                                        • UK Economy

                                          • Overview
                                            • Figure 6: UK GDP quarterly development, 2003-16
                                            • Figure 7: UK GDP in economic downturns and recoveries since 1979
                                          • Inflation
                                            • Interest rates
                                              • House prices
                                                • Figure 8: UK House price changes, 2004-2016
                                              • Consumer spending
                                                • Manufacturing
                                                  • Figure 9: UK manufacturing, 2013-16
                                                • Business investment
                                                  • Figure 10: UK GFCF 2003-15
                                                • Imports
                                                  • Exports
                                                  • Market Factors

                                                    • Key points
                                                      • Review of waste policy 2010-2011
                                                        • EU circular economy package
                                                        • Waste Arisings

                                                          • Key points
                                                            • Overview
                                                              • Figure 11: Waste Arisings in the UK, by Source, 2011-15, (Million Tonnes)
                                                              • Figure 12: Waste Arisings in the UK, by source, 2011 and 2015, (% of Total)
                                                            • Household waste
                                                              • Figure 13: Analysis of the Trends in Household Waste Arisings in the UK, by Country, 2011-15, (Million Tonnes)
                                                            • Commercial waste
                                                              • Figure 14: Analysis of the Trends in Commercial Waste Arisings in the UK, 2011-15, (Million Tonnes)
                                                              • Figure 15: Analysis of the Trends in Commercial Waste Arisings in the UK, 2011-15, (Million Tonnes)
                                                              • Figure 16: Analysis of the Packaging Element of Commercial Waste, 2015, (%)
                                                              • Figure 17: Analysis of Commercial & Industrial Waste Arisings, by Sector, 2009-2012, (000 Tonnes)
                                                              • Figure 18: Analysis of Commercial & Industrial Waste Arisings, by Sector, 2012, (% of Total C&I Waste)
                                                              • Figure 19: Analysis of Commercial Waste Arisings by Sector, 2015
                                                            • Industrial waste
                                                              • Figure 20: Analysis of the Trends in Industrial Waste Arisings in the UK, 2011-15, (Million Tonnes)
                                                              • Figure 21: Analysis of the Trends in Industrial Waste Arisings in the UK, 2011-15, (Million Tonnes)
                                                              • Figure 22: Analysis of the Trends in Construction and Demolition Waste Arisings in the UK, 2010-15, (Million Tonnes)
                                                              • Figure 23: Analysis of the Trends in Construction and Demolition Waste Arisings in the UK, 2011-14,5 (Million Tonnes)
                                                              • Figure 24: Analysis of the Trends in Mining and Quarrying Waste Arisings in the UK, 2010-15, (Million Tonnes)
                                                              • Figure 25: Analysis of the Trends in Mining and Quarrying Waste Arisings in the UK. 2011-15, (Million Tonnes)
                                                            • Sewage sludge
                                                              • Figure 26: Analysis of the Trends in Sewage Sludge Arisings in the UK, 2011-15, (Million Tonnes)
                                                              • Figure 27: Analysis of the Trends in Sewage Sludge Arisings in the UK, 2011-15, (Million Tonnes)
                                                            • Hazardous waste
                                                              • Figure 28: Analysis of the Trends in Hazardous Waste Deposits in England, 201115, (Million Tonnes)
                                                              • Figure 29: UK Hazardous Waste, by Sector, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, (000 Tonnes)
                                                              • Figure 30: Hazardous Waste Managed in England, by EWC Chapter, 2011-14, (000 Tonnes)
                                                          • Collection

                                                            • Key points
                                                              • Household
                                                                • Changing market structure leads to in increased market consolidation
                                                                  • Duty to collect waste paper, metal, plastic and glass separately from 1 January 2015
                                                                      • Figure 31: Percentage of local authorities operating each type of dry recycling scheme, 2010/11- 2014/15, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                    • Councils reduce frequency of residual waste collection due to spending cuts
                                                                      • Figure 32: Household Waste In England, by Collection Method, 2010/11- 2014/15, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                      • Figure 33: Household Waste in England, by Collection Method, 2010/11 and 2014/15, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                      • Figure 34: Composition of local authority waste collected waste in England, 2010/11
                                                                    • Initiatives on Waste Prevention
                                                                        • Figure 35: England Recycling Tonnage, by Material, 2010/11- 14/15, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                        • Figure 36: Percentage of local authorities operating a food waste collection scheme, 2014/15, (%)
                                                                        • Figure 37: Percentage of local authorities operating garden waste collections, 2014/15, (%)
                                                                        • Figure 38: Regional Analysis of Waste Collection Net Expenditure, 2013/14, by Collection Service, (£000)
                                                                        • Figure 39: Analysis of Waste Collection Net Expenditure, by Collection Service, 2013/14, (£ Million)
                                                                        • Figure 40: Analysis of Waste Collection Net Expenditure, by Region, 2013/14, (% of Total Expenditure)
                                                                        • Figure 41: Regional Analysis of Waste Collection Expenditure, 2013/14, by Expenditure per Head of Population, (£)
                                                                      • Commercial and industrial
                                                                          • Figure 42: Analysis of the Collection of Commercial and Industrial Waste in the UK, by Type of Collection, 2015, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                          • Figure 43: Analysis of the Collection of Commercial and Industrial Waste in the UK, by Type of Collection, 2015, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                      • Waste Treatment

                                                                        • Key points
                                                                          • The market
                                                                              • Figure 44: Transfer and Treatment Deposits in England and Wales, by Site Type, 2010-14, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                              • Figure 45: Landfill Capacity in England and Wales, By Site Type, 2010-14, (Million Cubic Metres)
                                                                              • Figure 46: Landfill Capacity in England and Wales, 2010-14 (Million Cubic Metres)
                                                                            • Commercial & industrial waste disposal
                                                                              • Figure 47: Analysis of Commercial & Industrial Waste Disposal in England, by Management Type, 2009-2012, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                          • Municipal Waste Disposal

                                                                            • Key points
                                                                              • England
                                                                                • Figure 48: Household Recycling rates in England, 2001-15
                                                                                • Figure 49: Regional Recycling Rates, England, 2014/15, (%)
                                                                                • Figure 50: Regional Recycling Rates, England, 2014/15 (%)
                                                                              • LAs reduce spending on household waste management
                                                                                • New waste facilities infrastructure scaled back as residual waste treatment gap closes
                                                                                  • Carbon impact of local authority waste management
                                                                                    • Figure 51: Carbon Impact of Local Authority Waste Management in England 2011/12 (Tonnes of Waste and CO2)
                                                                                  • Scotland
                                                                                    • Wales
                                                                                      • Northern Ireland
                                                                                      • Hazardous Waste Disposal

                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                        • Licenses

                                                                                          • Key points
                                                                                              • Figure 52: Number of Permitted and Active Waste Facilities Operational in England, 2014, (Number and 000 Tonnes Managed)
                                                                                          • Landfill Disposal

                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                              • Landfill tax drives investment in alternative waste treatment facilities
                                                                                                • The Landfill Directive
                                                                                                  • Landfill remains only practical option for certain waste streams
                                                                                                    • Diversion of material from landfill to remain high priority, as supported by the EU Circular Economy Package
                                                                                                      • Energy generation and mining of landfill sites
                                                                                                          • Figure 53: Landfill Deposits by Site Type in England and Wales, 2009-14, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                                                          • Figure 54: Landfill Deposits, England and Wales, 2010-14 (Million Tonnes)
                                                                                                      • Incineration

                                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                                            • Figure 55: Waste Incinerated in England, by Type, 2014, (000 tonnes)
                                                                                                        • Fuel

                                                                                                          • Key points
                                                                                                              • Figure 56: UK Bioenergy and Waste Generation Energy Capacity, 2011-15
                                                                                                              • Figure 57: UK Bioenergy and Waste Generation Energy Capacity, 2015
                                                                                                              • Figure 58: UK Bioenergy Development Pipeline, as of March 2016
                                                                                                            • Renewables Obligation (RO) drives investment in renewables generation capacity
                                                                                                              • Electricity Market Reform and Contracts for Difference (CfDs)
                                                                                                                  • Figure 59: Contribution to Electricity Generation of Waste, in the UK, 2010-14, (GWh)
                                                                                                              • Producer Responsibility Obligations

                                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                                  • Packaging
                                                                                                                    • Figure 60: Packaging Recycling Targets, 2014-20 (%)
                                                                                                                  • New staggered packaging targets proposed in EU Circular Economy Package
                                                                                                                    • WEEE
                                                                                                                        • Figure 61: Effect of WEEE Regulations, 2015, (000 Tonnes Equipment Collected)
                                                                                                                      • Batteries
                                                                                                                          • Figure 62: Portable Batteries Placed on the UK Market, 2012-15, (000 Tonnes) and Waste Batteries Collected and Treated, 2015, (Tonnes)
                                                                                                                        • Vehicles
                                                                                                                            • Figure 63: End of Life Vehicles, Reused, Recycled or Recovered, 2009-13, (Tonnes)
                                                                                                                        • Glass

                                                                                                                          • Key points
                                                                                                                              • Figure 64: UK Glass Packaging Recycling Rate, 2011-15, (Units and % Recycled)
                                                                                                                          • Cans

                                                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                                                                • Figure 65: UK Steel Packaging Recycling Rate, 2009-13, (%)
                                                                                                                                • Figure 66: UK Aluminium Packaging Recycling Rate, 2009-13, (%)
                                                                                                                            • Paper

                                                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 67: Recovered Paper Domestic Usage and Production of Paper and Board in the UK, 2014, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 68: UK Paper & Board Packaging Recycling Rate, 2009-13, (%)
                                                                                                                              • Plastics

                                                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 69: UK Plastic Packaging Recycling Rate, 2009-13, (%)
                                                                                                                                • Oils, Chemicals and Solvents

                                                                                                                                  • Key points
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 70: Analysis of Oil and Oil/Water Mixtures Waste Deposits Handled and Treated/Landfilled in England, 2010-14, (Tonnes)
                                                                                                                                  • Textiles

                                                                                                                                    • Domestic Metal Recycling

                                                                                                                                      • Key points
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 71: Metal Recycling of Waste in England and Wales, 2009-14, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                                                                                      • Industrial Metal Recycling

                                                                                                                                        • Key points
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 72: De-pollution of Vehicles in England and Wales, 2009-14, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                                                                                        • Compost and Food Waste

                                                                                                                                          • Key points
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 73: Composting of Waste in England and Wales, 2010-14, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 74: Biological Treatment of Waste in England and Wales, 2010-14, (000 Tonnes)
                                                                                                                                            • Food waste
                                                                                                                                            • Tyres

                                                                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                                                              • Regional Waste Disposal Expenditure

                                                                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 75: Regional Analysis of Waste Disposal Net Expenditure, 2013/14, by Disposal Service, (£000)
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 76: Analysis of Waste Disposal Net Expenditure, by Disposal Service, 2013/14 (% of total)
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 77: Analysis of Waste Disposal Net Expenditure, by Region, 2013/14, (% of Total Expenditure)
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 78: Regional Analysis of Waste Disposal Expenditure, 2013/14, by Expenditure per Head of Population, (£)
                                                                                                                                              • The Consumer Household Waste Collection Frequency

                                                                                                                                                • Key points
                                                                                                                                                  • Fortnightly collections of residual household waste are the most widespread
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 79: Frequency of kerbside nonrecyclable household waste collection, April 2016, (% of respondents)
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 80: Provision of food waste collection service, April 2016, (% of respondents)
                                                                                                                                                  • Just over half of households are provided with separate food waste collection service
                                                                                                                                                  • The Consumer Waste Collection Attitudes

                                                                                                                                                    • Key points
                                                                                                                                                      • Three-quarters of respondents are satisfied with the reliability of household waste collections
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 81: Satisfaction with household waste collection service, April 2016, (% of respondents)
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 82: Satisfaction with size of bin for non-recyclable waste, by collection frequency, April 2016, (% of respondents)
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 83: Satisfaction with the frequency of collection of non-recyclable waste bin, by collection frequency, April 2016, (% of respondents)
                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 84: Attitudes towards household waste and collection, April 2016, (% of respondents)
                                                                                                                                                      • Fewer people with fortnightly bin collections put recyclable rubbish or food waste in the non-recyclable bin than people with weekly collections
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 85: I sometimes put recyclable rubbish in my non recyclable bin, by collection frequency, April 2016, (% of respondents)
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 86: I sometimes put food waste in my non recyclable bin, by collection frequency, April 2016, (% of respondents)
                                                                                                                                                        • The majority of people (63%) do not believe that separating food waste is too much hassle
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 87: My household could cope with less frequent nonrecyclable waste bin collections, by collection frequency, April 2016, (% of respondents)
                                                                                                                                                        • The Consumer Waste Reduction Attitudes

                                                                                                                                                          • Key points
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 88: Attitudes towards the effectiveness of waste reduction incentives, April 2016, (% of respondents)
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 89: Attitudes towards the effectiveness of other waste reduction measures, April 2016, (% of respondents)
                                                                                                                                                            • Facing fines identified as most effective measure to reduce waste in non-recyclable bin
                                                                                                                                                            • Industry Structure

                                                                                                                                                              • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                • Industry Development
                                                                                                                                                                  • Industry focus on waste treatment infrastructure
                                                                                                                                                                    • Merger & Acquisition activity
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 90: Analysis of the Changes in the Structure of the Collection of Non-Hazardous Waste Industry, 2011-15, (Number of Local Units and Businesses)
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 91: Analysis of the Changes in the Structure of the Collection of Non-Hazardous Waste Industry, 2011-15, (Number of Local Units and Businesses)
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 92: Analysis of the Changes in the Structure of the Collection of Hazardous Waste Industry, 2011-15, (Number of Local Units and Businesses)
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 93: Analysis of the Changes in the Structure of the Treatment and Disposal of Non-Hazardous Waste Industry, 2011-15, (Number of Local Units and Businesses)
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 94: Analysis of Changes in the Structure of the Treatment and Disposal of Non-Hazardous Waste Industry, 2011-15, (Number of Local Units and Businesses)
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 95: Analysis of the Changes in the Structure of the Treatment and Disposal of Hazardous Waste Industry, 2011-15, (Number of Local Units and Businesses)
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 96: Analysis of the Changes in the Structure of the Dismantling of Wrecks Industry, 2011-15, (Number of Local Units and Businesses)
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 97: Analysis of the Changes in the Structure of the Recovery of Sorted Materials Industry, 2011-15, (Number of Local Units and Businesses)
                                                                                                                                                                      • Structure by Employment
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 98: Analysis of the Employment Structure of the Waste Collection, Treatment and Disposal Activities and Materials Recovery Industries, 2014-15, (Number of Local Units and Local Unit Employment Size)
                                                                                                                                                                      • Structure by Turnover
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 99: Analysis of the Financial Structure of the Waste Collection, Treatment and Disposal Activities and Materials Recovery Industry, 2014-15, (£ 000 and % of Total Turnover)
                                                                                                                                                                      • Industry Turnover
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 100: Turnover of the UK Waste Collection, Treatment and Disposal Activities and Materials Recovery Industry, 2010-14, (£ Million and % Change)
                                                                                                                                                                    • Company Profiles

                                                                                                                                                                      • Biffa

                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 101: Financial Analysis of WasteHoldco 1, 2011-15, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                                          • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                                                          • Biffa Waste Services

                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 102: Financial Analysis of Biffa Waste Services, 2011-15, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                                              • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                                                              • UK Waste Management

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 103: Financial Analysis of UK Waste Management, 2011-15, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                                                • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                                                                • Cory Environmental

                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 104: Financial Analysis of Cory Environmental, 2010-14, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                                                                    • FCC Environment (UK) (formerly Waste Recycling Group)

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 105: Financial Analysis of FCC Environment UK, 2010-14, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                                                                        • MRS Environmental Services

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 106: Financial Analysis of MRS Environmental Services, 2010-14, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Shanks Group

                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 107: Financial Analysis of Shanks Group, 2011-15, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 108: Breakdown of turnover by geographic segment, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                                                                              • SUEZ Recycling and Recovery UK (formerly SITA UK)

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 109: Financial Analysis of SITA UK (now Suez Recycling and Recovery UK), 2009-14 (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Veolia Environmental Services (UK)

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 110: Financial Analysis of Veolia Environmental Services (UK), 2009-2013 (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Viridor

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 111: Financial Analysis of Viridor, 2011-15, (£ Million)
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Company outlook
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Forecast

                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Key points
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Circular economy package and future waste policy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 112: UK Waste Arising Forecast, 2016-20, (Million Tonnes and %)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 113: UK Waste Arisings Forecast, 2016-20, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Household waste arisings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 114: UK Household Waste Arising Forecast, 2016-20, (Million Tonnes and %)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 115: UK Household Waste Arisings Forecast, 2015-2019, (Million Tonnes)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Construction and demolition waste arisings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 116: UK Construction and Demolition Waste Arising Forecast, 2016-20, (Million Tonnes, %)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Waste collection
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Waste treatment, disposal and recovery
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Investment in waste treatment facilities set to slow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Industry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Further Sources and Contacts

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Companies Covered

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        To learn more about the companies covered in this report please contact us.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Waste Management - UK - June 2016

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        £1,495.00 (Excl.Tax)