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Adventure Tourism in Africa - September 2011

Africa is a vast continent of diversity and has great importance in historical, natural and geographical terms. Historically, sub-Saharan Africa is known as the birthplace of man, with the discovery of fossil evidence of human forebears, ‘Australopithecines’, who lived 4 million years ago, and the remains of the first of the ‘Homo’ genus who lived from 2 million years ago. Around 100,000 years ago, ‘Homo Sapiens’ emigrated from sub-Saharan Africa and so modern-day man began its long journey of evolution.

Subsequently, one of the greatest ancient civilisations developed in Africa, that of Ancient Egypt, in around 3,100 BC, which marked a period of sophistication and culture lasting more than 3,000 years. It has left a legacy of ancient buildings and learning, which continues to fascinate generations of visitors.

Africa’s more recent history includes a series of empires throughout time. West Africa experienced 800 years of wealthy empires, including those of Ghana and Mali, from 800 to 1591, while in the east, the coastal areas of Tanzania, Kenya and Mozambique were home to a number of well-organised city states inhabited by wealthy sultans and their people, who gave rise to the export of spices, slaves and exotic beasts to seafaring traders and merchants from China and India. Slavery was regarded as one of Africa’s biggest crises, initiated by Arab slave-traders, and embraced by European powers. Extensive colonialism and European explorers dominated the 18th and 19th centuries, followed by mass independence drives from the 1950s.

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Table of contents

  1. Introduction

    • Data Sources

      • Overview

        • Defining adventure tourism
            • Figure 1: Niche forms of tourism associated with adventure tourism, 2011
        • Africa: Background and History

            • European influence
              • Tourism in Africa today
                • Geography and nature
                • Types of Adventure Tourism

                    • Wildlife activities
                      • Safaris
                        • Hunting
                          • Fishing
                            • Birdwatching
                              • Land-based activities
                                • Trekking and climbing
                                  • Cycling
                                    • Horseback riding
                                      • Camel and elephant riding
                                        • Water-based activities
                                          • Canoeing and kayaking
                                            • Sailing
                                              • Scuba-diving
                                                • Extreme adrenaline sports
                                                  • Rafting
                                                    • Kiteboarding
                                                      • Other extreme sports
                                                        • Cultural activities
                                                          • Sightseeing
                                                            • Local cultures
                                                            • Adventure Travel Methods

                                                                • Overland
                                                                  • Wildlife safari adventure holidays
                                                                    • Rail adventure
                                                                      • Luxury rail travel
                                                                        • Independent rail travel
                                                                          • Charity tourism
                                                                            • Backpacker travel
                                                                            • The African Adventure Tourism Market

                                                                                • Figure 2: International tourist arrivals in Africa, 2008-10
                                                                                • Figure 3: International tourist receipts in Africa, 2008-10
                                                                                • Figure 4: Adventure Tourism Development Index – African countries, 2009
                                                                              • Destinations
                                                                                • Northern Africa
                                                                                  • Figure 5: Adventure tourist arrivals in Africa, by region, 2010
                                                                                • Southern Africa
                                                                                  • East Africa
                                                                                    • West Africa
                                                                                    • The Adventure Tourist

                                                                                      • Overview
                                                                                        • Consumer segmentation
                                                                                          • The younger adventure traveller
                                                                                            • The young-middle-aged adventure traveller
                                                                                              • The Baby Boomers
                                                                                                • Gender trends
                                                                                                  • Trip preparation
                                                                                                    • Figure 6: How adventure travellers in the US prepare for their trips, 2009
                                                                                                  • Expenditure and trip duration
                                                                                                    • Figure 7: Average spend per trip (excluding airfares), 2009
                                                                                                  • The UK market
                                                                                                  • Adventure Tour Operators

                                                                                                      • Overland operators
                                                                                                        • Dragoman, UK
                                                                                                          • Exodus, UK
                                                                                                            • From Here 2 Timbuktu, UK
                                                                                                              • Go2Africa, South Africa
                                                                                                                • Intrepid Travel, UK
                                                                                                                  • Wildlife safari operators
                                                                                                                    • Abercrombie & Kent, UK
                                                                                                                      • The Africa Adventure Company, US
                                                                                                                        • &Beyond Africa, US
                                                                                                                          • Ker & Downey, US
                                                                                                                            • Mark Thornton Safaris, South Africa
                                                                                                                              • Rail operators
                                                                                                                                • Rovos Rail, South Africa
                                                                                                                                  • Spoornet, South Africa
                                                                                                                                    • Charity tourism operators
                                                                                                                                      • Earthwatch, US
                                                                                                                                        • Raleigh International, UK
                                                                                                                                        • What Next?

                                                                                                                                          • Adventure tourism continues rapid growth
                                                                                                                                            • Multigenerational travel
                                                                                                                                              • Authentic experiences
                                                                                                                                                • Mobile technology
                                                                                                                                                  • Adventure for a cause
                                                                                                                                                    • Adventure tourists in 2020
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 8: International tourist arrivals worldwide, 1995 and 2020

                                                                                                                                                  Adventure Tourism in Africa - September 2011

                                                                                                                                                  US $377.39 (Excl.Tax)