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Description

Description

“Now the LCCs are increasingly looking for growth through establishing long-haul routes, as well as acting as feeders for long-haul flights. Not only are the dedicated LCCs like AirAsia X, WestJet, the Icelandic LCC WOW and Norwegian Airlines building up capacity in this market, but increasingly the LCC subsidiaries of the major European airline groups like Lufthansa’s Eurowings, Air France’s Joon and IAG’s LEVEL are also becoming players. In future, these big airline groups will continue to increase their long-haul budget offerings to the detriment of their standard full-service capacity.”
- Jessica Kelly, Senior Tourism Analyst

This report looks at the following areas:

  • Which are the biggest airlines in the world?
  • What is the share of airlines in the world’s biggest aviation markets?
  • To what extent are LCCs taking share from traditional airlines?
  • How essential is in-flight Wi-Fi?
  • How is the political landscape impacting the airline sector?
  • What are the current trends regarding distribution channels for air tickets?

What's included

What's included

Table of contents

Table of contents

  1. Introduction

      • Key findings
      • Data Sources

        • Abbreviations

          • Issues in the Market

              • Distribution intermediaries
                • Insolvency
                  • LCCs taking share
                    • In-flight Wi-Fi
                      • Political risk
                      • Global Summary

                          • Demographic trends
                            • Figure 1: Trend in world population by region, 2017-2100
                          • Population ageing
                            • Figure 2: Population aged 60 years or over by region, in 2017 & 2050
                          • Implications for the air-travel sector
                            • In-flight medical emergencies
                              • Economy
                                • Growth accelerating in most regions
                                  • Commodity exporters rebounding
                                    • Trade to rebound
                                      • Figure 3: Overview of the World Economic Outlook projections (% change, unless noted otherwise), October 2017 update
                                    • Interest rates
                                      • Figure 4: Forecasted trend in central bank interest rates by currency zone, October 2017
                                      • Figure 5: Forecasted trend in 10-year government yield by currency zone, October 2017
                                    • Currency rates
                                      • Figure 6: Outlook for exchange rates in 3 months & 12 months, 2017
                                    • Forex impact on airlines
                                      • Consumer demand
                                        • Price sensitivity
                                          • Airline capacity decisions
                                            • Outlook for spending on travel and tourism
                                              • Figure 7: Spending on travel & tourism worldwide, 2016 & 2027
                                            • Africa
                                              • Figure 8: Spending on travel & tourism in Africa*, 2016 & 2027
                                            • North Africa
                                              • Figure 9: Spending on travel & tourism in North Africa*, 2016 & 2027
                                              • Figure 10: Spending on travel & tourism in Sub-Saharan Africa*, 2016 & 2027
                                            • Asia Pacific
                                              • Figure 11: Spending on travel & tourism in Asia Pacific*, 2016 & 2027
                                            • North East Asia
                                              • Figure 12: Spending on travel & tourism in North East Asia*, 2016 & 2027
                                            • Oceania
                                              • Figure 13: Spending on travel & tourism in Oceania*, 2016 & 2027
                                            • South Asia
                                              • Figure 14: Spending on travel & tourism in South Asia*, 2016 & 2027
                                              • Figure 15: Spending on travel & tourism in South East Asia*, 2016 & 2027
                                            • Americas
                                              • Figure 16: Spending on travel & tourism in the Americas*, 2016 & 2027
                                            • Latin America
                                              • Figure 17: Spending on travel & tourism in Latin America*, 2016 & 2027
                                            • North America
                                              • Figure 18: Spending on travel & tourism in North America*, 2016 & 2027
                                            • Europe
                                              • Figure 19: Spending on travel & tourism in Europe*, 2016 & 2027
                                            • Middle East
                                              • Figure 20: Spending on travel & tourism in Middle East*, 2016 & 2027
                                            • Trend in growth of air travel
                                              • Figure 21: Trend in air passenger numbers by major country aviation market, 2014-20
                                            • Worldwide passenger numbers increased by 7% in 2016
                                              • Growth accelerated in 2017
                                                • Profitability improving
                                                • Air Traffic Trends

                                                      • Figure 22: Air passenger volumes, 2014-July 2017
                                                    • Global business confidence plateauing
                                                      • Figure 23: Air passenger volume growth & the global composite PMI*, 2007-July 2017
                                                    • Effect of lower fares wearing off
                                                      • Figure 24: Global airline performance July 2017 & YTD
                                                    • Latin American airlines growing fastest
                                                      • Middle East coming back
                                                        • Figure 25: Overall airline performance by major region, July 2017 & YTD
                                                      • Europe slowing down
                                                        • A similar case for Asia Pacific
                                                          • A moderating uptrend in Africa
                                                            • North American airlines hold on to earlier gains
                                                              • Figure 26: Airline performance on international routes by major region, July 2017 & YTD
                                                            • Domestic markets
                                                              • Indian market regains some momentum
                                                                • Strengthening economy boosting Russian RPKs
                                                                  • Passenger traffic lifted by a rebounding Japanese economy
                                                                    • Growth in demand and capacity picking up in the US
                                                                      • Australian demand and capacity on the downswing
                                                                        • A recovering economy is boosting demand in Brazil
                                                                          • Figure 27: Airline performance on domestic routes by major country market, July 2017 & YTD
                                                                      • Distribution Intermediaries

                                                                          • GDSs depend essentially on air tickets
                                                                            • Figure 28: Bookings by type at Amadeus & Sabre, 2012-16
                                                                          • War with GDSs
                                                                            • Airlines react
                                                                              • Lufthansa charges €16 fee on GDS bookings
                                                                                • Lufthansa joined by Ukraine International Airlines
                                                                                  • Most tickets still sold via indirect channels
                                                                                    • More airlines to follow
                                                                                      • British Airways joins Lufthansa
                                                                                        • CWT avoids IAG charges
                                                                                          • Distribution fees not the only issue
                                                                                            • Air France follows suit
                                                                                              • GDSs under pressure?
                                                                                                • GDS CEOs continue to defend position
                                                                                                  • JetBlue cuts ties with 12 OTAs but not with major players
                                                                                                    • Metasearch favoured
                                                                                                      • Metasearch faces challenges
                                                                                                        • Rise of mobile poses a problem
                                                                                                          • Skyscanner demonstrates business benefits
                                                                                                            • NDC opens offers opportunities
                                                                                                              • It works in China
                                                                                                                • Airline/metasearcher relationship to evolve
                                                                                                                  • Google a threat?
                                                                                                                    • Loss of control
                                                                                                                      • What can airlines do?
                                                                                                                        • Harnessing ATPCo
                                                                                                                          • ATPCO needs to evolve
                                                                                                                            • Upgrading ATPCO
                                                                                                                            • Insolvency

                                                                                                                                • Air Berlin
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 29: Trend in Air Berlin’s profit, 2007-15
                                                                                                                                • 100,000 Air Berlin flight tickets invalid
                                                                                                                                  • Lufthansa steps in
                                                                                                                                    • Lufthansa takes over long-haul routes
                                                                                                                                      • easyJet to get planes and routes
                                                                                                                                        • Air Berlin in last-minute talks with easyJet and Condor
                                                                                                                                          • easyJet takes over Airbus 320 leases and slots
                                                                                                                                            • Alitalia
                                                                                                                                              • Next steps
                                                                                                                                                • Seven offers for Alitalia
                                                                                                                                                  • Lufthansa confirms interest in Alitalia
                                                                                                                                                    • Cerberus’ offer to acquire Alitalia
                                                                                                                                                      • Lufthansa close to Alitalia takeover
                                                                                                                                                        • Alitalia’s path out of bankruptcy
                                                                                                                                                          • New schedules for winter and summer 2018
                                                                                                                                                            • Improved finances
                                                                                                                                                              • Reinforcing the corporate segment
                                                                                                                                                                • No significant customer attrition
                                                                                                                                                                  • A complete turnover in management
                                                                                                                                                                    • Future growth prospects
                                                                                                                                                                      • Monarch Airways
                                                                                                                                                                        • UK airlines rush to engage Monarch crew
                                                                                                                                                                          • Monarch administrators fought to retain landing slots
                                                                                                                                                                            • Monarch wins right to airport slots
                                                                                                                                                                              • London Gatwick slots sold
                                                                                                                                                                                • Niki goes under too
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Hawaii’s Island Air files for Chapter 11
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Airline has ceased operations
                                                                                                                                                                                    • LCCs Taking Share

                                                                                                                                                                                        • LCCs have ramped up market share in Europe
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 30: Rising trend in LCC market share in Europe, 2002-17*
                                                                                                                                                                                        • LCCs vs. legacy airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 31: Trend in the share of flights in Europe: LCCs vs. traditional scheduled carriers, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 32: The biggest LCC country markets in Europe, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 33: LCC share of flights by major European country market, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                        • LCC share growing in German market
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Dramatic expansion of Eurowings
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Falling ticket prices
                                                                                                                                                                                              • LCCs taking over in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 34: Year-on-year growth in seat capacity in Spain’s aviation market, 2014-16
                                                                                                                                                                                              • LCCs grow in Eastern Europe
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 35: Seat capacity & LCC share of total, in the five largest Eastern European markets, February 2010 & February 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Wizz Air and Ryanair lead the pack
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 36: Trend in the capacity share of the top 5 airlines in the 5 leading Eastern European aviation markets, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Legacy carriers losing share
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Very little overlap between Wizz Air and Ryanair
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 37: Routes operated from 5 Eastern European countries by Wizz Air & Ryanair, in February 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 38: Ryanair & Wizz Air combined share of selected country markets, seat capacity, in February 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Czech Republic
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Bulgaria
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • LCC penetration high in much of Asia
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 39: LCC share of available seats within select North East & South East Asian domestic markets, 5-11 June 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Some international routes heavily penetrated by LCCs
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 40: LCC share of available seats in the 20 largest international North East & South East Asian routes, 5-11june 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • LCCs dominate in South Asia
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 41: Domestic market share of airlines in India, February 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Indian aviation market is booming
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 42: Passengers carried by domestic airlines in India, January 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Other performance indicators
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • LCC long-haul flights a new challenge
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Long-haul LCCs going strong in Asia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • A sharp rise in traffic at AirAsia X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 43: AirAsia X performance data, 2013-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • AirAsia X’s A330-300s have 377 seats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 44: Number of seats on A330-300s operated by a sample of Asian & European carriers, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Australia is the leading country market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 45: AirAsia X's leading country markets served from Kuala Lumpur, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Routes to the US?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Learning by trial and error
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 46: Routes launched & later abandoned by AirAsia X, 2009-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • LCCs flying transatlantic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Legacy LCC subsidiaries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • North American LCCs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Lower fares to come?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Over-capacity and Brexit worries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Transatlantic LCC routes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Eurowings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Level
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Norwegian Air Shuttle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Air Canada Rouge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • WestJet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • WOW Air adds new US services
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • easyjet collaboration with Norwegian and WestJet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Norwegian serves over 60 destinations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 47: Norwegian's top 15 airports by departing flights, summer 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Expansion at Copenhagen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 48: Destinations served by Norwegian from Copenhagen, summer 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • US and Spanish routes dominate ASK rankings at CPH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 49: Norwegian's top 15 routes from Copenhagen (CPH) by ASKs, summer 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Spain is biggest of 26 destinations from CPH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 50: Norwegian's top 15 destinations from CPH ranked by weekly departing seats, summer 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Norwegian UK (NUK) gets transatlantic permit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Air France-KLM’s Millennial-focused airline
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Getting the positioning right
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • ‘Do not target Millennials explicitly’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Cutting costs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Future plans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Impact on legacy business models
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Basic economy – a ‘loss-leader’ defence against ULCCs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • In-flight Wi-Fi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • In-flight Wi-Fi driven by the iPhone
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Paying for in-flight Wi-fi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Adoption growing fast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Outlook for in-flight Wi-Fi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A third of passengers log on to free Wi-Fi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Connectivity options
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • ATG networks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Satellite connectivity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Equipment suppliers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 51: Juniper ranking of in-flight Wi-Fi providers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Panasonic Avionics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Gogo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Thales Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • SITA OnAir
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Key market trends
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • In-flight Wi-Fi can be a money-spinner
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Emirates Wi-Fi offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 52: Emirates’ revised in-flight Wi-Fi offering by loyalty tier, July 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Find ways to generate revenue
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The importance of ancillary revenues
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 53: Top 10 airlines – Total ancillary revenue in 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Revenue streams from in-flight Wi-Fi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 54: Forecasted airline share of the US$30-billion broadband-enabled ancillary revenue by type, 2018-35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • E-commerce platforms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 55: Projected ancillary revenues for airlines from in-flight Wi-Fi by region, 2018-35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Why not continuous in-flight shopping?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Political Risk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Brexit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • A warning from Ryanair
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Qatar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Some respite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Trump
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The US becoming a pariah
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Bombardier tariffs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Gulf carriers targeted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Delta CEO decries ‘subsidised’ Gulf carriers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Electronic travel ban a protectionist move
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A move against open skies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Why only those ten airports?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Third travel ban blocked by judge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Judge in Hawaii rules against ban
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Travel ban finally upheld
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Top 20 Country Markets

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Australia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Qantas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Virgin Australia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 56: Australia – Passenger airlines: company market share by volume of passengers (%), 2013-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Domestic market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 57: Australia – Passenger airlines: domestic market share by volume of passengers (%), 2013-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • International market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 58: Australia – Passenger airlines: international market share by volume of passengers (%), 2013-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Brazil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • LATAM Airlines Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 59: Brazil – Passenger airlines: domestic market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Domestic market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • International market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 60: Brazil – Passenger airlines: international market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Canada
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Air Canada
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • WestJet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 61: Canada – Passenger airlines: company market share by volume of passengers (%), 2013-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • China
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • China Southern Airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Air China
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • China Eastern Airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • HNA Aviation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 62: China – Passenger airlines: domestic market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Domestic market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • International market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 63: China – Passenger airlines: international market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Colombia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Avianca Holdings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Passenger transport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • VivaColombia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 64: Colombia – Passenger airlines: company market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Domestic market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 65: Colombia – Passenger airlines: domestic market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 66: Colombia – Passenger airlines: international market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • France
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Air France-KLM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Domestic market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 67: France – Passenger airlines: domestic market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • International market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 68: France – Passenger airlines: international market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Germany
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Lufthansa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Air Berlin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 69: Germany – Passenger airlines: company market share by volume of passengers (%), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • India
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Air India
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • IndiGo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Jet Airways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • SpiceJet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Domestic market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 70: India – Passenger airlines: domestic market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 71: India – Passenger airlines: international market share by volume of passengers (%), 2013-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Indonesia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lion Air
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Garuda
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Domestic market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 72: Indonesia – Passenger airlines: domestic market share by volume of passengers (%), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • International market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • AirAsia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 73: Indonesia – Passenger airlines: international market share by volume of passengers (%), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ryanair
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • easyJet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 74: Italy – Passenger airlines: company market share by volume of passengers (%), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Japan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • All Nippon Airways (ANA)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Japan Airlines (JAL)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 75: Japan – Passenger airlines: company market share by volume of passengers (%), 2012-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Mexico
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Domestic market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Aeroméxico
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Alliance with Delta
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Volaris
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Interjet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 76: Mexico – Passenger airlines: domestic market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • United Airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • American Airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Delta Air Lines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Southwest Airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 77: Mexico – Passenger airlines: international market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Aeroflot
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • S7 Airline
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 78: Russia – Passenger airlines: company market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • South Africa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • South African Airways (SAA)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Comair
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 79: South Africa – Passenger airlines: company market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Domestic market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 80: South Africa – Passenger airlines: domestic market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • International market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Emirates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • British Airways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 81: South Africa – Passenger airlines: international market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • South Korea
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Korean Air Lines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Asiana Airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Jeju
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Air Busan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 82: South Korea – Passenger airlines: company market share by volume of passengers (%), 2013-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ryanair
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • IAG/Vueling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 83: Trend in IAG’s capacity by region for the year ended 31 December 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 84: Key performance data by airline subsidiary, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Air Europa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 85: Spain – Passenger airlines: company market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Turkish Airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Pegasus Airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 86: Turkey – Passenger airlines: company market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Domestic market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 87: Turkey – Passenger airlines: domestic market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • International market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 88: Turkey – Passenger airlines: international market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • easyJet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 89: Key figures for easyJet, 2007 compared to 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 90: Key performance data, 12 months to end September 2016 & 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • British Airways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ryanair
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 91: UK – Passenger airlines: company market share by volume of passengers (%), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • US
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Southwest Airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Delta Air Lines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • United Air Lines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • American Airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Domestic market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 92: US – Passenger airlines: domestic market share by volume of passengers (%), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • International market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 93: US – Passenger airlines: international market share by volume of passengers (%), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Vietnam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Vietnam Airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • VietJet Aviation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Domestic market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 94: Vietnam – Passenger airlines: domestic market share by volume of passengers (%), 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • International market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 95: Vietnam – Passenger airlines: international market share by volume of passengers (%), 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Frequent-Flyer Programmes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 96: Frequent-flyer programme details by airline, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • American’s CEO likens miles to Bitcoin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Delta thins the top tier
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Co-branded credit cards an exception
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Delta ups requirements drastically
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mixed reaction to change
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Air France-KLM switches to expenditure-based programme
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Alexa skills
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Biometric IFE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Goggles for Air France’s new Joons LCC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Gogo’s new hardware
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • IFE on easyJet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Netflix streaming services
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Check-in no longer necessary for iPhone app users
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Auto check-in not so popular
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ten Biggest Airlines

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 97: Top 10 airlines by scheduled RPKs flown (international & domestic), 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • American Airlines (AA)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • SWOT analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Fleet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 98: American’s fleet at 31 December 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Future deliveries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 99: Future aircraft deliveries for American Airlines, 2017-20*
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • American reduces international capacity from Chicago O’Hare
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • International capacity from O’Hare has declined
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 100: American’s capacity at O'Hare, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • American gaining ground on United 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 101: American’s seat capacity share at O’Hare, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • American operates 138 routes from O’Hare, of which United serves 123
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 102: American’s top 40 routes from O’Hare in comparison with United, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • American’s summer 2017 network from O’Hare
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Delta Air Lines

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • SWOT analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Fleet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 103: Delta’s aircraft fleet at 31 December 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Future deliveries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 104: Delta’s future aircraft deliveries – purchases and options, as at 31 December 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 105: Delta’s aircraft purchase commitments by year of expected delivery, 31 December 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Corporate travel outlook brightest in years
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Delta introduces free texting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Delta to invite Aeroméxico as transatlantic JV member
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • United Airlines (UAL)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • SWOT analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Fleet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 106: United’s mainline aircraft fleet, 31 December 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Future deliveries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 107: Aircraft purchase commitments, 31 December 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • United Continental takes a tumble
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • United ready to ‘re-bank’ hubs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • United launches new long-haul routes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Emirates

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • SWOT analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Fleet and future deliveries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 108: Emirates’ operating aircraft fleet & new orders at 31 March 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • ‘Superconnectors’ under pressure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 109: Growth in passenger traffic on the three main Gulf carriers, Emirates, Etihad & Qatar Airways, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • New competitors in the market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Adapting the business model
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • China Southern Airlines

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • SWOT analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Fleet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 110: China Southern’s fleet at 31 December 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Future deliveries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Domestic routes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Regional routes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • International routes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Southwest Airlines

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • SWOT analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Fleet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 111: Southwest’s aircraft fleet, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Future deliveries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 112: Southwest’s aircraft firm orders & options, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • International routes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lufthansa

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • SWOT analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Fleet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 113: Lufthansa airline group aircraft fleet, 31 December 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Future deliveries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 114: Lufthansa airline group’s expected aircraft deliveries, 2017-25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lufthansa completely dominates German market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lufthansa Partners with blockchain start-up
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A B2B solution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • British Airways

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • SWOT analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Fleet and future deliveries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 115: British Airways’ fleet & expected future deliveries at 31 December 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Fares for under £40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ryanair

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • SWOT analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Fleet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Future deliveries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ryanair cancels 18,000 flights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • China Eastern Airlines

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • SWOT analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Fleet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 116: China Eastern’s aircraft fleet at 31 December 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Future deliveries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 117: Fleet additions & retirements at China Eastern, 2017-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Air Freight

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 118: Top 10 airlines by scheduled freight tonne, kilometres flown (international & domestic), 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • What Next?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Where will growth occur?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 119: Projected passenger numbers by region in 2035
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Further growth of LCCs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Long haul a growth opportunity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • China and Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Consolidation of Europe’s aviation sector
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • More fragmented than US
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 120: Market share of total seats in % of top 6 carriers in Western Europe, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 121: Market share in % of total seats of top-6 carriers in the US, 2017

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    About the report

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This report will give you a complete 360-degree view of your market. Not only is it rooted in robust proprietary and high-quality third-party data, but our industry experts put that data into context and you’ll quickly understand:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Consumer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      What They Want. Why They Want It.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Competitors

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Who’s Winning. How To Stay Ahead.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Market

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Size, Segments, Shares And Forecasts: How It All Adds Up.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Innovations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      New Ideas. New Products. New Potential.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Opportunities

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Where The White Space Is. How To Make It Yours.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Trends

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      What’s Shaping Demand – Today And Tomorrow.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Please Note: This is a sample report. All of the figures, graphs, and tables have been redacted.

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