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Clothing Retailing - Germany - October 2019

“Spending on clothing in Germany stagnated in 2018, declining 0.5% compared to the previous year. Some of the leading specialists have achieved strong growth and increased their revenues at double-digit rates, mostly by effectively combining offline and online channels and taking measures to remain relevant to their target audiences. Other players continued to struggle to adapt to the changes in the market and carried out further store closure programmes in an attempt to eliminate unprofitable stores, while some have disappeared from the market entirely.”

- Armando Falcao, European Retail Analyst

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Table of contents

  1. Overview

    • What you need to know
      • Areas covered in this report
      • Executive Summary

          • The market
            • Consumer spending
              • Figure 1: Germany: Consumer spending on clothing and footwear (incl. VAT), 2014-19
            • Sector size and forecast
              • Figure 2: Germany: Specialist clothing retailers, sales growth, 2014-19
            • Inflation
              • Channels of distribution
                • Figure 3: Germany: Estimated distribution of spending on clothing and footwear by channel, 2018
              • Companies and brands
                • Leading players
                  • Figure 4: Germany: Annual sales growth of the leading specialist clothing retailers, 2018
                • Market shares
                  • Figure 5: Germany: Leading specialist clothing retailers, sales as % of all spending on clothing and footwear, 2015 and 2018
                • Online
                  • Figure 6: Germany: Online sales of clothing, 2014-19
                • The consumer
                  • Where they shop for clothing
                    • Figure 7: Germany: Channels used for buying clothes in the last 12 months, June 2019
                    • Figure 8: Germany: Retailers used for buying clothing in the last 12 months, June 2019
                    • Figure 9: Germany: Non-specialist stores used to shop for clothing, June 2019
                  • Attitudes to shopping for clothing
                    • Figure 10: Germany: Attitudes to shopping for clothing, June 2019
                  • What we think
                  • Issues and Insights

                    • Combining online and offline as a strategy for growth
                      • The facts
                        • The implications
                          • Germans enjoy shopping for clothes and move away from ‘fast fashion’
                            • The facts
                              • The implications
                              • The Market – What You Need to Know

                                • Market for clothing shrinks 0.5%
                                  • Clothing specialists’ sales drop by 1.8% in 2018
                                    • Inflation rises further to 1.9% in 2018
                                      • Specialists continue to dominate the clothing sector
                                      • Consumer Spending

                                            • Figure 11: Germany: Consumer spending on clothing and footwear (incl. VAT), 2014-19
                                        • Sector Size and Forecast

                                          • Sales decline for the specialists in 2018
                                            • Figure 12: Germany: Specialist clothing retailers, sales (excl. VAT), 2014-19
                                            • Figure 13: Germany: Specialist clothing retailers, forecast sales (excl VAT), 2019-24
                                        • Inflation

                                          • Inflation hits its highest point in five years
                                            • Figure 14: Germany: Harmonised index of consumer prices, annual % change, 2013-18
                                            • Figure 15: Germany: Harmonised index of consumer prices, annual % change, January 2018 – August 2019
                                        • Channels of Distribution

                                          • Specialists continue to dominate sales
                                              • Figure 16: Germany: estimated distribution of spending on clothing and footwear by channel, 2018
                                          • Companies and Brands – What You Need to Know

                                            • Signs of recovery from the past two years
                                              • Number of outlets declines further
                                                • H&M remains the leader in spite of decreasing sales
                                                  • Online share of clothing spending resumes growth
                                                  • Leading Players

                                                      • Signs of recovery from the past two years
                                                        • Primark’s prices raise controversy in Germany
                                                          • C&A undergoes change in management again and aims for sustainability
                                                            • Zalando continues to combine online and offline
                                                              • Esprit reduces portfolio but no turn-around yet
                                                                • Miller & Monroe’s turn to leave the market
                                                                  • Figure 17: Germany: Leading specialist clothing retailers, sales (excl. VAT), 2014-18
                                                                  • Figure 18: Germany: Leading specialist clothing retailers, outlets, 2014-18
                                                                  • Figure 19: Germany: Leading clothing specialists, sales per outlet, 2014-18
                                                              • Market Shares

                                                                  • Figure 20: Germany: Leading specialist clothing retailers’ sales as % of all spending on clothing and footwear, 2015-18
                                                              • Online

                                                                • Online activity
                                                                  • Shopping for clothing online
                                                                    • Figure 21: Germany: Online purchasing in the last 12 months, 2013-18
                                                                  • Clothing share of online sales
                                                                    • 58% shop online
                                                                      • Figure 22: Germany: Customers who shopped online or by catalogue for clothing, by age group, June 2019
                                                                    • Online searches for clothing retailers
                                                                      • Figure 23: Germany: Search interest on Google, last 12 months, September 2018 – August 2019
                                                                    • Leading online retailers
                                                                      • Otto Group becomes the largest online marketplace for clothing
                                                                        • One-third of consumers have Amazon Prime membership
                                                                          • Zalando the leader online among specialists
                                                                            • Figure 24: Germany: Estimated online sales of clothing by major retailers, 2016-18
                                                                        • The Consumer – What You Need to Know

                                                                          • 58% shopped online for clothing
                                                                            • C&A is still the most popular specialist in Germany
                                                                              • Amazon establishes itself as the dominant non-specialist
                                                                                • German consumers appear to be moving away from fast fashion
                                                                                  • Enjoying the shopping experience is key
                                                                                    • Price and convenience remain important factors
                                                                                    • Where They Shop for Clothes

                                                                                      • 58% have shopped online for clothing
                                                                                        • Figure 25: Germany: Channels used for buying clothes in the last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                      • Online buying reaches across the age groups
                                                                                        • Figure 26: Germany: Channels used for buying clothes in the last 12 months, by age group, June 2019
                                                                                      • Store-based specialists remain dominant
                                                                                        • Figure 27: Germany: Stores used to shop for clothing, combined nets, June 2019
                                                                                      • Clothing specialists
                                                                                        • Online specialists establish themselves in the market
                                                                                          • Figure 28: Germany: Specialist retailers used for buying clothing in the last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                        • Customer profiles
                                                                                          • Figure 29: Germany: Where they shop for clothing, by average age and household income, clothing specialists, June 2019
                                                                                        • Non-specialists
                                                                                          • Amazon continues to operate as the dominant non-specialist
                                                                                            • Merger of Galeria Kaufhof and Karstadt
                                                                                              • Small share of purchases in supermarkets and hypermarkets
                                                                                                • Figure 30: Germany: Non-specialist stores used to shop for clothing, June 2019
                                                                                            • Attitudes to Shopping for Clothes

                                                                                              • German consumers appear to be moving away from ‘fast fashion’
                                                                                                • Figure 31: Germany: Selected attitudes to shopping for clothing, June 2019
                                                                                              • Enjoying the shopping experience is key
                                                                                                • Figure 32: Germany: Selected attitudes to shopping for clothing, June 2019
                                                                                              • Price and convenience remain important factors
                                                                                                • Figure 33: Germany: Selected attitudes to shopping for clothing, June 2019
                                                                                              • Attitudes by specialist retailer used
                                                                                                • Figure 34: Germany: Attitudes to shopping for clothing, by where they shopped in the last 12 months: Specialists, June 2019
                                                                                              • Attitudes by non-specialist used
                                                                                                • Figure 35: Germany: Attitudes to shopping for clothing, by where they shopped in the last 12 months: Non-specialists, June 2019
                                                                                            • Appendix – Data Sources, Abbreviations and Supporting Information

                                                                                              • Abbreviations
                                                                                                • Data sources
                                                                                                • C&A

                                                                                                    • What we think
                                                                                                      • Making up for lost time online
                                                                                                        • Partnering with other brands
                                                                                                          • Changes in management
                                                                                                            • C&A continues to focus on sustainability
                                                                                                              • Company background
                                                                                                                • Company performance
                                                                                                                  • Figure 36: C&A: Group financial performance, 2013/14 – 2018/19
                                                                                                                  • Figure 37: C&A: Outlet data, 2013/14 – 2018/19
                                                                                                                • Retail offering
                                                                                                                • Esprit

                                                                                                                    • What we think
                                                                                                                      • Esprit goes green and commits to improve workers’ rights
                                                                                                                        • Pursuing an “ambitious but realistic plan”
                                                                                                                          • Esprit resumes expansion in Europe
                                                                                                                            • Company background
                                                                                                                              • Company performance
                                                                                                                                • Figure 38: Esprit: Group financial performance, 2013/14-2018/19
                                                                                                                                • Figure 39: Esprit: Outlet* data, 2013/14-2018/19
                                                                                                                              • Retail offering
                                                                                                                              • H&M Hennes & Mauritz

                                                                                                                                  • What we think
                                                                                                                                    • Digital
                                                                                                                                      • Store development
                                                                                                                                        • Company background
                                                                                                                                          • Company performance
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 42: H&M Hennes & Mauritz: group financial performance, 2013/14-2017/18
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 43: H&M Hennes & Mauritz: outlet data, 2013/14-2017/18
                                                                                                                                          • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                          • Grupo Inditex

                                                                                                                                              • What we think
                                                                                                                                                • Growth from a combination of online and offline channels
                                                                                                                                                  • Diversification and dedicated content on social channels
                                                                                                                                                    • Inditex’s new strategy focuses on sustainability
                                                                                                                                                      • Company background
                                                                                                                                                        • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 44: Grupo Inditex: sales and outlets by format, 2018/19
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 45: Grupo Inditex, performance by brand, 2017-19
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 46: Grupo Inditex: group financial performance, 2013/14-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 47: Grupo Inditex: outlet data, 2013/14-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                        • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                        • KiK

                                                                                                                                                            • What we think
                                                                                                                                                              • Bricks-and-mortar makeover now almost complete
                                                                                                                                                                • Eastern Europe markets driving sales growth
                                                                                                                                                                  • Online sales and website visitors up
                                                                                                                                                                    • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                      • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 48: KiK: Group financial performance, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 49: KiK: Outlet data, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                      • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                      • Primark/Penneys

                                                                                                                                                                          • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                            • European expansion continues
                                                                                                                                                                              • Offline business model could hold back growth
                                                                                                                                                                                • Greater focus on experience could point the way forward
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Growing sentiment against fast fashion is forcing change on the business
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Where now?
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 50: Primark/Penneys: group financial performance, 2014/15-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 51: Primark/Penneys: outlet data, 2014/15-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                        • TJX International (TK Maxx Europe)

                                                                                                                                                                                            • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                              • A shift in focus?
                                                                                                                                                                                                • A need to push the digital side of the business
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Where now?
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 52: TJX International (TK Maxx Europe): Group financial performance, 2014/15-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 53: TJX International (TK Maxx Europe): Outlet data, 2014/15-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Zalando

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Selling more products, slower revenue growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Zalando continues to succeed by combining online and offline
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Zalando’s circular fashion joins the physical world
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Zalando expands beauty range to five new markets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Average basket size is still decreasing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Zalando Plus loyalty scheme expanded
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Zalando trials robots for customer orders
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Moving away from own brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • What next?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 54: Zalando: group financial performance, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 55: Zalando: key metrics, 2016-H1 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Retail offering

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Clothing Retailing - Germany - October 2019

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