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Description

Description

This is the 19th edition of the European Retail Handbook. In it we provide the essential background information to understanding the retail scene in each European country.

The European Retail Handbook provides top line demographic and economic data and a more detailed analysis of retail trade in each country. Where possible, retail information is given both on a national and sector basis, and we also provide data on the structure of the trade in terms of businesses, outlets and employees. Major retailers and retail groupings are identified with an indication of their size and relative importance. Other useful information includes synopses of the retail scene in each country and contact points for sources of further information.

The statistical information in the Handbook comes principally from official national or pan-European sources, while the company data has been obtained either directly from the organisations concerned or through trade press reports and duly acknowledged research bodies. Both have been reinforced by Mintel estimates and projections where necessary and we have made every effort to point out anomalies and differences in methodologies and definitions across the various countries.

What's included

What's included

Table of contents

Table of contents

  1. Introduction

      • Definitions
      • Pan European Comparisons

        • Population
          • Figure 1: Europe: Population, by country, 2014
          • Figure 2: Europe: Population, by country, 2014
        • GDP
          • Figure 3: Europe: GDP, by country and per capita, 2014
          • Figure 4: Europe: GDP per capita, by country, 2014
        • Consumer spending
          • Figure 5: Europe: Consumer expenditure, by country and per capita, 2014
          • Figure 6: Europe: Consumer expenditure per capita, by country, 2014
        • Retail sales
          • Figure 7: Europe: Retail sales, by country and per capita, 2014
          • Figure 8: Europe: Retail sales per capita, by country, 2014
        • Online
          • Figure 9: Europe: % of adults who have made an online purchase in last 12 months, 2014
          • Figure 10: Europe: % of adults who have made an online purchase in last 12 months, 2014
        • Exchange rates
          • Figure 11: Eurozone members, 2015
          • Figure 12: Average annual European exchange rates: €, £ and $, 2014
      • Albania

          • The Albanian retail scene
            • Albania in figures
              • Population
                • Figure 13: Albania: Population trends, 2011-15
                • Figure 14: Albania: Population, by age group and gender, 2015
                • Figure 15: Albania: Population, by prefecture, 2011-15
                • Figure 16: Albania: Urban vs rural population, 2011-15
              • Economy
                • Figure 17: Albania: GDP, 2005-14
                • Figure 18: Albania: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                • Figure 19: Albania: Unemployment rate, by age, 2011-14
                • Figure 20: Albania: Final household consumption, 2004-13
                • Figure 21: Albania: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2009-13
              • Albanian retailing in figures
                • Figure 22: Albania: Retail sales, including motor vehicles, 2010-14
                • Figure 23: Albania: Retail sales indices, by broad sector, 2009-13
              • Major retailers in Albania
                • Figure 24: Albania: Leading retailers, 2014
              • Contacts and sources
                • INSTAT – INSTITUTE OF STATISTICS
                  • BANK OF ALBANIA
                  • Austria

                      • The Austrian retail scene
                        • Austria in figures
                          • Population
                            • Figure 25: Austria: Population, 2011-15
                            • Figure 26: Austria: Population, by age group, 2011-15
                            • Figure 27: Austria: Number of private households, household size, 2014
                            • Figure 28: Austria: Population, by region, 2011-14
                          • Economy
                            • Figure 29: Austria: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                            • Figure 30: Austria: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                            • Figure 31: Austria: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2005-14
                            • Figure 32: Austria: Final consumption expenditure of households by purpose, current prices, 2010-14
                          • Austrian retailing in figures
                            • Figure 33: Austria: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                            • Figure 34: Austria: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                          • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                            • Figure 35: Austria: Retail businesses and employment, 2012-13
                          • Online retailing in Austria
                            • Figure 36: Austria: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                            • Figure 37: Austria: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                          • Food retailing in Austria
                            • Figure 38: Austria: Leading food retailers, 2014
                          • Mixed goods and department stores
                            • Figure 39: Austria: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2014
                          • Clothing and footwear retailers
                            • Figure 40: Austria: Leading clothing specialists, 2014
                          • DIY specialists
                            • Figure 41: Austria: Leading DIY retailers, 2014
                          • Furniture specialists
                            • Figure 42: Austria: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                          • Electricals specialists
                            • Figure 43: Austria: Leading electricals retailers, 2014
                          • Beauty specialists
                            • Figure 44: Austria: Leading health & beauty retailers, 2014
                          • Miscellaneous specialists
                            • Figure 45: Austria: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2014
                          • Online and other home shopping retailers
                            • Figure 46: Austria: Leading home shopping retailers, 2014
                          • Contacts and sources
                            • STATISTIK AUSTRIA – Vienna
                              • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                              • Belarus

                                  • The Belarussian retail scene
                                    • Belarus in figures
                                      • Population
                                        • Figure 47: Belarus: Population trends, 2011-15
                                        • Figure 48: Belarus: Population, by prefecture, 2011-15
                                      • Economy
                                        • Figure 49: Belarus: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                        • Figure 50: Belarus: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                        • Figure 51: Belarus: Final household consumption, 2006-13
                                        • Figure 52: Belarus: Breakdown of final household consumption, 2009-13
                                      • Belarussian retailing in figures
                                        • Figure 53: Belarus: Retail sales, 2010-14
                                        • Figure 54: Belarus: Retail outlets, 2010-14
                                        • Figure 55: Belarus: % share of total retail sales, by ownership, 2009-14
                                      • Major retailers in Belarus
                                        • Figure 56: Belarus: Major retailers, 2014
                                      • Contacts and sources
                                        • NATIONAL STATISTICAL COMMITTEE OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS – Minsk
                                          • NATIONAL BANK OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS – Minsk
                                            • BELARUS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY – Minsk
                                            • Belgium

                                                • The Belgian retail scene
                                                  • Belgium in figures
                                                    • Population
                                                      • Figure 57: Belgium: Population, 2011-15
                                                      • Figure 58: Belgium: Population, by age group, 2011-15
                                                      • Figure 59: Belgium: Population, by region, 2013-15
                                                    • Economy
                                                      • Figure 60: Belgium: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                      • Figure 61: Belgium: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                      • Figure 62: Belgium: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2005-13
                                                      • Figure 63: Belgium: Breakdown of consumer spending, by category, 2010-13
                                                    • Belgian retailing in figures
                                                      • Figure 64: Belgium: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                      • Figure 65: Belgium: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                    • Enterprises and employment
                                                      • Figure 66: Belgium: Retail businesses and employment, 2010-13
                                                    • Online retailing in Belgium
                                                      • Figure 67: Belgium: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                                                      • Figure 68: Belgium: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                    • Food retailing in Belgium
                                                        • Figure 69: Belgium: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                        • Figure 70: Belgium: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2014
                                                      • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                        • Figure 71: Belgium: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2014
                                                      • DIY specialists
                                                        • Figure 72: Belgium: Leading DIY retailers, 2014
                                                      • Furniture specialists
                                                        • Figure 73: Belgium: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                                                      • Electrical specialists
                                                          • Figure 74: Belgium: Leading electricals retailers, 2014
                                                        • Beauty specialists
                                                          • Figure 75: Belgium: Leading beauty retailers, 2014
                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                          • Figure 76: Belgium: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2014
                                                        • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                          • Figure 77: Belgium: Leading home shopping retailers, 2014
                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                          • INSTITUT NATIONAL DE STATISTIQUE – Brussels
                                                            • NATIONAL BANK OF BELGIUM
                                                              • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                              • Bulgaria

                                                                  • The Bulgarian retail scene
                                                                    • Bulgaria in figures
                                                                      • Population
                                                                        • Figure 78: Bulgaria: Population trends, 2010-14
                                                                        • Figure 79: Bulgaria: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                        • Figure 80: Bulgaria: Population, by district and municipality, 2010-14
                                                                      • Economy
                                                                        • Figure 81: Bulgaria: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                        • Figure 82: Bulgaria: Consumer prices, % annual change, 2009-14
                                                                        • Figure 83: Final consumption expenditure of households, 2004-14
                                                                        • Figure 84: Bulgaria: Average annual expenditure per household, at current prices, 2010-14
                                                                      • Bulgarian retailing in figures
                                                                        • Figure 85: Bulgaria: Retail sales, by category, excl. sales tax, 2010-14
                                                                        • Figure 86: Bulgaria: Retail enterprises, 2009-13
                                                                      • Online retailing in Bulgaria
                                                                        • Figure 87: Bulgaria: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2010-14
                                                                        • Figure 88: Bulgaria: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                      • Major retailers in Bulgaria
                                                                          • Figure 89: Bulgaria: Identified retailers, 2014
                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                          • NATIONAL STATISTICAL INSTITUTE – Sofia
                                                                            • BULGARIAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE & INDUSTRY – Sofia
                                                                              • INVEST BULGARIA AGENCY (FORMERLY BULGARIAN FOREIGN INVESTMENT AGENCY) – Sofia
                                                                                • BULGARIAN NATIONAL BANK – Sofia
                                                                                  • MINISTRY OF FINANCE – Sofia
                                                                                    • BULGARIAN RETAIL ASSOCIATION
                                                                                    • Croatia

                                                                                        • Croatian retail scene
                                                                                          • Croatia in figures
                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                              • Figure 90: Croatia: Population, 2010-15
                                                                                              • Figure 91: Croatia: Population, by age group, 2010-14
                                                                                              • Figure 92: Croatia: Population, by districts and city of Zagreb, 2014
                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                              • Figure 93: Croatia: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                              • Figure 94: Croatia: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                              • Figure 95: Croatia: Final household consumption, 2005-14
                                                                                              • Figure 96: Croatia: Average annual personal consumption per household, 2007-11
                                                                                            • Croatian retailing in figures
                                                                                              • Figure 97: Croatia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                              • Figure 98: Croatia: Selected and total retail sales, 2010-15
                                                                                            • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                              • Figure 99: Croatia: Retail businesses and employment, 2009-13
                                                                                            • Online retailing in Croatia
                                                                                              • Figure 100: Croatia: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2010-14
                                                                                              • Figure 101: Croatia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                            • Major retailers in Croatia
                                                                                                • Figure 102: Croatia: Selected leading retailers, 2014
                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                • CROATIAN BUREAU OF STATISTICS – Zagreb
                                                                                                  • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                  • Czech Republic

                                                                                                      • The Czech retail scene
                                                                                                        • Czech Republic in figures
                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                            • Figure 103: Czech Republic: Population, by gender, 2010-14
                                                                                                            • Figure 104: Czech Republic: Population, by gender and age group, 2010-14
                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                            • Figure 105: Czech Republic: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                            • Figure 106: Czech Republic: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                            • Figure 107: Czech Republic: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2004-14
                                                                                                            • Figure 108: Czech Republic: Breakdown of households consumption expenditure, 2010-14
                                                                                                          • Czech retailing in figures
                                                                                                            • Figure 109: Czech Republic: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2010-15
                                                                                                            • Figure 110: Czech Republic: Breakdown of retail sales, by sector, excl. VAT, 2010-15
                                                                                                          • Online retailing in the Czech Republic
                                                                                                            • Figure 111: Czech Republic: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2010-14
                                                                                                            • Figure 112: Czech Republic: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                          • Major retailers in the Czech Republic
                                                                                                              • Figure 113: Czech Republic: Leading retailers, 2014
                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                              • CESKY STATISTICKY URAD (CZECH STATISTICAL OFFICE) – Prague
                                                                                                                • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                  • ECONOMIC CHAMBER OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC – Prague
                                                                                                                    • ADMAZ (ASOCIACE DIRECT MARKETING A ZASILKOVEHO OBCHODU) – Prague
                                                                                                                      • CZECH FRANCHISING ASSOCIATION – Prague
                                                                                                                      • Denmark

                                                                                                                          • The Danish retail scene
                                                                                                                            • Denmark in figures
                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                • Figure 114: Denmark: Population trends, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                • Figure 115: Denmark: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                • Figure 116: Denmark: Households, by size, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                • Figure 117: Denmark: Population, by region, 2010-14
                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                • Figure 118: Denmark: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                • Figure 119: Denmark: Consumer prices inflation, % change on year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                • Figure 120: Denmark: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2004-14
                                                                                                                                • Figure 121: Denmark: Breakdown of consumer spending, by category (incl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                              • Danish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                • Figure 122: Denmark: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15 (f)
                                                                                                                                • Figure 123: Denmark: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15 (f)
                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Denmark
                                                                                                                                • Figure 124: Denmark: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                • Figure 125: Denmark: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                              • Food retailing in Denmark
                                                                                                                                • Figure 126: Denmark: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                              • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                • Figure 127: Denmark: Major mixed goods retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                              • Clothing and footwear
                                                                                                                                • Figure 128: Denmark: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                              • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                • Figure 129: Denmark: Leading DIY specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                              • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                • Figure 130: Denmark: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                              • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                • Figure 131: Denmark: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                              • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                • Figure 132: Denmark: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                              • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                • Figure 133: Denmark: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                              • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                • Figure 134: Denmark: Leading home-shopping retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                • STATISTICS DENMARK – Copenhagen
                                                                                                                                  • RETAIL INSTITUTE SCANDINAVIA – Asnæs
                                                                                                                                    • DANSK INDUSTRI (DANISH CONFEDERATION OF DANISH INDUSTRY) – Copenhagen
                                                                                                                                      • DANSK MODE & TEXTIL– Herning
                                                                                                                                        • DE SAMVIRKENDE KØBMÆNDSFORENINGER I DANMARK – Hellerup
                                                                                                                                          • FDIH (Foreningen for Dansk Internethandel) – Copenhagen
                                                                                                                                            • DANSK HANDELSBLAD – Åbyhøj
                                                                                                                                            • Estonia

                                                                                                                                                • The Estonian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                  • Estonia in figures
                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 135: Estonia: Total population, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 136: Estonia: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 137: Estonia: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 138: Estonia: Consumer prices, annual % change, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 139: Estonia: Final consumption expenditure of households, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 140: Estonia: Breakdown of consumer spending, by category (incl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                    • Estonian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 141: Estonia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 142: Estonia: Selected breakdown of retail sales (excl VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                    • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 143: Estonia: Retail businesses and employment, 2011-13
                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Estonia
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 144: Estonia: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 145: Estonia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                    • Food retailing in Estonia
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 146: Estonia: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                    • Non-food retailing in Estonia
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 147: Estonia: Leading non-food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                      • NATIONAL STATISTICS OFFICE – Tallinn
                                                                                                                                                        • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                        • Finland

                                                                                                                                                            • The Finnish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                              • Finland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 148: Finland: Population trends, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 149: Finland: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 150: Finland: Households, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 151: Finland: Major regions, by inhabitants, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 152: Finland: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 153: Finland: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 154: Finland: Consumer prices expenditure (incl. VAT), 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 155: Finland: Breakdown of consumer spending by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                • Finnish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 156: Finland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 157: Finland: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Finland
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 158: Finland: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 159: Finland: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailing in Finland
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 160: Finland: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                • Department stores and mixed goods
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 161: Finland: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 162: Finland: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 163: Finland: Leading DIY specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 164: Finland: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 165: Finland: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 166: Finland: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 167: Finland: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 168: Finland: Leading home-shopping retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                  • STATISTICS FINLAND – Helsinki
                                                                                                                                                                    • KEHITTYVÄ KAUPPA – Helsinki
                                                                                                                                                                      • BANK OF FINLAND
                                                                                                                                                                      • France

                                                                                                                                                                          • The French retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                            • France in figures
                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 169: France: Population, by gender, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 170: France: Population, by age bracket and gender, January 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 171: France: Population, by region, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 172: France: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 173: France: Consumer prices, % change on year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 174: France: Household consumer expenditure, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 175: France: Detailed breakdown of consumer expenditure, inc VAT, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                              • France retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 176: France: Retail sales (ex VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 177: France: Retail sales breakdown (ex. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                              • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 178: France: Retail enterprises, 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in France
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 179: France: Household broadband access, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 180: France: Online purchases, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailing in France
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 181: France: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                • Mixed goods and department stores in France
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 182: France: Leading department store and mixed goods retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                • Clothing and footwear retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 183: France: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                  • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 184: France: Leading DIY specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Electrical goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 185: France: Leading electricals retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Furniture retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 186: France: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 187: France: Leading beauty specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Cultural, leisure and other non-food specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 188: France: Leading cultural, leisure and other non-food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 189: France: Leading online and home shopping retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 190: France: Major shopping malls, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                        • INSTITUT NATIONALE DE LA STATISTIQUE ET DES ÉTUDES ÉCONOMIQUES (INSEE) – Paris
                                                                                                                                                                                          • LIBRE SERVICE ACTUALITÉ (LSA) – Paris
                                                                                                                                                                                            • FÉDÉRATION DES ENTREPRISES DE VENTE À DISTANCE (FEVAD) – Paris
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Germany

                                                                                                                                                                                                • The German retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Germany in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 191: Germany: Total population, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 192: Germany: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 193: Germany: Population, by region and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 194: Germany: Number and size of households, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 195: Germany: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 196: Germany: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 197: Germany: Consumer spending totals (incl.VAT), 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 198: Germany: Breakdown of consumer spending, by broad category (incl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 199: Germany: Breakdown of consumer spending, by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2010-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • German retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 200: Germany: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 201: Germany: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 202: Germany: Number of retail enterprises, 2011-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 203: Germany: Number of retail outlets, 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 204: Germany: Number employed in retail, 2011-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Germany
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 205: Germany: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 206: Germany: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Food retailing in Germany
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 207: Germany: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Department store and mixed good retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 208: Germany: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 209: Germany: Leading clothing specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 210: Germany: Leading footwear specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 211: Germany: Leading DIY specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 212: Germany: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 213: Germany: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 214: Germany: Leading beauty specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 215: Germany: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 216: Germany: Online and other home-shopping retailers. 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 217: Germany: Major shopping malls, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • STATISTISCHES BUNDESAMT – Wiesbaden
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • LEBENSMITTEL-ZEITUNG – Frankfurt am Main
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Greece

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Greek retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Greece in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 218: Greece: Total population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 219: Greece: Population, by age group and gender, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 220: Greece: Population, by region, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 221: Greece: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 222: Greece: Consumer prices inflation, % change on year, 2010-15(Jan-Jun)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 223: Greece: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 224: Greece: Average monthly spending on goods and services (incl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Greek retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 225: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 226: Greece, Retail employment, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Greece
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 227: Greece: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 228: Greece: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailing in Greece
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 229: Greece: Leading food retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Clothing, footwear and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 230: Greece: Leading department stores and clothing retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Furniture and DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 231: Greece: Leading furniture and DIY stores, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 232: Greece: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Beauty retailers and other miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 233: Greece: Leading miscellaneous specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • HELLENIC STATISTICAL AUTHORITY (EL.STAT) – Athens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • IMF (INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND) – Washington
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • ATHENS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY (ACCI) – Athens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • NATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF HELLENIC COMMERCE – Athens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hungary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Hungarian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Hungary in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 234: Hungary: Population, by gender, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 235: Hungary: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 236: Hungary: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 237: Hungary: Consumer price index, annual % change, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 238: Hungary: Household consumption expenditure, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 239: Hungary: Breakdown of household consumption expenditure (incl. VAT), 2010-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hungarian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 240: Hungary: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 241: Hungary: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 242: Hungary: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 243: Hungary: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Leading retailers in Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 244: Hungary: Identified leading retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • HUNGARIAN CENTRAL STATISTICAL OFFICE/KÖZPONTI STATISZTIKAI HIVATAL – Budapest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • TRADE MAGAZIN – Budapest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MAI PIAC (Market Today) – Budapest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • ÉLELMISZER – Budapest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • HUNGARIAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY– Budapest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • MAGYAR ARUKÜLDÖK EGYESÜLETE – Budapest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ireland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Irish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ireland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 245: Ireland: Population, by gender, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 246: Ireland: Breakdown of population, by age group, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 247: Ireland: Population, by regional authority area, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 248: Ireland: Gross domestic product, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 249: Ireland: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 250: Ireland: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 251: Ireland: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2011-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Irish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 252: Ireland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 20010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 253: Ireland: Selected retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 254: Ireland: Retail businesses and employment, 2010-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 255: Ireland: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 256: Ireland: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailing in Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 257: Ireland: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 258: Ireland: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 259: Ireland: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 260: Ireland: Leading DIY retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 261: Ireland: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 262: Ireland: Leading electricals retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 263: Ireland: Leading health & beauty retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 264: Ireland: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online and other home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 265: Ireland: Leading home shopping retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • CENTRAL STATISTICS OFFICE (CSO) – Cork
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Italy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Italian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Italy in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 266: Italy: Total population, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 267: Italy: Population, by age group and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 268: Italy: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 269: Italy: Consumer prices inflation, annual % change, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 270: Italy: Final household expenditure (incl.VAT), 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 271: Italy: Breakdown of consumer spending by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Italian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 272: Italy: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 273: Italy: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 274: Italy: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 275: Italy: Online purchases of goods in last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Food retailing in Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 276: Italy: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 277: Italy: Leading department and variety stores, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 278: Italy: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 279: Italy: Leading DIY specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Electrical, furniture and household goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 280: Italy: Leading electrical, furniture and household goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 281: Italy: Leading beauty specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sporting goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 282: Italy: Major sporting goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online-only and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 283: Italy: Online-only retailers and other home shopping specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 284: Italy: Leading major shopping malls, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • INSTITUTO CENTRALE DI STATISTICA (ISTAT) – Rome
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • ITALIAN UNION OF THE CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE – Rome
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • FEDERAZIONE ASSOCIAZIONI IMPRESE DISTRIBUZIONE (FAID) – Milan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • ASSOCIAZIONE NAZIONALE FRA AZIENDE DI VENDITA PER CORRISPONDENZA E A DISTANZA (ANVED)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • ASSOCIAZIONE ITALIANA DEL FRANCHISING (AIF) – Milan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • LARGO CONSUMO – Milan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • FEDERAZIONE ITALIANA DETTAGLIANTI DELL ALIMENTAZIONE (FIDA) – Rome
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • FEDERAZIONE MODA ITALIA – Milan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Latvia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Latvian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Latvia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 285: Latvia: Population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 286: Latvia: Population, by age group, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 287: Latvia: Population, by region, 2013-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 288: Latvia: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 289: Latvia: Consumer prices inflation, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 290: Latvia: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2004-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 291: Latvia: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2010-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Latvian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 292: Latvia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 293: Latvia: Selected and total retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 294: Latvia: Retail businesses and employment, 2010-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Latvia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 295: Latvia: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 296: Latvia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major retailers in Latvia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 297: Latvia: Leading retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • CENTRAL STATISTICAL BUREAU OF LATVIA – Riga
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Lithuania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Lithuanian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lithuania in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 298: Lithuania: Population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 299: Lithuania: Population, by age group and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 300: Lithuania: Ten largest cities, by population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 301: Lithuania: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 302: Lithuania: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 303: Lithuania: Final household consumption, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lithuanian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 304: Lithuania: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 305: Lithuania: Breakdown of retail sales by sector, excl. VAT, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 306: Lithuania: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 307: Lithuania: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Majors retailers in Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 308: Lithuania: Identified leading retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • STATISTICS LITHUANIA – Vilnius
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • ASSOCIATION OF LITHUANIAN CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE & INDUSTRY – Vilnius
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • LITHUANIAN DEVELOPMENT AGENCY – Vilnius
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Luxembourg

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Luxembourg retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Luxembourg in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 309: Luxembourg: Population trends, 2011-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 310: Luxembourg: Population, by origin, 2011-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 311: Luxembourg: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 312: Luxembourg: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 313: Luxembourg: Consumer price inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 314: Luxembourg: Consumer expenditure, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 315: Luxembourg: Breakdown of consumer expenditure, by category, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Luxembourg retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 316: Luxembourg: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 317: Luxembourg: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 318: Luxembourg: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 319: Luxembourg: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major retailers in Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 320: Luxembourg: Major retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • SERVICE CENTRAL DE LA STATISTIQUE (STATEC) – Luxembourg City
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Macedonia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Macedonian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Macedonia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 321: Macedonia: Population trends, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 322: Macedonia: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 323: Macedonia: Population, by region, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 324: Macedonia, Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 325: Macedonia: Consumer prices, % change on year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 326: Macedonia: Final household consumption, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Macedonian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 327: Macedonia: Retail sales, 2011-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 328: Macedonia: Retail sales, 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Macedonia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 329: Macedonia: Leading retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA, STATE STATISTICAL OFFICE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • MACINVEST, AGENCY FOR FOREIGN INVESTMENTS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Moldova

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Moldovan retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Moldova in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 330: Moldova: Population trends, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 331: Moldova: Population, by age and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 332: Moldova: Population, by district, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 333: Moldova: gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 334: Moldova: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 335: Moldova: Final household consumption, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 336: Moldova: Breakdown of average monthly per capita household consumption, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Moldovan retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 337: Moldova: Retail sales, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 338: Moldova: Retail outlets, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 339: Moldova: Retail space, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Moldova
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 340: Moldova: Leading retailers, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA – Chisinau
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • NATIONAL BANK OF MOLDOVA – Chisinau
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • FOREIGN INVESTORS ASSOCIATION MOLDOVA – Chisinau
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Netherlands

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Dutch retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Netherlands in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 341: The Netherlands: Population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 342: The Netherlands: Population, by age and gender, at 1 January 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 343: The Netherlands: Number of households, by household size, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 344: The Netherlands: Population, by region, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 345: The Netherlands: Gross domestic product, 2007-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 346: The Netherlands: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 347: The Netherlands: Household’s consumption expenditure, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 348: The Netherlands: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Dutch retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 349: The Netherlands: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 350: The Netherlands: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 351: The Netherlands: Retail businesses and employment, 2011-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in the Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 352: The Netherlands: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 353: The Netherlands: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailing in the Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 354: The Netherlands: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 355: The Netherlands: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 356: The Netherlands: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 357: The Netherlands: Leading DIY retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 358: The Netherlands: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 359: The Netherlands: Leading electricals retailers. 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 360: The Netherlands: Leading health & beauty retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 361: The Netherlands: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 362: The Netherlands: Leading home shopping retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • CENTRAAL BUREAU VOOR DE STATISTIEK (CBS) – Heerlen/The Hague
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Norway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Norwegian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Norway in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 363: Norway: Population trends, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 364: Norway: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 365: Norway: Households, by size, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 366: Norway: Population, by county, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 367: Norway: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 368: Norway: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 369: Norway: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 370: Norway: Breakdown of consumer spending by category (incl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Norwegian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 371: Norway: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15 (f)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 372: Norway: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15 (f)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 373: Norway: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 374: Norway: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailing in Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 375: Norway: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 376: Norway: Major mixed goods retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Clothing and footwear
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 377: Norway: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 378: Leading DIY specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 379: Norway: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 380: Norway: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 381: Norway: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 382: Norway: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 383: Norway: Leading home-shopping retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • STATISTISK SENTRALBYRÅ (SB) – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • OSLO CHAMBER OF COMMERCE – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • VIRKE – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • DAGLIGVAREHANDELEN – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • TEKSTILFORUM – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • DISTANSEHANDEL NORGE – Oslo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Poland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Polish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Poland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 384: Poland: Population, by gender, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 385: Poland: Population, by age group, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 386: Poland: Population, by region, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 387: Poland: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 388: Poland: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 389: Poland: Households consumption expenditure, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 390: Poland: Breakdown of households consumption expenditure, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Polish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 391: Poland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 392: Poland: Selected and total retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 393: Poland: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 394: Poland: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailing in Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 395: Poland: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Non-food retailing in Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 396: Poland: Leading non-food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • POLISH CENTRAL STATISTICAL OFFICE – Warsaw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Portugal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Portuguese retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Portugal in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 397: Portugal: Total population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 398: Portugal: Population, by age group, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 399: Portugal: Population, by region, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 400: Portugal: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 401: Portugal: Consumer prices, annual % change, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 402: Portugal: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 403: Portugal: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Portuguese retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 404: Portugal: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 405: Portugal: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 406: Portugal: Retail businesses and employment, 2010-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 407: Portugal: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 408: Portugal: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailing in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 409: Portugal: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Non-food retailing in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 410: Portugal: Leading non-food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTATISTICA (INE) – Lisbon
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Romania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Romanian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Romania in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 411: Romania: Resident population, by gender, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 412: Romania: Resident population, by age and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 413: Romania: Resident population, by region, 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 414: Romania: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 415: Romania: Consumer price inflation, annual % change, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 416: Romania: Households consumption expenditure, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Romanian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 417: Romania: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 418: Romania: Breakdown of retail sales, by sector (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 419: Romania: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 420: Romania: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 421: Romania: Major retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STATISTICS (INSSE) – Bucharest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY OF ROMANIA – Bucharest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • IMF (INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND) – Washington
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Russia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Russian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Russia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 422: Russia: Total population, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 423: Russia: Population, by age group, 2011-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 424: Russia: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 425: Russia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 426: Russia: Households consumption expenditure, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Russian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 427: Russia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 428: Russia: Retail sales, by broad sector (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailing in Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 429: Russia: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 430: Russia: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 431: Russia: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Furniture and DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 432: Russia: Leading furniture and DIY specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 433: Russia: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 434: Russia: Other major identified retailers, 2013
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and source
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • GOSKOMSTAT (FEDERAL STATE STATISTICS SERVICE) – Moscow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • ST PETERSBURG CHAMBER OF COMMERCE – St Petersburg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • AKORT (Association of Retail Businesses) – Moscow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • KOMMERSANT newspaper – Moscow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Serbia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Serbian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Serbia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 435: Serbia: Total population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 436: Serbia: Population, by age and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 437: Serbia: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 438: Serbia: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 439: Serbia: Final household consumption, 2005-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 440: Serbia: Breakdown of final household consumption, 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Serbian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 441: Serbia, Retail sales, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Serbia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 442: Serbia: Major retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Slovakia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Slovak retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Slovakia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 443: Slovakia: Population trends, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 444: Slovakia: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 445: Slovakia: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 446: Slovakia: Consumer prices, % change year on year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 447: Slovakia: Consumer expenditure, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 448: Slovakia: Breakdown of consumer expenditure 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Slovak retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 449: Slovakia: Retail sales, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 450: Slovakia: Breakdown of retail sales, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in Slovakia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 451: Slovakia: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 452: Slovakia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Major retailers in Slovakia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 453: Major retailers in Slovakia, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC – Bratislava
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • MINISTRY OF ECONOMY OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC – Bratislava
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • SLOVAK CHAMBER OF COMMERCE & INDUSTRY (SOPK) – Bratislava
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • NATIONAL BANK OF SLOVAKIA – Bratislava
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Slovenia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Slovenian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Slovenia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 454: Slovenia: Population trends, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 455: Slovenia: Population, by age group and gender, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 456: Slovenia: Population, by region, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 457: Slovenia: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 458: Slovenia: Consumer prices, annual % change, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 459: Slovenia: Consumer expenditure, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 460: Slovenia: Breakdown of consumer expenditure 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Slovenian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 461: Slovenia: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 462: Slovenia: Breakdown of retail sales, excl. VAT, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Slovenia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 463: Slovenia: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 464: Slovenia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in Slovenia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 465: Slovenia: Leading retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE REPUBLIC OF SLOVENIA – Ljubljana
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY OF SLOVENIA – Ljubljana
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • SLOVENIAN TRADE & INVESTMENT PROMOTION OFFICE (TIPO) – Ljubljana
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • BANK OF SLOVENIA – Ljubljana
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • INSTITUTE FOR MACROECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT (IMAD) – Ljubljana
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Spain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Spanish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Spain in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 466: Spain: Total population, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 467: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 468: Spain: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 469: Spain: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 470: Spain: Consumer spending (incl.VAT), 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 471: Spain: Breakdown of consumer spending by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2009-13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Spanish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 472: Spain: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 473: Spain: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 474: Spain: Number of retail enterprises, by sector, 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 475: Spain: Number of full time employed, by retail sector, 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 476: Spain: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 477: Spain: Online purchases of goods in last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailing in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 478: Spain: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 479: Spain: Leading department stores and mixed goods retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 480: Spain: Leading clothing specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 481: Spain: Leading DIY specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Electrical, furniture and household goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 482: Spain: Leading electrical, furniture and household goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 483: Spain: Leading beauty specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 484: Spain: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2014/15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online-only retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 485: Spain: Online-only retailers (2014/15)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 486: Spain: Major shopping centres, 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADISTICA (INE) – Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • CONSEJO SUPERIOR DE CAMARAS OFFICIALES DE COMERCIO, INDUSTRIA Y NAVEGACION DE ESPANA – Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • ASOCIACION ESPAÑOLA DE VENTA DIRECTA – Barcelona
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • ASOCIACIÓN ESPAÑOLA DE CENTROS Y PARQUES COMERCIALES – Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • ANUARIO DE LA DISTRIBUCIÓN – Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • DISTRIBUCIÓN ACTUALIDAD – Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • ALIMARKET – Madrid
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Sweden

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Swedish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Sweden in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 487: Sweden: Population trends, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 488: Sweden: Population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 489: Sweden: Households, by size, 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 490: Sweden: Population, by county, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 491: Sweden: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 492: Sweden: Consumer prices inflation, % change on year, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 493: Sweden: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 494: Sweden: Breakdown of consumer spending by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Swedish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 495: Sweden: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15 (f)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 496: Sweden: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15 (f)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 497: Sweden: Proportion of households with broadband, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 498: Sweden: Online purchases – percentage of all individuals, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Food retailing in Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 499: Sweden: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 500: Sweden: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing and footwear
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 501: Sweden: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 502: Sweden: Leading DIY specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 503: Sweden: Leading furniture retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 504: Sweden: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 505: Sweden: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 506: Sweden: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 507: Sweden: Leading home-shopping retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • STATISTICS SWEDEN (STATISTISKA CENTRALBYRÅN) – Stockholm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • MARKET MAGAZINE – Vasterås
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • STOCKHOLM CHAMBER OF COMMERCE – Stockholm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • SVENSK HANDEL/SWEDISH TRADE FEDERATION TRADE – Stockholm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • HANDELNS UTREDNINGSINSTITUT (HUI) – Stockholm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • SVENSKA DIGITALHANDEL – Gothenburg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • BUSINESS SWEDEN, the Swedish Trade & Invest Council – Stockholm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Switzerland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Swiss retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Switzerland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 508: Switzerland: Population, by gender, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 509: Switzerland: Population, by age group, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 510: Switzerland: Population, by region, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 511: Switzerland: Gross domestic product, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 512: Switzerland: Harmonised indices of consumer prices, annual % change, 2009-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 513: Switzerland: Households consumption expenditure (incl. VAT), 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Swiss retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 514: Switzerland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 515: Switzerland: Online purchases in the last 12 months, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailing in Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 516: Switzerland: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Department and clothing stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 517: Switzerland: Leading clothing and department store retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Homewares specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 518: Switzerland: Leading household goods retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 519: Switzerland: Leading health & beauty retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 520: Switzerland: Leading miscellaneous specialists 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Home shopping and e-commerce
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 521: Switzerland: Major home shopping retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • BUNDESAMT FÜR STATISTIK (BF)/FEDERAL STATISTICAL OFFICE – Neuchâtel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY OF SWITZERLAND (CCIS) – St-Gallen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • SWISS RETAIL FEDERATION – Bern
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • SCHWEIZER DETAILLISTENVERBAND (SDV) – Lucerne
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • SCHWEIZERISCHER VERBAND DER LEBENSMITTEL-DETAILLISTEN (VELEDES) – Bern
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • VERBAND DES SCHWEIZERISCHEN VERSANDHANDELS (VSV) – Zürich
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Turkey

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Turkish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Turkey in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 522: Turkey: Total population, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 523: Turkey: population, by age group and gender, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 524: Turkey: Gross domestic product, 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 525: Turkey: Harmonised indices of consumer prices, annual % change, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 526: Turkey: Consumer spending by resident households (incl. VAT), 2004-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 527: Turkey: Breakdown of consumer spending, by broad category (incl. VAT), 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 528: Turkey: Breakdown of consumer spending in % terms, 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Turkish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 529: Retail sales (excl VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 530: Turkey: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 531: Turkey: Household internet connection type: Broadband, 2005 and 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 532: Turkey: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 533: Turkey: Identified leading retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • DEVLET ISTATISTIK ENSTITUSU (TURKISH STATISTICAL INSTITUTE)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • EUROSTAT – Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • IMF (INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND) – Washington
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • UK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The UK retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The UK in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 534: UK: Population trends, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 535: UK: Population, by age group, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 536: UK: Number of households, by household size, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 537: UK: Population, by region, 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 538: UK: Gross domestic product, 2005-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 539: UK: Consumer prices inflation, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 540: UK: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2005-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 541: UK: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • UK retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 542: UK: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 543: UK: Retail sales (excl. VAT): Detailed sales breakdown, 2010-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 544: UK: Retail businesses, outlets and employment, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in the UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 545: UK: Household broadband access, 2005 and 2011-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 546: UK: Proportion of individuals buying online in last 12 months, 2009-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailing in the UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 547: UK: Leading food retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 548: UK: Retailer used for main grocery shop, September 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 549: UK: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Clothing and footwear retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 550: UK: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 551: UK: Leading DIY retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Furniture and carpet specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 552: UK: Leading furniture and carpet retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 553: UK: Leading electricals retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 554: UK: Leading health & beauty retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 555: UK: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 556: UK: Leading home shopping retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major shopping centres
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 557: UK: Major shopping centres
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • THE BRITISH RETAIL CONSORTIUM – London
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • BRITISH COUNCIL OF SHOPPING CENTRES – London
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Office for National Statistics/Mintel – London
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • THE ASSOCIATION OF BRITISH CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE – London
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • INSTITUTE OF GROCERY DISTRIBUTION (IGD) – Watford
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • OXFORD INSTITUTE OF RETAIL MANAGEMENT (OXIRM) – Oxford
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • THE MAIL ORDER TRADERS' ASSOCIATION OF GREAT BRITAIN (MOTA) – London
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • UNION OF SHOP, DISTRIBUTIVE and ALLIED WORKERS (USDAW) – Manchester
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ukraine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Ukrainian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ukraine in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 558: Ukraine: Resident population trends, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 559: Ukraine: Resident population, by age group, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 560: Ukraine: Gross domestic product, 2006-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 561: Ukraine: Consumer prices, % annual change, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 562: Ukraine: Consumer expenditure, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 563: Ukraine: Final consumption expenditure of households, by purpose, 2012-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ukrainian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 564: Ukraine: Retail sales, 2010-14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Ukraine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 565: Ukraine: Leading retailers, 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • STATE STATISTICS SERVICE OF UKRAINE – Kiev
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • NATIONAL BANK OF UKRAINE – Kiev

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  About the report

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This report will give you a complete 360-degree view of your market. Not only is it rooted in robust proprietary and high-quality third-party data, but our industry experts put that data into context and you’ll quickly understand:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Consumer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    What They Want. Why They Want It.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Competitors

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Who’s Winning. How To Stay Ahead.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Market

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Size, Segments, Shares And Forecasts: How It All Adds Up.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Innovations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    New Ideas. New Products. New Potential.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Opportunities

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Where The White Space Is. How To Make It Yours.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Trends

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    What’s Shaping Demand – Today And Tomorrow.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Please Note: This is a sample report. All of the figures, graphs, and tables have been redacted.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Trusted by companies. Big and small.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • bell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • boots
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • google
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • samsung
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • allianz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • kelloggs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • walgreens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • redbull
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • unilever
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Harvard
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • pinterest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • new-york-time