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European Retail Handbook - September 2018

This is the 22nd edition of the European Retail Handbook. It provides basic data about all the major European countries, their economies and their retail sectors. The handbook complements Mintel’s major sector reviews, such as DIY, Supermarkets and Clothing, adding more detail and information about smaller economies.

Since the first edition, which covered the 19 leading economies, we have expanded our coverage. In particular we have added countries further into the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. We now include almost all European countries, including Russia, which was also not included in the first edition. There are some very small countries, such as Malta and Cyprus that are excluded. Nor do we cover Bosnia, Kosovo or Montenegro.

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Table of contents

  1. Introduction

      • Definitions
      • Pan European Comparisons

        • Population
          • Figure 1: Europe: Population, by major country, 2017
          • Figure 2: Europe: Population, by major country, 2017
        • GDP
          • Figure 3: Europe: GDP and GDP per capita, by country, 2017
          • Figure 4: Europe: GDP per capita, by country, 2017
        • Consumer spending
          • Figure 5: Europe: Consumer spending and consumer spending per capita, by country, 2017
          • Figure 6: Europe: Consumer spending per capita, by country, 2017
        • Retail sales
          • Figure 7: Europe: Retail sales and retail sales per capita, by country, 2017
          • Figure 8: Europe: Retail sales per capita, by country, 2017
        • Online
          • Figure 9: Europe: Percentage of adults who have made a purchase online in the last 12 months, 2017
          • Figure 10: Europe: Percentage of adults who have made a purchase online in the last 12 months, 2017
        • Rankings
          • Figure 11: Europe: Country rankings by population and economic measures, 2017
        • Exchange rates
          • Figure 12: Average annual exchange rates, 2017
      • Winners and Losers

          • Winners
            • Romania
              • Turkey
                • Ukraine
                  • Losers
                    • Italy
                      • Greece
                        • Population growth
                          • Turkey experiences fastest growth in Europe
                            • German population jumps in 2016
                              • Leading countries see populations grow
                                • CEE countries see populations decline
                                  • Ukraine population down 3 million compared to 2014
                                    • Figure 13: Population change, 2014-18
                                  • GDP
                                    • Turkey the standout performer
                                      • Russian economy emerges from a tough period
                                        • Eastern Europe enjoys growth
                                          • Spain’s recovery gathers pace
                                            • Ireland enjoys strong growth, but data skewed
                                              • Figure 14: GDP growth (CAGR) in local currencies and on a constant price basis, 2013-17
                                            • Consumer spending
                                              • Romania leads the way
                                                • Other CEE countries also performing well
                                                  • Greece hit hard, but signs of normality return
                                                    • Figure 15: Consumer spending growth (CAGR) in local currencies and at constant prices, 2013-17
                                                  • Retail sales
                                                    • CEE region enjoys strong growth
                                                      • Russian retail sales recover
                                                        • Finland is also recovering
                                                          • Figure 16: Retail sales growth (CAGR), in local currencies and on a constant price basis, 2013-17
                                                      • Albania

                                                          • Albania retail scene
                                                            • Albania in figures
                                                              • Population
                                                                • Figure 17: Albania: Population, by gender, 2014-18
                                                                • Figure 18: Albania: Population, by age, 2014-18
                                                                • Figure 19: Albania: Population, by prefecture, 2014-18
                                                              • Economy
                                                                • Figure 20: Albania: GDP, 2008-17
                                                                • Figure 21: Albania: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2013-17
                                                                • Figure 22: Albania: Final household consumption, 2007-16
                                                                • Figure 23: Albania: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2012-16
                                                              • Albanian retailing in figures
                                                                • Figure 24: Albania: Retail sales, including motor vehicles, 2013-17
                                                              • Major retailers in Albania
                                                                • Figure 25: Albania: Selected retailers, 2017
                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                              • Austria

                                                                  • The Austrian retail scene
                                                                    • Austria in figures
                                                                      • Population
                                                                        • Figure 26: Austria: Population, 2014-18
                                                                        • Figure 27: Austria: Population, by age group, 2014-18
                                                                        • Figure 28: Austria: Number of private households, household size, 2017
                                                                        • Figure 29: Austria: Population, by region, 2014-18
                                                                      • Economy
                                                                        • Figure 30: Austria: Gross domestic product, 2008-17
                                                                        • Figure 31: Austria: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-17
                                                                        • Figure 32: Austria: Final consumption expenditure of households, 2008-17
                                                                        • Figure 33: Austria: Final consumption expenditure of households by purpose, current prices, 2012-16
                                                                      • Austrian retailing in figures
                                                                        • Figure 34: Austria: Retail sales (excluding VAT), 2013-18
                                                                        • Figure 35: Austria: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                      • Online retailing in Austria
                                                                        • Figure 36: Austria: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2009-17
                                                                        • Figure 37: Austria: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                      • Food retailers
                                                                        • Figure 38: Austria: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                        • Figure 39: Austria: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2017
                                                                      • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                        • Figure 40: Austria: Leading clothing specialists, 2017
                                                                      • DIY specialists
                                                                        • Figure 41: Austria: Leading DIY specialists, 2017
                                                                      • Furniture specialists
                                                                        • Figure 42: Austria: Leading furniture specialists, 2017
                                                                      • Electrical specialists
                                                                        • Figure 43: Austria: Leading electrical specialists, 2017
                                                                      • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                        • Figure 44: Austria: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2017
                                                                      • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                        • Figure 45: Austria: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2017
                                                                      • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                        • Figure 46: Austria: Leading home shopping retailers, 2017
                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                      • Belarus

                                                                          • The Belarussian retail scene
                                                                            • Belarus in figures
                                                                              • Population
                                                                                • Figure 47: Belarus: Population, by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                • Figure 48: Belarus: Population, by age group, 2013-17
                                                                                • Figure 49: Belarus: Population, by region and city of Minsk, 2013-17
                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                • Figure 50: Belarus: Gross domestic product, 2008-17
                                                                                • Figure 51: Belarus: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-17
                                                                                • Figure 52: Belarus: Final consumption expenditure of households at current prices as a percentage of total GDP, 2009-16
                                                                                • Figure 53: Belarus: Pattern of consumption expenditure of households, 2014-17
                                                                              • Belarussian retailing in figures
                                                                                • Figure 54: Belarus: Retail sales, 2012-17
                                                                              • Major retailers in Belarus
                                                                                • Figure 55: Belarus: Selected retailers, 2017
                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                              • Belgium

                                                                                  • The Belgian retail scene
                                                                                    • Belgium in figures
                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                        • Figure 56: Belgium: Population, 2014-18
                                                                                        • Figure 57: Belgium: Population, by age group, 2014-18
                                                                                        • Figure 58: Belgium: Population, by region, 2014-18
                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                        • Figure 59: Belgium: Gross domestic product, 2008-17
                                                                                        • Figure 60: Belgium: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-17
                                                                                        • Figure 61: Belgium: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2008-16
                                                                                        • Figure 62: Belgium: Breakdown of consumer spending, by category, 2013-16
                                                                                      • Belgian retailing in figures
                                                                                        • Figure 63: Belgium: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                        • Figure 64: Belgium: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                      • Online retailing in Belgium
                                                                                        • Figure 65: Belgium: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2009-17
                                                                                        • Figure 66: Belgium: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                      • Food retailers
                                                                                          • Figure 67: Belgium: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                        • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                            • Figure 68: Belgium: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2017
                                                                                          • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                              • Figure 69: Belgium: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2017
                                                                                            • DIY specialists
                                                                                              • Figure 70: Belgium: Leading DIY specialists, 2017
                                                                                            • Furniture specialists
                                                                                              • Figure 71: Belgium: Leading furniture specialists, 2017
                                                                                            • Electrical specialists
                                                                                              • Figure 72: Belgium: Leading electrical specialists, 2017
                                                                                            • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                              • Figure 73: Belgium: Leading beauty and personal care specialists, 2017
                                                                                            • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                              • Figure 74: Belgium: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2017
                                                                                            • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                              • Figure 75: Belgium: Leading home shopping retailers, 2017
                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                            • Bulgaria

                                                                                                • The Bulgarian retail scene
                                                                                                  • Bulgaria in figures
                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                      • Figure 76: Bulgaria: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                      • Figure 77: Bulgaria: Population, by age group, 2013-17
                                                                                                      • Figure 78: Bulgaria: Population, by region, 2013-17
                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                      • Figure 79: Bulgaria: Gross Domestic Product, 2007-17
                                                                                                      • Figure 80: Bulgaria: Consumer Prices, % annual change, 2013-17
                                                                                                      • Figure 81: Bulgaria: Consumer expenditure, 2007-17
                                                                                                      • Figure 82: Bulgaria: Average annual expenditure per household, at current prices, 2013-17
                                                                                                    • Bulgarian retailing in figures
                                                                                                      • Figure 83: Bulgaria: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                      • Figure 84: Bulgaria: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Bulgaria
                                                                                                      • Figure 85: Bulgaria: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2013-17
                                                                                                      • Figure 86: Bulgaria: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                    • Major retailers in Bulgaria
                                                                                                        • Figure 87: Bulgaria: Selected leading retailers, 2017
                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                      • Croatia

                                                                                                          • The Croatian retail scene
                                                                                                            • Croatia in figures
                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                • Figure 88: Croatia: Population, by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                                                • Figure 89: Croatia: Population, by age group, 2013-17
                                                                                                                • Figure 90: Croatia: Population, by districts and city of Zagreb, 2017
                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                • Figure 91: Croatia: Gross domestic product, 2008-17
                                                                                                                • Figure 92: Croatia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-17
                                                                                                                • Figure 93: Croatia: Final household expenditure, 2008-17
                                                                                                              • Croatian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                • Figure 94: Croatia: Retail sales (excl. fuel), 2013-18
                                                                                                                • Figure 95: Croatia: Retail sales breakdown, 2013-18
                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Croatia
                                                                                                                • Figure 96: Croatia: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2009-17
                                                                                                                • Figure 97: Croatia: Online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Croatia
                                                                                                                  • Figure 98: Croatia: Leading retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                • Czech Republic

                                                                                                                    • The Czech retail scene
                                                                                                                      • The Czech Republic in figures
                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                          • Figure 99: Czech Republic: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                          • Figure 100: Czech Republic: population, by age, 2013-17
                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                          • Figure 101: Czech Republic: Gross domestic Product, 2006-17
                                                                                                                          • Figure 102: Czech Republic: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-17
                                                                                                                          • Figure 103: Czech Republic: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2006-17
                                                                                                                          • Figure 104: Czech Republic: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2013-17
                                                                                                                        • Czech retailing in figures
                                                                                                                          • Figure 105: Czech Republic: Retail sales excl. VAT, 2013-18
                                                                                                                          • Figure 106: Czech Republic: Breakdown of retail sales, by sector, excl. VAT, 2013-18
                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in the Czech Republic
                                                                                                                          • Figure 107: Czech Republic: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2013-17
                                                                                                                          • Figure 108: Czech Republic: Online purchases in the past 12 months - % of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                        • Major retailers in the Czech Republic
                                                                                                                          • Figure 109: Czech Republic: leading retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                        • Denmark

                                                                                                                            • The Danish retail scene
                                                                                                                              • Denmark in figures
                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 110: Denmark: Population, by gender, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 111: Denmark: Population, by age group and gender, 2018
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 112: Denmark: Households by size, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 113: Denmark: Population by region 2013-18
                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 114: Denmark: Gross domestic product, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 115: Denmark: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 116: Denmark: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2007-17
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 117: Denmark: Breakdown of consumer spending by category (incl. VAT), 2013-17
                                                                                                                                • Danish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 118: Denmark: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 119: Denmark: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Denmark
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 120: Denmark: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2008-17
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 121: Denmark: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 122: Denmark: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 123: Denmark: Major mixed goods retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 124: Denmark: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 125: Denmark: Leading DIY specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 126: Denmark: Leading furniture specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 127: Denmark: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 128: Denmark: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 129: Denmark: Major cultural, leisure, and other specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 130: Denmark: Selected home shopping retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                • Estonia

                                                                                                                                    • The Estonian retail scene
                                                                                                                                      • Estonia in figures
                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 131: Estonia: Population, by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 132: Estonia: Population, by age group and gender, 2018
                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 133: Estonia: Gross domestic product, 2008-2017
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 134: Estonia: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 135: Estonia: Final consumption expenditure of households, 2008-17
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 136: Estonia: Breakdown of consumer spending, by category (incl. VAT), 2013-17
                                                                                                                                        • Estonian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 137: Estonia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 138: Estonia: Detailed breakdown of retail sales (excl VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                        • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 139: Estonia: Retail businesses and employment, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in Estonia
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 140: Estonia: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 141: Estonia: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                        • Major retailers in Estonia
                                                                                                                                          • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 142: Estonia: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                          • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 143: Estonia: Leading non-food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                          • Finland

                                                                                                                                              • The Finnish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                • Finland in figures
                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 144: Finland: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 145: Finland: Population, by age group, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 146: Finland: Major regions, by inhabitants, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 147: Finland: Gross domestic product, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 148: Finland: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 149: Finland: Final consumption expenditure of households, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 150: Finland: Breakdown of private consumer expenditure, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                  • Finnish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 151: Finland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 152: Finland: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Finland
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 153: Finland: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 154: Finland: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 155: Finland: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                  • Department stores and mixed goods
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 156: Finland: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                  • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 157: Finland: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                  • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 158: Finland: Leading DIY specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                  • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 159: Finland: Leading furniture specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                  • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 160: Finland: Leading electrical specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                  • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 161: Finland: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                  • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 162: Finland: Major leisure and other specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                  • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 163: Finland: Leading online and home shopping retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                  • France

                                                                                                                                                      • The French retail scene
                                                                                                                                                        • France in figures
                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 164: France: Population, by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 165: France: Population, by age bracket and gender, 2018
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 166: France: Population, by region, 2018
                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 167: France: Gross domestic product, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 168: France: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 169: France: Household consumer expenditure, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 170: France: Breakdown of consumer expenditure, by detailed category (incl VAT), 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                          • French retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 171: France: Retail sales (ex VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 172: France: Retail sales breakdown (ex. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                          • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 173: France: Retail enterprises and employment, 2015
                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in France
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 174: France: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2009-17
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 175: France: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                          • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 176: France: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                          • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 177: France: Leading department store and mixed goods retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                          • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 178: France: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                          • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 179: France: Leading DIY specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                          • Electrical goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 180: France: Leading electricals specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                          • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 181: France: Leading furniture specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                          • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 182: France: Leading beauty specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                          • Cultural, leisure and other non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 183: France: Leading cultural, leisure and other non-food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                          • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 184: France: Leading online and home shopping retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                          • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 185: France: Selected major shopping malls, 2017/18
                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                          • Germany

                                                                                                                                                              • The German retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                • Germany in figures
                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 186: Germany: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 187: Germany: Population, by age group and gender, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 188: Germany: Population, by region and gender, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 189: Germany: Number of households, by size, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 190: Germany: Gross domestic product, 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 191: Germany: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 192: Germany: Household consumer expenditure, 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 193: Germany: Breakdown of consumer spending, by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                  • German retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 194: Germany: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 195: Germany: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                  • Enterprises, outlets and employment
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 196: Germany: Number of retail enterprises, 2014-16
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 197: Germany: Number of retail outlets, 2014-16
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 198: Germany: Number of people employed in retail, 2014-16
                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Germany
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 199: Germany: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 200: Germany: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 201: Germany: Online sales by product category, incl VAT, 2014-17
                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 202: Germany: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                    • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 203: Germany: Leading department stores and mixed goods retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 204: Germany: Leading clothing specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 205: Germany: Leading footwear specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                      • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 206: Germany: Leading DIY specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                      • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 207: Germany: Leading furniture specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                      • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 208: Germany: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                      • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 209: Germany: Leading beauty specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                      • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 210: Germany: Major miscellaneous specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                      • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 211: Germany: Leading non-store retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                      • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 212: Germany: Major German shopping malls, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                      • Greece

                                                                                                                                                                          • The Greek retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                            • Greece in figures
                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 213: Greece: Total population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 214: Greece: Population, by age group, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 215: Greece: Population, by region, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 216: Greece: Gross domestic product, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 217: Greece: Consumer prices inflation*, % change on year, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 218: Greece: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 219: Greece: Average monthly spending on goods and services (incl. VAT), 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                              • Greek retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 220: Greece: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                              • Employment
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 221: Greece, Retail employment, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Greece
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 222: Greece: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 223: Greece: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 224: Greece: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 225: Greece: Leading department stores and clothing retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 226: Greece: Leading electrical goods and mobile phone specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 227: Greece: Leading other retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                • Hungary

                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Hungarian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Hungary in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 228: Hungary: Population, by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 229: Hungary: Population, by age and gender, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 230: Hungary: Population, by region, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 231: Hungary: Gross domestic product, 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 232: Hungary: Harmonised consumer prices index, % change on previous year, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 233: Hungary: Household consumption expenditure, 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 234: Hungary: Breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hungarian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 235: Hungary: Retail sales by type of retailer, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 236: Hungary: Retail sales breakdown, excl. VAT, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 237: Hungary: Number of shops, by type of retailer, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 238: Hungary: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 239: Hungary: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Major retailers in Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 240: Hungary: Identified leading retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ireland

                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Irish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ireland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 241: Ireland Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 242: Ireland: Population, by age group, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 243: Ireland: Population, by regional authority area, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 244: Ireland: Gross domestic product, 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 245: Ireland: Consumer price inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 246: Ireland: Household consumption expenditure, 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 247: Ireland: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Irish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 248: Ireland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 249: Ireland: Retail sales breakdown (excl.VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 250: Ireland: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 251: Ireland: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 252: Ireland: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 253: Ireland: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 254: Ireland: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 255: Ireland: Leading DIY specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 256: Ireland: Leading furniture specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 257: Ireland: Leading electrical specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 258: Ireland: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 259: Ireland: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online and other home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 260: Ireland: Leading home shopping retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Italy

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Italian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Italy in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 261: Italy: Total population, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 262: Italy: Population, by age group and gender, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 263: Italy: Number of households by household size, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 264: Italy: Population, by gender and region, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 265: Italy: Gross domestic product, 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 266: Italy: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 267: Italy: Final household expenditure (incl.VAT), 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 268: Breakdown of consumer spending by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Italian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 269: Italy: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 270: Italy: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 271: Italy: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 272: Italy, Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 273: Italy: Leading mixed goods retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 274: Italy: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 275: Italy: Leading DIY specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Electrical, furniture and household goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 276: Italy: Leading electrical, furniture and household goods specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 277: Italy: Leading beauty specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sporting goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 278: Italy: Leading sports goods retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online-only and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 279: Italy: Leading home shopping retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 280: Italy: Leading major shopping malls, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Latvia

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Latvian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Latvia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 281: Latvia: Population, by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 282: Latvia, Population, by age group, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 283: Latvia: Population, by region, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 284: Latvia: Gross domestic product, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 285: Latvia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 286: Latvia: Households consumption expenditure, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 287: Latvia: Breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Latvian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 288: Latvia: Retail sales (excl VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 289: Latvia: Detailed retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Latvia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 290: Latvia: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 291: Latvia: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Latvia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 292: Latvia: Identified retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lithuania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Lithuanian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lithuania in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 293: Lithuania: Population, by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 294: Lithuania: Population, by age group and gender, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 295: Lithuania: Population, by region, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 296: Lithuania: Gross domestic product, 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 297: Lithuania: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 298: Lithuania: Final household consumption, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 299: Lithuania: Final consumption expenditure of households by purpose, current prices, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Lithuanian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 300: Lithuania: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 301: Lithuania: Breakdown of retail sales by sector, excl. VAT, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 302: Lithuania: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2010-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 303: Lithuania: Online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Major retailers in Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 304: Lithuania: Leading retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Luxembourg

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Luxembourg retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Luxembourg in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 305: Luxembourg: Population, by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 306: Luxembourg: Population, by origin, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 307: Luxembourg: Population, by age group and gender, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 308: Luxembourg: Gross domestic product, 2006-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 309: Luxembourg: Consumer price inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 310: Luxembourg: Consumer expenditure, 2006-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 311: Luxembourg: Breakdown of consumer expenditure, by category, 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Luxembourg retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 312: Luxembourg: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 313: Luxembourg: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 314: Luxembourg: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 315: Luxembourg: Online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major retailers in Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 316: Luxembourg: Major retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Macedonia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Macedonian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Macedonia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 317: Macedonia: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 318: Macedonia: Population, by age group, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 319: Macedonia: Population, by region, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 320: Macedonia, Gross domestic product, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 321: Macedonia: Consumer prices, % change on year, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 322: Macedonia: Final household consumption, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 323: Macedonia: Breakdown of final household consumption*, 2011-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Macedonia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 324: Macedonia: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 325: Macedonia: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Macedonian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 326: Macedonia: Retail sales, 2012-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 327: Macedonia: Retail sales, 2012-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Macedonia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 328: Macedonia: Leading retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Moldova

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Moldovan retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Moldova in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 329: Moldova: Population, by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 330: Moldova: Population, by age, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 331: Moldova: Population, by district, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 332: Moldova: gross domestic product, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 333: Moldova: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 334: Moldova: Final household consumption, 2006-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 335: Moldova: Breakdown of average monthly per capita household consumption, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Moldovan retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 336: Moldova: Retail sales, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 337: Moldova: Retail sales* breakdown, 2015-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Major retailers in Moldova
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 338: Moldova: Identified retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Netherlands

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Dutch retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Netherlands in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 339: The Netherlands: Population, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 340: The Netherlands: Population, by age and gender, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 341: The Netherlands: Number of households, by household size, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 342: The Netherlands: Gross domestic product, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 343: The Netherlands: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 344: The Netherlands: Household consumption expenditure, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 345: The Netherlands: Breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Dutch retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 346: The Netherlands: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 347: The Netherlands: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in the Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 348: The Netherlands: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 349: The Netherlands: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 350: The Netherlands: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Mixed goods and department store
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 351: The Netherlands: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 352: The Netherlands: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 353: The Netherlands: Leading DIY specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Furniture and carpet specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 354: The Netherlands: Leading furniture and carpet specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 355: The Netherlands: Leading electricals specialists. 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 356: The Netherlands: Leading health and beauty specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 357: The Netherlands: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 358: The Netherlands: Leading home shopping retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Norway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Norwegian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Norway in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 359: Norway: Population trends, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 360: Norway: Population, by age group and gender, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 361: Norway: Households by size, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 362: Norway: Population by county, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 363: Norway: Gross domestic product, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 364: Norway: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 365: Norway: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 366: Norway: Breakdown of consumer spending by category (incl. VAT), 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Norwegian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 367: Norway: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 368: Norway: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 369: Norway: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 370: Norway: Online purchases in the last 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 371: Norway: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 372: Norway: Leading mixed goods retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 373: Norway: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 374: Norway: Leading DIY specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 375: Norway: Leading furniture specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 376: Norway: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 377: Norway: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Miscellaneous retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 378: Norway: Leading cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 379: Norway: selected home-shopping retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Poland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Polish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Poland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 380: Poland: Population, by gender, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 381: Poland: Population, by age group, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 382: Poland: Population, by region, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 383: Poland: Gross domestic product, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 384: Poland: Consumer prices inflation*, % change on previous year, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 385: Poland: Household consumption expenditure, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 386: Poland: Breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Polish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 387: Poland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 388: Poland: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 389: Poland: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 390: Poland: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 391: Poland: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 13: Poland: Leading non-food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Portugal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Portuguese retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Portugal in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 392: Portugal: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 393: Portugal: Population, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 394: Portugal: Population, by region, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 395: Portugal: Gross domestic product, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 396: Portugal: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 397: Portugal: Resident households final consumption expenditure, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 398: Portugal: Breakdown of resident households’ final consumption expenditure, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Portuguese retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 399: Portugal: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 400: Portugal: Selective breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 401: Portugal: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 402: Portugal: Online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 403: Portugal: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 404: Portugal: Leading non-food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Romania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Romanian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Romania in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 405: Romania: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 406: Romania: Population, by age, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 407: Romania: Resident population, by region, 2014-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 408: Romania: Gross domestic product, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 409: Romania: Consumer price inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 410: Romania: Households consumption expenditure, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 411: Romania: Breakdown of resident households final consumption expenditure, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Romanian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 412: Romania: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 413: Romania: Breakdown of retail sales, by sector (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 414: Romania: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2010-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 415: Romania: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 416: Romania: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 417: Romania: Selected non-food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Russia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Russian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Russia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 418: Russia: Population, by gender, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 419: Russia: Population, by age group, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 420: Russia: Gross domestic product, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 421: Russia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 422: Russia: Households consumption expenditure, 2006-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Russian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 423: Russia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2012-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 424: Russia: Retail sales, by broad sector (excl. VAT), 2012-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 425: Russia: Selected information society indicators, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 426: Russia: Total estimated e-commerce market size, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 427: Russia: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 428: Russia: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 429: Russia: Leading electrical specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Furniture and DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 430: Russia: Leading furniture and DIY specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 431: Russia: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 432: Russia: Other identified retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online-only retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 433: Russia: Leading online-only retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Serbia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Serbian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Serbia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 434: Serbia: population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 435: Serbia: Population, by age group, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 436: Serbia: Population, by region, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 437: Serbia: Gross domestic product, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 438: Serbia: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 439: Serbia: Household consumption expenditure, 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 440: Serbia: Breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Serbia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 441: Serbia: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2015 and 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 442: Serbia: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2015 and 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Serbian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 443: Serbia, Retail sales, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Major retailers in Serbia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 444: Serbia: Major retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Slovakia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Slovak retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Slovakia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 445: Slovakia: Population, by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 446: Slovakia: Population, by age group and gender, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 447: Slovakia: Population, by region, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 448: Slovakia: Gross domestic product, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 449: Slovakia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 450: Slovakia: Final consumption of households, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Slovak retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 451: Slovakia: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 452: Slovakia: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Slovakia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 453: Slovakia: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2009-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 454: Slovakia: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in Slovakia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 455: Slovakia: Selected retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Slovenia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Slovenian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Slovenia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 456: Slovenia: Population, by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 457: Slovenia: Population, by age group, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 458: Slovenia: Population, by region, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 459: Slovenia: Gross domestic product, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 460: Slovenia: Consumer prices, annual % change, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 461: Slovenia: Household Consumption expenditure, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 462: Slovenia: Breakdown of household Consumption expenditure, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Slovenian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 463: Slovenia: Retail sales, excl. VAT, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 464: Slovenia: Breakdown of retail sales, excl. VAT, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Slovenia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 465: Slovenia: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 466: Slovenia: Online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Major retailers in Slovenia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 467: Slovenia: Leading retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Spain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Spanish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Spain in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 468: Spain: Population, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 469: Spain: Population, by age group and gender, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 470: Spain: Population, by province, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 471: Spain: Gross domestic product, 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 472: Spain: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 473: Spain: Consumer spending (incl VAT), 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 474: Spain: Breakdown of consumer spending by detailed category (incl VAT), 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Spanish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 475: Spain: Retail sales (excl VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 476: Spain: Retail sales breakdown (excl VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Enterprises and unemployment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 477: Spain: Number of retail enterprises, by sector, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 478: Spain: Numbers employed, by retail sector, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 479: Spain: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 480: Spain: Online purchases of goods in last 12 months - % of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 481: Spain: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 482: Spain: Leading department stores and mixed goods retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 483: Spain: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 484: Spain: Leading DIY specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Electrical, furniture and household goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 485: Spain: Leading electrical, furniture and household goods specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 486: Spain: Leading beauty specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 487: Spain: Miscellaneous specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 488: Spain: Online-only retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 489: Major shopping centres, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Sweden

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Swedish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sweden in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 490: Sweden: Population trends, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 491: Sweden: Population, by age group and gender, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 492: Sweden: Households by size, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 493: Sweden: Population by county, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 494: Sweden: Gross domestic product, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 495: Sweden: Consumer prices inflation, % change on year, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 496: Sweden: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 497: Sweden: Breakdown of consumer spending by category (incl. VAT), 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Swedish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 498: Sweden: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 499: Sweden: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 500: Sweden: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2009-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 501: Sweden: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 502: Sweden: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 503: Sweden: Leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 504: Sweden: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 505: Sweden: Leading DIY specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 506: Sweden: Leading furniture specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 507: Sweden: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 508: Sweden: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 509: Sweden: Major cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 510: Sweden: Leading home shopping retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Switzerland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Swiss retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Switzerland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 511: Switzerland: Population, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 512: Switzerland: Population, by age and gender, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 513: Switzerland: Population, by region, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 514: Switzerland: Gross domestic product, 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 515: Switzerland: Harmonised indices of consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 516: Switzerland: Households consumption expenditure (incl. VAT), 2007-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Swiss retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 517: Switzerland: Retail sales (excl. VAT and fuel), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 518: Switzerland: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 519: Switzerland: Online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 520: Switzerland: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Department stores and clothing retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 521: Switzerland: Leading clothing, footwear and department store retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Household goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 522: Switzerland: Leading household goods specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 523: Switzerland: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 524: Switzerland: Leading miscellaneous specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 525: Switzerland: Major online and home shopping retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Turkey

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Turkish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Turkey in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 526: Turkey: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 527: Turkey, Population, by age group, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 528: Turkey, Gross domestic product, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 529: Turkey: consumer prices index, average annual % change, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 530: Turkey: Consumer spending by resident households (incl VAT), 2006-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 531: Turkey: Breakdown of consumer spending, by broad category (incl VAT), 2011-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Turkish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 532: Turkey: Retail sales (excl VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 533: Turkey: Retail sales breakdown (excl VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 534: Turkey: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 535: Turkey: Online purchases in the past 12 months - % of all individuals, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 536: Turkey: identified leading retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • UK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The UK retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The UK in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 537: UK: Population, by gender, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 538: UK: Population, by age group, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 539: UK: Number of households, by household size, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 540: UK: Population, by region, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 541: UK: Gross domestic product, 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 542: UK: Consumer prices inflation, % change on the previous year, 2012-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 543: UK: Households’ consumption expenditure, 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 544: UK: Breakdown of household’s consumption expenditure, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • UK retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 545: UK: Retail sales (excl fuel, ex VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 546: UK: Retail sales (excl. VAT): Detailed sales breakdown, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in the UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 547: UK: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 548: UK: Online purchases of goods in last 12 months - % of all individuals, 2013-7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 549: UK: Leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 550: UK: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 551: UK: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 552: UK: Leading DIY specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Home goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 553: UK: Leading furniture and carpet specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 554: UK: Leading electricals specialists, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 555: UK: Leading health & beauty retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 556: UK: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online and other home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 557: UK: Leading home shopping retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major shopping centres
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 558: Top 20 shopping centres in the UK, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ukraine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Ukrainian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ukraine in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 559: Ukraine: Resident population, by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 560: Ukraine: Resident population, by age group, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 561: Ukraine: Gross domestic product, 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 562: Ukraine: Consumer prices, % annual change, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 563: Ukraine: Consumer expenditure, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 564: Ukraine: Final consumption expenditure of households, by purpose, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ukrainian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 565: Ukraine: Retail sales, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Ukraine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 566: Ukraine: Identified retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    European Retail Handbook - September 2018

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    US $2,018.70 (Excl.Tax)