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European Retail Handbook - September 2019

This is the 23nd edition of the European Retail Handbook. It provides basic data about all the major European countries, their economies and their retail sectors. The handbook complements Mintel’s major sector reviews, such as DIY, Supermarkets and Clothing, adding more detail and information about smaller economies.

We aim to have comprehensive coverage for the leading economies. The main problem is where to draw the line. The smallest country to be covered is actually a Grand Duchy (of Luxembourg), though that is hardly a typical state as it has such a large proportion of expatriates and they distort many of the figures. That is why Luxembourg comes out top of lists related to affluence. We include Russia and many of the former soviet states.

There are some very small countries, such as Malta and Cyprus, that are excluded. Nor do we cover Bosnia, Kosovo or Montenegro. But quite what constitutes Europe is a little vague. At the moment we cover Ukraine, but not Georgia and we do not venture as far as the “Stans”. The definition is purely geographic. Even if/when the UK leaves the EU it will still be in Europe.

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Table of contents

  1. Introduction

      • Definitions
      • Pan European Comparisons

        • Population
          • Figure 1: Europe: population by major country, 2018
          • Figure 2: Europe: population by major country, 2018
          • Figure 3: Population growth, 2014-19
        • GDP
          • Figure 4: Europe: GDP and GDP per capita, 2018
          • Figure 5: Europe: GDP per capita, 2018
          • Figure 6: GDP per capita growth per annum, in Euros at current prices, 2014-18
        • Consumer spending
          • Figure 7: Europe: consumer spending and consumer spending per capita, 2018
          • Figure 8: Europe: consumer spending per capita, 2018
          • Figure 9: Consumer spending per capita growth per annum, in Euros at current prices, 2014-18
        • Retail sales
          • Figure 10: Europe: retail sales and retail sales per capita, 2018
          • Figure 11: Europe: retail sales per capita, 2018
          • Figure 12: Retail sales per capita growth per annum, in Euros at current prices, 2014-18
        • Online
          • Figure 13: Europe: percentage of adults who have made a purchase online in the last 12 months, 2018
          • Figure 14: Europe: percentage of adults who have made a purchase online in the last 12 months, 2018
          • Figure 15: Proportion of consumers who have made a purchase online in last 12 months, 2018
        • Rankings
          • Figure 16: Europe: country rankings by population and economic measures, 2018
        • Currencies
          • Figure 17: Annual average exchange rates, 2018
      • Albania

          • The Albanian retail scene
            • Albania in figures
              • Population
                • Figure 18: Albania: population, by gender, 2014-19
                • Figure 19: Albania: population, by age group, 2014-19
                • Figure 20: Albania: population, by prefecture, 2014-19
              • Economy
                • Figure 21: Albania: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                • Figure 22: Albania: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                • Figure 23: Albania: household consumption expenditure, 2008-18
                • Figure 24: Detailed breakdown of household consumption expenditures, 2013-17
              • Albanian retailing in figures
                • Figure 25: Albania: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
              • Food retailers
                • Figure 26: Albania: leading food retailers, 2018
              • Non-food retailers
                • Figure 27: Albania: leading non-food retailers, 2018
              • Contacts and sources
              • Austria

                  • The Austrian retailing scene
                    • Austria in figures
                      • Population
                        • Figure 28: Austria: population, by gender, 2014-19
                        • Figure 29: Austria: population, by age group, 2014-19
                        • Figure 30: Austria: population, by region, 2014-19
                      • Economy
                        • Figure 31: Austria: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                        • Figure 32: Austria: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                        • Figure 33: Austria: household consumption expenditures, 2008-18
                        • Figure 34: Austria: detailed breakdown of household consumption expenditures, 2013-17
                      • Austrian retailing in figures
                        • Figure 35: Austria: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                        • Figure 36: Austria: detailed breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                      • Online retailing in Austria
                        • Figure 37: Austria: percentage of all households with internet access, 2013-18
                        • Figure 38: Austria: online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-18
                      • Food retailers
                          • Figure 39: Austria: leading food retailers, 2018
                        • Mixed goods and department stores in Austria
                          • Figure 40: Austria: leading mixed goods retailers and department stores, 2018
                        • Clothing and footwear specialists
                            • Figure 41: Austria: leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2018
                          • DIY specialists
                            • Figure 42: Austria: leading DIY retailers, 2018
                          • Furniture specialists
                            • Figure 43: Austria: leading furniture retailers, 2018
                          • Electrical specialists
                            • Figure 44: Austria: leading electrical goods retailers, 2018
                          • Beauty and personal care specialists
                            • Figure 45: Austria: leading beauty and personal care retailers, 2018
                          • Miscellaneous specialists
                            • Figure 46: Austria: leading miscellaneous goods retailers, 2018
                          • Online and other home shopping retailers
                            • Figure 47: Austria: Leading online retailers, 2018
                          • Contacts and sources
                          • Belarus

                              • The Belarussian retail scene
                                • Belarus in figures
                                  • Population
                                    • Figure 48: Belarus: population, by gender, 2015-19
                                    • Figure 49: Belarus: population, by age group, 2015-19
                                    • Figure 50: Belarus: population, by region and city of Minsk, 2015-19
                                  • Economy
                                    • Figure 51: Belarus: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                    • Figure 52: Belarus: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2014-18
                                    • Figure 53: Belarus: final consumption expenditure of households at current prices as a percentage of total GDP, 2009-16
                                    • Figure 54: Belarus: breakdown of consumption expenditure of households as a percentage of total, 2015-18
                                  • Belarussian retailing in figures
                                    • Figure 55: Belarus: retail sales, 2015-18
                                  • Major retailers in Belarus
                                      • Figure 56: Belarus: selected retailers, 2018
                                    • Contacts and sources
                                    • Belgium

                                        • The Belgian retail scene
                                          • Belgium in figures
                                            • Population
                                              • Figure 57: Belgium: population, 2015-19
                                              • Figure 58: Belgium: population, by age group, 2015-19
                                              • Figure 59: Belgium: population, by region, 2015-19
                                            • Economy
                                              • Figure 60: Belgium: gross domestic product, 2009-18
                                              • Figure 61: Belgium: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2014-18
                                              • Figure 62: Belgium: households’ consumption expenditure, 2009-17
                                              • Figure 63: Belgium: breakdown of consumer spending, by category, 2014-17
                                            • Belgian retailing in figures
                                              • Figure 64: Belgium: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2014-19
                                              • Figure 65: Belgium: retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2014-19
                                            • Online retailing in Belgium
                                              • Figure 66: Belgium: percentage of households with internet access, 2013-18
                                              • Figure 67: Belgium: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-18
                                            • Food retailers
                                                • Figure 68: Belgium: leading food retailers, 2018
                                              • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                • Figure 69: Belgium: leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2018
                                              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                  • Figure 70: Belgium: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2018
                                                • DIY specialists
                                                  • Figure 71: Belgium: leading DIY specialists, 2018
                                                • Furniture specialists
                                                  • Figure 72: Belgium: leading furniture specialists, 2018
                                                • Electrical specialists
                                                  • Figure 73: Belgium: leading electrical specialists, 2018
                                                • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                  • Figure 74: Belgium: leading beauty and personal care specialists, 2018
                                                • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                  • Figure 75: Belgium: leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2018
                                                • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                  • Figure 76: Belgium: leading home shopping retailers, 2018
                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                • Bulgaria

                                                    • The Bulgarian retail scene
                                                      • Bulgaria in figures
                                                        • Population
                                                          • Figure 77: Bulgaria: population, by gender, 2014-19
                                                          • Figure 78: Bulgaria: population, by age group, 2014-19
                                                          • Figure 79: Bulgaria: population, by region, 2014-19
                                                        • Economy
                                                          • Figure 80: Bulgaria: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                          • Figure 81: Bulgaria: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                          • Figure 82: Bulgaria: households consumption expenditures, 2008-18
                                                          • Figure 83: Bulgaria: breakdown of household consumption expenditures, 2013-18
                                                        • Bulgarian retailing in figures
                                                          • Figure 84: Bulgaria: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                          • Figure 85: Bulgaria: breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT) 2013-19
                                                        • Online retailing in Bulgaria
                                                          • Figure 86: Bulgaria: percentage of all households with internet access, 2013-18
                                                          • Figure 87: Bulgaria: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-18
                                                        • Food retailers
                                                            • Figure 88: Bulgaria: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                          • Non-food retailers
                                                              • Figure 89: Bulgaria: leading non-food retailers, 2018
                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                            • Croatia

                                                                • The Croatian retail scene
                                                                  • Croatia in figures
                                                                    • Population
                                                                      • Figure 90: Croatia: population, by gender, 2014-19
                                                                      • Figure 91: Croatia: population, by age group and gender, 2019
                                                                      • Figure 92: Croatia: population, by districts, 2014-19
                                                                    • Economy
                                                                      • Figure 93: Croatia: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                      • Figure 94: Croatia: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                                      • Figure 95: Croatia: households consumption expenditure, 2008-18
                                                                    • Croatia retailing in figures
                                                                      • Figure 96: Croatia: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                      • Figure 97: Croatia: retail sales breakdown, 2013-19
                                                                    • Enterprises and employment
                                                                      • Figure 98: Croatia: retail businesses and employment, 2012-17
                                                                    • Online retailing in Croatia
                                                                      • Figure 99: Croatia: percentage of all households with internet access, 2013-18
                                                                      • Figure 100: Croatia: online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-18
                                                                    • Food retailers
                                                                      • Figure 101: Croatia: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                    • Non-food retailers
                                                                      • Figure 102: Croatia: leading non-food retailers, 2018
                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                    • Czechia

                                                                        • The Czech retailing scene
                                                                          • Czechia in figures
                                                                            • Population
                                                                              • Figure 103: Czechia: population, by gender, 2014-19
                                                                              • Figure 104: Czechia: population, by age group, 2014-19
                                                                              • Figure 105: Czechia: population, by region, 2014-19
                                                                            • Economy
                                                                              • Figure 106: Czechia: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                              • Figure 107: Czechia: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                                              • Figure 108: Czechia: households consumption expenditures, 2008-18
                                                                              • Figure 109: Czechia: breakdown of household consumption expenditures, 2013-18
                                                                            • Czech retailing in figures
                                                                              • Figure 110: Czechia: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                              • Figure 111: Czechia: breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                            • Online retailing in Czechia
                                                                              • Figure 112: Czechia: percentage of all households with internet access, 2013-18
                                                                              • Figure 113: Czechia: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-18
                                                                            • Food retailers
                                                                                • Figure 114: Czechia: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                              • Non-food retailers
                                                                                  • Figure 115: Czechia: leading non-food retailers, 2018
                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                • Denmark

                                                                                    • The Danish retail scene
                                                                                      • Denmark in figures
                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                          • Figure 116: Denmark: population, by gender, 2014-19
                                                                                          • Figure 117: Denmark: population, by age group and gender, 2019
                                                                                          • Figure 118: Denmark: households by size, 2014-19
                                                                                          • Figure 119: Denmark: population by region, 2014-19
                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                          • Figure 120: Denmark: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                          • Figure 121: Denmark: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                                                          • Figure 122: Denmark: consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2008-18
                                                                                          • Figure 123: Denmark: breakdown of consumer spending by category (incl. VAT), 2013-17
                                                                                        • Danish retailing in figures
                                                                                          • Figure 124: Denmark: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                          • Figure 125: Denmark: retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                        • Online retailing in Denmark
                                                                                          • Figure 126: Denmark: percentage of all households with internet, 2013-18
                                                                                          • Figure 127: Denmark: online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-18
                                                                                        • Food retailers
                                                                                          • Figure 128: Denmark: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                        • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                          • Figure 129: Denmark: major mixed goods retailers, 2018
                                                                                        • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                          • Figure 130: Denmark: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2018
                                                                                        • DIY specialists
                                                                                          • Figure 131: Denmark: leading DIY specialists, 2018
                                                                                        • Furniture specialists
                                                                                          • Figure 132: Denmark: leading furniture specialists, 2018
                                                                                        • Electrical specialists
                                                                                          • Figure 133: Denmark: leading electrical goods specialists, 2018
                                                                                        • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                          • Figure 134: Denmark: leading health & beauty specialists, 2018
                                                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                          • Figure 135: Denmark: major cultural, leisure, and other specialists, 2018
                                                                                        • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                          • Figure 136: Denmark: selected home shopping retailers, 2018
                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                        • Estonia

                                                                                            • The Estonian retail scene
                                                                                              • Estonia in figures
                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                  • Figure 137: Estonia: population, by gender, 2014-19
                                                                                                  • Figure 138: Estonia: population, by age group and gender, 2019
                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                  • Figure 139: Estonia: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                  • Figure 140: Estonia: consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2012-18
                                                                                                  • Figure 141: Estonia: final consumption expenditure of households, 2008-18
                                                                                                  • Figure 142: Estonia: breakdown of consumer spending, by category (incl. VAT), 2013-18
                                                                                                • Estonian retailing figures
                                                                                                  • Figure 143: Estonia: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                  • Figure 144: Estonia: detailed breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                  • Figure 145: Estonia: retail businesses and employment, 2012-17
                                                                                                • Online retailing in Estonia
                                                                                                  • Figure 146: Estonia: percentage of all households with internet access, 2013-18
                                                                                                  • Figure 147: Estonia: online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-18
                                                                                                • Food retailers
                                                                                                  • Figure 148: Estonia: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                  • Figure 149: Estonia: leading non-food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                • Finland

                                                                                                    • The Finnish retail scene
                                                                                                      • Finland in figures
                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                          • Figure 150: Finland: population by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                                          • Figure 151: Finland: population, by age group, 2014-18
                                                                                                          • Figure 152: Finland: major regions, by inhabitants, 2014-18
                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                          • Figure 153: Finland: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                          • Figure 154: Finland: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2014-18
                                                                                                          • Figure 155: Finland: final consumption expenditure of households, 2008-18
                                                                                                          • Figure 156: Finland: final breakdown of private consumer expenditure, 2013-17
                                                                                                        • Finnish retailing in figures
                                                                                                          • Figure 157: Finland: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                          • Figure 158: Finland: retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                        • Online retailing in Finland
                                                                                                          • Figure 159: Finland: percentage of all households with internet access, 2009-18
                                                                                                          • Figure 160: Finland: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-18
                                                                                                        • Food retailers
                                                                                                          • Figure 161: Finland: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                        • Department stores and mixed goods
                                                                                                          • Figure 162: Finland: leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2018
                                                                                                        • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                          • Figure 163: Finland: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2018
                                                                                                        • DIY specialists
                                                                                                          • Figure 164: Finland: leading DIY specialists, 2018
                                                                                                        • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                          • Figure 165: Finland: leading furniture specialists, 2018
                                                                                                        • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                          • Figure 166: Finland: leading electrical specialists, 2018
                                                                                                        • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                          • Figure 167: Finland: major beauty and personal care specialists, 2018
                                                                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                          • Figure 168: Finland: major leisure and other specialists, 2018
                                                                                                        • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                          • Figure 169: Finland: selected online and home shopping retailers, 2018
                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                        • France

                                                                                                            • The French retail scene
                                                                                                              • France in figures
                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                  • Figure 170: France: population, by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                                                  • Figure 171: France: population, by age bracket and gender, 2018
                                                                                                                  • Figure 172: France: population, by region, 2018
                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                  • Figure 173: France: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                  • Figure 174: France: consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                                                                                  • Figure 175: France: household consumer expenditure, 2008-18
                                                                                                                  • Figure 176: France: breakdown of consumer expenditure, by detailed category (incl VAT), 2014-18
                                                                                                                • French retailing in figures
                                                                                                                  • Figure 177: France: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                  • Figure 178: France: retail sales breakdown (ex. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                  • Figure 179: France: retail enterprises and employment, 2016
                                                                                                                • Online retailing in France
                                                                                                                  • Figure 180: France: percentage of all households with Internet access, 2013-18
                                                                                                                  • Figure 181: France: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-18
                                                                                                                • Food retailers
                                                                                                                  • Figure 182: France: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                  • Figure 183: France: leading department store and mixed goods retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                  • Figure 184: France: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                  • Figure 185: France: leading DIY specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                • Electrical goods specialists
                                                                                                                  • Figure 186: France: leading electricals specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                  • Figure 187: France: leading furniture specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                  • Figure 188: France: leading beauty and personal care specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                • Cultural, leisure and other non-food retailers
                                                                                                                  • Figure 189: France: leading cultural, leisure and other non-food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                  • Figure 190: France: leading online and home shopping retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                  • Figure 191: France: selected major shopping malls, 2018/19
                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                • Germany

                                                                                                                    • The German retail scene
                                                                                                                      • Germany in figures
                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                          • Figure 192: Germany: population, by gender, 2014-19
                                                                                                                          • Figure 193: Germany: population, by age group, 2014-19
                                                                                                                          • Figure 194: Germany: population: by region, 2014-19
                                                                                                                          • Figure 195: Germany: number of households, by size, 2012-18
                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                          • Figure 196: Germany: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                          • Figure 197: Germany: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                                                                                          • Figure 198: Germany: household consumption expenditures, 2008-18
                                                                                                                          • Figure 199: Germany: breakdown of household consumption expenditures, 2013-18
                                                                                                                        • German retailing in figures
                                                                                                                          • Figure 200: Germany: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                                          • Figure 201: Germany: detailed breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                                        • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                          • Figure 202: Germany: number of retail enterprises, 2014-17
                                                                                                                          • Figure 203: Germany: number of people employed in retail, 2014-18
                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in Germany
                                                                                                                          • Figure 204: Germany: percentage of all households with internet access, 2013-18
                                                                                                                          • Figure 205: Germany: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-18
                                                                                                                          • Figure 206: Germany: online sales by product category (incl. VAT), 2014-18
                                                                                                                        • Food retailers
                                                                                                                            • Figure 207: Germany: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                          • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                            • Figure 208: Germany: leading department stores and mixed goods retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                          • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                            • Figure 209: Germany: leading clothing specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                            • Figure 210: Germany: leading footwear specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                          • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                            • Figure 211: Germany: leading DIY specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                          • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                            • Figure 212: Germany: leading furniture specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                          • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                            • Figure 213: Germany: leading electrical goods specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                          • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                              • Figure 214: Germany: leading beauty and personal care specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                            • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                              • Figure 215: Germany: leading miscellaneous specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                            • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                              • Figure 216: Germany: leading non-store retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                            • Major shopping malls in Germany
                                                                                                                              • Figure 217: Germany: leading shopping malls, 2018
                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                            • Greece

                                                                                                                                • The Greek retail scene
                                                                                                                                  • Greece in figures
                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 218: Greece: total population, by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 219: Greece: population by age group, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 220: Greece: population by region, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 221: Greece: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 222: Greece: consumer prices inflation*, % change on year, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 223: Greece: consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2008-18
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 224: Greece: average monthly spending on goods and services (incl. VAT), 2013-17
                                                                                                                                    • Greek retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 225: Greece: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Greece
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 226: Greece: percentage of all households with internet connection, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 227: Greece: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                    • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 228: Greece: leading food retailers, 2017
                                                                                                                                      • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 229: Greece: leading department stores, clothing and beauty retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 230: Greece: leading electrical goods specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 231: Greece: other leading non-food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                        • Hungary

                                                                                                                                            • The Hungarian retail scene
                                                                                                                                              • Hungary in figures
                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 232: Hungary: population, by gender, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 233: Hungary: population, by age group and gender, 2019
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 234: Population, by region, 2014 and 2019
                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 235: Hungary: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 236: Hungary: harmonised consumer prices index, % change on previous year, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 237: Hungary: household consumer expenditure, 2007-17
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 238: Hungary: breakdown of household consumer expenditure, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                • Hungarian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 239: Hungary: retail sales, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 240: Hungary: retail sales breakdown (excl. fuel), 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                • Outlet numbers
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 241: Hungary: number of shops, by type of retailer
                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Hungary
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 242: Hungary: percentage of all households with internet access, 2010-18
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 243: Hungary: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                • Major retailers in Hungary
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 244: Hungary: identified leading retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                  • Ireland

                                                                                                                                                      • The Irish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                        • Ireland in figures
                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 245: Ireland: population, by gender, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 246: Ireland: population, by age group, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 247: Ireland: gross domestic product, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 248: Ireland: consumer price inflation, % change on previous year, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 249: Household consumption expenditure, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 250: Ireland: breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                          • Irish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 251: Ireland: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 252: Ireland: retail sales breakdown (excl.VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Ireland
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 253: Ireland: percentage of households with internet access, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 254: Ireland: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                          • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 255: Ireland: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                            • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 256: Ireland: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                            • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 257: Ireland: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                            • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 258: Ireland: leading DIY specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                            • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 259: Ireland: leading furniture specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                            • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 260: Ireland: leading electrical specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                            • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 261: Ireland: leading health & beauty specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                              • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 262: Ireland: leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                • Online and other home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 263: Ireland: leading home shopping retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                • Italy

                                                                                                                                                                    • The Italian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                      • Italy in figures
                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 264: Italy: total population, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 265: Italy: population, by age and gender, 2019
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 266: Italy: number of households by household size, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 267: Italy: population, by region, 2019
                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 268: Italy: gross domestic product, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 269: Italy: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 270: Italy: final household expenditure (incl. VAT), 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 271: Italy: breakdown of consumer spending by detailed category (incl. VAT), 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                        • Italian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 272: Italy: breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in Italy
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 273: Italy: percentage of all households with internet access, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 274: Italy: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                        • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 275: Italy: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                          • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 276: Italy: leading mixed goods retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                          • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 277: Italy: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                          • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 278: Italy: leading DIY specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                          • Electrical, furniture and household good specialists
                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 279: Leading electrical, furniture and household goods specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                            • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 280: Italy: leading beauty specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                            • Sporting goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 281: Italy: leading sports goods retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                            • Online-only and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 282: Italy: leading home shopping retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                              • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 283: Italy: leading major shopping malls, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                              • Latvia

                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Latvian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Latvia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 284: Latvia: population, by gender, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 285: Latvia: population, by age group, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 286: Latvia: population, by region, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 287: Latvia: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 288: Latvia: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 289: Latvia: households consumption expenditure, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 290: Latvia: breakdown of households consumption expenditure, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Latvia retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 291: Latvia: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 292: Latvia: detailed retail sales breakdown, 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 293: Latvia: retail businesses and employment, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Latvia
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 294: Latvia: percentage of all households with internet access, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 295: Estonia: online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 296: Latvia: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 297: Latvia: leading non-food retailers by turnover, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Lithuania

                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Lithuanian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Lithuania in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 298: Lithuania: population, by gender, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 299: Lithuania: population, by age group, 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 300: Lithuania: population, by region, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 301: Lithuania: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 302: Lithuania: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 303: Lithuania: households consumption expenditure, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 304: Lithuania: detailed breakdown of households consumption expenditure, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Lithuanian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 305: Lithuania: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 306: Lithuania: detailed retail sales breakdown, 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 307: Lithuania: retail businesses and employment, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 308: Lithuania: percentage of all households with internet access, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 309: Lithuania: online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 310: Lithuania: leading food retailers, by sales, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 311: Lithuania: leading non-food retailers, by sales, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Luxembourg

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Luxembourg retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Luxembourg in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 312: Luxembourg: population, by gender, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 313: Luxembourg: population, by origin, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 314: Luxembourg: population, by age group and gender, 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 315: Luxembourg: gross domestic product, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 316: Luxembourg: consumer price inflation, % change on previous year, 2014-19(H1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 317: Luxembourg: consumer expenditure, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 318: Luxembourg: breakdown of consumer expenditure, by category, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Luxembourg retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 319: Luxembourg: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2014-19(f)
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 320: Luxembourg: retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 321: Luxembourg: percentage of all households online, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 322: Luxembourg: online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major retailers in Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 323: Luxembourg: major retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Moldova

                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Moldovan retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Moldova in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 324: Moldova: population, by gender, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 325: Moldova: usual resident population, by gender, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 326: Moldova: population, by age group, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 327: Usual resident population, by age group, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 328: Moldova: population, by region, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 329: Moldova: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 330: Moldova: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 331: Moldova: household consumption expenditures, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 332: Moldova: detailed breakdown of household consumption expenditures, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Moldovan retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 333: Moldova: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 334: Breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 335: Moldova: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 336: Moldova: leading non-food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Netherlands

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Dutch retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Netherlands in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 337: The Netherlands: population, 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 338: The Netherlands: population, by age, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 339: The Netherlands: number of households, by household size, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 340: The Netherlands: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 341: The Netherlands: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 342: The Netherlands: household consumption expenditure, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 343: The Netherlands: selected household consumption expenditure, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Dutch retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 344: The Netherlands: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 345: The Netherlands: retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in the Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 346: The Netherlands: percentage of households with internet access, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 347: The Netherlands: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 348: The Netherlands: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 349: The Netherlands: leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 350: The Netherlands: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 351: The Netherlands: leading DIY specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Furniture and carpet specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 352: The Netherlands: leading furniture and carpet specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 353: The Netherlands: leading electricals specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 354: The Netherlands: leading health and beauty specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 355: The Netherlands: leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 356: The Netherlands: leading home shopping retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • North Macedonia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The North Macedonian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • North Macedonia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 357: Macedonia: population, by gender, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 358: Macedonia: population, by age group and gender, 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 359: Macedonia: population, by region, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 360: Macedonia: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 361: Macedonia: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 362: Macedonia: final household consumption expenditure, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 363: Macedonia: detailed breakdown of final household consumption expenditure, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Macedonian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 364: Macedonia: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 365: Macedonia: detailed breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in North Macedonia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 366: Macedonia: percentage of all households with internet access, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 367: Macedonia: online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 368: Macedonia: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 369: Macedonia: leading non-food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Norway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Norwegian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Norway in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 370: Norway: population trends, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 371: Norway: population, by age group and gender, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 372: Norway: households by size, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 373: Norway: population by county, 2017-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 374: Norway: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 375: Norway: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 376: Norway: consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 377: Norway: breakdown of consumer spending by category (incl. VAT), 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Norwegian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 378: Norway: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 379: Norway: breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 380: Norway: percentage of all households with internet access, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 381: Norway: online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 382: Norway: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 383: Norway: leading mixed goods retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 384: Norway: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 385: Norway: leading DIY specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 386: Norway: leading furniture specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 387: Norway: leading electrical goods specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 388: Norway: leading health & beauty specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Miscellaneous retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 389: Norway: leading cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 390: Norway: selected home-shopping retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Poland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Polish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Poland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 391: Poland: population, by gender, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 392: Poland: population, by age group, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 393: Poland: population, by region, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 394: Poland: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 395: Poland: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 396: Poland: household consumption expenditure, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 397: Poland: breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Polish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 398: Poland: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 399: Poland: retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 400: Poland: percentage of all households with internet access, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 401: Poland: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 402: Poland: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 403: Poland: leading non-food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Portugal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Portuguese retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Portugal in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 404: Portugal: population, by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 405: Portugal: population, by age, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 406: Portugal: population, by region, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 407: Portugal: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 408: Portugal: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 409: Portugal: resident households final consumption expenditure, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 410: Portugal: breakdown of resident households final consumption expenditure, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Portuguese retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 411: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 412: Portugal: selective breakdown of retail sales (excl.VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 413: Portugal: percentage of all households with internet access, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 414: Portugal: online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 415: Portugal: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 416: Portugal: leading non-food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Romania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Romanian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Romania in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 417: Romania: population, by gender, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 418: Romania: population, by age group, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 419: Romania: population, by region, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 420: Romania: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 421: Romania: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 422: Romania: households consumption expenditures, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 423: Romania: breakdown of households consumption expenditure, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Romanian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 424: Romania: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 425: Romania: breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 426: Romania: percentage of all households with internet access, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 427: Romania: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 428: Romania: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 429: Romania: selected non-food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Russia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Russian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Russia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 430: Russia: population, by gender, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 431: Russia: population, by age group, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 432: Russia: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 433: Russia: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 434: Russia: households consumption expenditure, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Russian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 435: Russia: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 436: Russia: retail sales, by broad sector (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 437: Russia: selected information society indicators, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 438: Russia: total estimated e-commerce market size, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 439: Russia: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 440: Russia: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 441: Russia: leading electrical specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Furniture and DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 442: Russia: leading furniture and DIY specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Health & beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 443: Russia: leading health & beauty specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 444: Russia: other identified retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online-only retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 445: Russia: select leading online retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Serbia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Serbian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Serbia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 446: Serbia: population, by gender, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 447: Serbia: population, by age group, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 448: Serbia: population, by region, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 449: Serbia: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 450: Serbia: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 451: Serbia: household consumption expenditure, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 452: Breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Serbian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 453: Serbia: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Serbia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 454: Serbia: percentage of all households with internet access, 2015-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 455: Serbia: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 456: Serbia: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 457: Serbia: leading non-food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Slovakia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Slovakian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Slovakia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 458: Slovakia: population, by gender, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 459: Slovakia: population by age group and gender, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 460: Slovakia: population, by region, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 461: Slovakia: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 462: Slovakia: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 463: Slovakia: final consumption of households, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 464: Slovakia: breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Slovakian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 465: Slovakia: retail sales, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 466: Slovakia: retail sales breakdown, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Slovakian online retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 467: Slovakia: percentage of all households with internet access, 2010-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 468: Slovakia: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Slovakia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 469: Slovakia: selected retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Slovenia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Slovenian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Slovenia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 470: Slovenia: population, by gender, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 471: Slovenia: population, by age group, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 472: Slovenia: population, by region, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 473: Slovenia: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 474: Slovenia: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 475: Slovenia: household consumption expenditures, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 476: Slovenia: detailed breakdown of household consumption expenditures, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Slovenian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 477: Slovenia: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 478: Slovenia: breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Slovenia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 479: Slovenia: percentage of all households with internet access, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 480: Slovenia: online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 481: Slovenia: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 482: Slovenia: leading non-food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Spain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Spanish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Spain in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 483: Spain: population, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 484: Spain: population by age group and gender, 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 485: Spain: population, by province, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 486: Spain: gross domestic product, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 487: Spain: consumer price inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 488: Spain: consumer spending (incl VAT), 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 489: Spain: breakdown of consumer spending by detailed category (incl vat), 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Spanish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 490: Spain: retail sales (excl vat), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 491: Spain: retail sales breakdown (excl vat), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 492: Spain: number of retail enterprises, by sector, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 493: Spain: numbers employed, by retail sector, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 494: Spain: percentage of all households with internet access, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 495: Spain: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 496: Spain: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 497: Leading mixed goods retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 498: Spain: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 499: Spain: leading DIY specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Electrical, furniture and household goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 500: Spain: leading electrical, furniture and household goods specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 501: Spain: leading beauty specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 502: Spain: miscellaneous specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 503: Spain: online-only retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Major shopping malls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 504: Major shopping centres, 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sweden

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Swedish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sweden in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 505: Sweden: population, by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 506: Sweden: population, by age group and gender, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 507: Sweden: households by size, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 508: Sweden: population by county, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 509: Sweden: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 510: Sweden: consumer prices inflation, % change on year, 2012-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 511: Sweden: consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 512: Sweden: breakdown of consumer spending by category (incl. VAT), 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Swedish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 513: Sweden: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 514: Sweden: breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 515: Sweden: percentage of all households with internet access, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 516: Sweden: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 517: Sweden: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 518: Sweden: leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 519: Sweden: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 520: Sweden: leading DIY retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 521: Sweden: leading furniture retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 522: Sweden: leading electrical specialist retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 523: Sweden: leading beauty and personal care retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 524: Sweden: major leisure, cultural and other specialists retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 525: Sweden: leading home shopping retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Switzerland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Swiss retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Switzerland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 526: Switzerland: population, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 527: Switzerland: population, by age and gender, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 528: Switzerland: population, by region, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 529: Switzerland: gross domestic product, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 530: Switzerland: harmonised indices of consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2012-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 531: Switzerland: households consumption expenditure (incl. VAT), 2008-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Swiss retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 532: Switzerland: retail sales (excl. VAT and fuel), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 533: Switzerland: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 534: Switzerland: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014 and 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 535: Switzerland: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Department stores and clothing specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 536: Switzerland: leading clothing, footwear and department store retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Household goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 537: Switzerland: leading household goods specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 538: Switzerland: leading health & beauty specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 539: Switzerland: leading miscellaneous specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 540: Switzerland: major online and home shopping retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Turkey

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Turkish retailing scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Turkey in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 541: Turkey: population, by gender, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 542: Turkey: population, by age group, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 543: Turkey: population, by region, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 544: Turkey: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 545: Turkey: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 546: Turkey: household consumption expenditures, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 547: Turkey: breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2013-17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Turkish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 548: Turkey: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 549: Turkey: breakdown of retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 550: Turkey: percentage of all households with internet access, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 551: Turkey: online purchases in the last 12 months, % of all individuals, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 552: Turkey: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 553: Turkey: leading non-food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • UK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The UK retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The UK in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 554: UK: population by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 555: UK: population by age group, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 556: UK: number of households by household size, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 557: UK: population by region, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 558: UK: gross domestic product, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 559: UK: consumer prioces inflation, % increase on previous year, 2009-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 560: UK: households consumption expenditure, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 561: UK: breakdown of households’ consumption expenditure 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • UK retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 562: UK: retail sales, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 563: UK: retail sales (ex VAT), detailed sales breakdown, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in the UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 564: UK: household internet access, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 565: UK: online sales as % all retail sales, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 566: UK: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 567: UK: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 568: UK: leading mixed goods and department store retailers 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 569: UK: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 570: UK: leading DIY specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Home goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 571: UK: leading furniture and carpets specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 572: UK: leading electricals specialists, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 573: UK: leading health & beauty retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 574: UK: leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online and other home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 575: UK: leading home shopping retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Major shopping centres
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 576: Top 20 shopping centres in the UK, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ukraine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Ukrainian retailing scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ukraine in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 577: Ukraine: population, by gender, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 578: Ukraine: population, by age group, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 579: Ukraine: population, by region, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 580: Ukraine: gross domestic product, 2008-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 581: Ukraine: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 582: Ukraine: households consumption expenditures, 2010-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 583: Ukraine: breakdown of household consumption expenditures, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ukrainian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 584: Ukraine: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 585: Ukraine: leading food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 586: Ukraine: leading non-food retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  European Retail Handbook - September 2019

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  £1,495.00 (Excl.Tax)