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Online Retailing - Europe - July 2019

“Online is the growth sector in retailing everywhere. But it has reached strikingly different stages of development around Europe. There’s a North-South Split with Northern Europe much further ahead than Southern Europe. It is tempting to say that the South will follow the North in due course and that the patterns established in the North will become the norm. On the whole we think that is so, though shopping habits vary considerably around Europe for a variety of reasons, such as the weather and underlying wealth. It also remains to be seen whether a significant online grocery market will develop outside of the UK and France.”
– Richard Perks, Director of Retail Research

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Table of contents

  1. Overview

    • Coverage
      • Consumer research
        • Market definition
          • Marketplaces
            • Market sizes
              • Methodology
                • Financial definitions
                  • VAT rates
                    • Figure 1: VAT rates around Europe, 2014-19
                  • Abbreviations
                  • Executive Summary – Europe – The Market

                      • Online sales
                        • The data
                          • Retail
                            • Continued growth
                              • Pan-European online sales
                                • Figure 2: Europe: total online retail sales (inc VAT), 2014-24
                                • Figure 3: Europe: total online retail sales as % all retail sales (excl. fuel), 2014-24
                              • Online sales by country
                                • Figure 4: Europe: online sales by country, 2014-18
                                • Figure 5: Europe: online sales forecasts by country, 2019-24
                              • Companies and brands
                                • Leading players
                                  • Retailers vs marketplaces
                                    • Types of retailers
                                      • Non-store retailers
                                        • Figure 6: Europe: leading online pureplayers, 2016/17-2018/19
                                      • Market shares
                                        • Figure 7: Europe: leading online pureplayers’ shares of all online sales, 2016/17-2018/19
                                      • What we think
                                      • Executive Summary – Europe – The Consumer

                                          • How many bought online?
                                              • Figure 8: Europe: proportion of individuals who have shopped online in the last 12 months, 2018
                                            • What did they buy?
                                              • Figure 9: Europe: proportion of internet users who have shopped online, June 2019
                                              • Figure 10: Europe: products bought online in the last 12 months, by country, June 2019
                                            • Where they shop
                                              • Figure 11: Europe: retailer type bought from online, by country, June 2019
                                            • Does the UK point the way forward?
                                              • Leading retailers
                                                  • Figure 12: Europe: proportion of online shoppers who have shopped at the top two online retailers, by country, June 2019
                                                • Amazon and Amazon Prime
                                                    • Figure 13: Europe: Amazon Prime membership, June 2016
                                                  • Online shopping behaviours
                                                      • Figure 14: Europe: online shopping behaviours, June 2019
                                                  • Executive Summary – Europe – Launch Activity and Innovation

                                                    • Beauty tips on Google Nest Hub
                                                      • Mobile body-scanning tech start-up wins LVMH Innovation Award
                                                        • Instagram launches new seamless purchasing method
                                                          • Amazon ‘live’ TV shopping channel
                                                            • Extended click-and-collect options
                                                              • Car boot parcel delivery
                                                              • France

                                                                • Overview
                                                                  • What you need to know
                                                                    • Areas covered in this Report
                                                                      • Executive summary
                                                                        • The market
                                                                          • The economy
                                                                            • Online sales
                                                                              • Figure 15: France: online sales (incl. VAT), 2013-24
                                                                            • Segmentation/what they buy online
                                                                              • Market drivers
                                                                                • Broadband access
                                                                                  • Device ownership
                                                                                    • Online shopping
                                                                                      • Companies and brands
                                                                                        • Leading players
                                                                                          • Market shares
                                                                                            • Figure 16: France: leading online retailers’ estimated shares of all online sales, 2018
                                                                                          • The consumer
                                                                                            • What they buy online
                                                                                              • Figure 17: France: products bought online in the last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                            • Where they shop online
                                                                                              • Figure 18: France: retailers shopped online in the last 12 months, by age and affluence, June 2019
                                                                                            • Online shopping behaviours
                                                                                              • Figure 19: France: consumer behaviours when shopping online, June 2019
                                                                                            • Membership of Amazon Prime
                                                                                              • Figure 20: France: membership of Amazon Prime, June 2019
                                                                                            • What we think
                                                                                              • Issues and insights
                                                                                                • A unique format - le drive-piéton (pedestrian drive)
                                                                                                  • The facts
                                                                                                    • The implications
                                                                                                      • What are the implications of the Monoprix/Amazon partnership?
                                                                                                        • The facts
                                                                                                          • The implications
                                                                                                            • The market – What you need to know
                                                                                                              • Economic outlook uncertain
                                                                                                                • Online grew 13% in 2018
                                                                                                                  • Online spending by category
                                                                                                                    • Broadband access relatively low
                                                                                                                      • Smartphone ownership low in Europe
                                                                                                                        • Market size
                                                                                                                          • The economy
                                                                                                                            • Online sales and forecasts
                                                                                                                              • Figure 21: France: online sales (incl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                              • Figure 22: France: forecast online sales, 2019-24
                                                                                                                            • More details from FEVAD
                                                                                                                              • Figure 23: France: online sales: selected retail categories, 2015-17
                                                                                                                            • Segmentation/what they buy online
                                                                                                                              • Figure 24: France: products bought online, June 2019
                                                                                                                            • Electricals
                                                                                                                              • Clothing
                                                                                                                                • Food & grocery
                                                                                                                                  • DIY
                                                                                                                                    • Beauty
                                                                                                                                      • Market drivers
                                                                                                                                        • Broadband access
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 25: France: broadband penetration as % all households, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                        • Device ownership
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 26: France: technology products personally owned, Q4 2018
                                                                                                                                        • Online shopping
                                                                                                                                          • Figure 27: France: percentage saying they have bought online in the last year, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                        • Companies and brands – What you need to know
                                                                                                                                          • Amazon pulling ahead
                                                                                                                                            • Casino expanding on several fronts
                                                                                                                                              • Retailers diversifying
                                                                                                                                                • Leading three retailers capture 39% of online spending
                                                                                                                                                  • Leading players
                                                                                                                                                    • Amazon extending its lead
                                                                                                                                                      • Casino Group with several initiatives
                                                                                                                                                        • With Amazon
                                                                                                                                                          • With Cdiscount
                                                                                                                                                            • With Ocado technology
                                                                                                                                                              • Diversification at Cdiscount
                                                                                                                                                                • Veepee – A new name for a diversified business
                                                                                                                                                                  • La Redoute
                                                                                                                                                                    • Fnac Darty
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 28: France: leading online retailers, sales (excl. VAT), 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                    • Market shares
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 29: France: leading online retailers’ estimated shares of all online sales, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                    • Website visitors
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 30: France: top retail sites by number of unique visitors, Oct-Dec 2018
                                                                                                                                                                    • The consumer – What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                      • Widespread engagement in online shopping
                                                                                                                                                                        • Clothing bought most
                                                                                                                                                                          • Amazon dominates
                                                                                                                                                                            • Most shoppers look for discounts and good prices
                                                                                                                                                                              • Under 20% are Prime members
                                                                                                                                                                                • What they buy online
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Broad engagement
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Over half shop for fashion
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 31: France: products bought online in the last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 32: France: products bought online in the last 12 months, by age and affluence, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Where they shop online
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Amazon dominates
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 33: France: retailers shopped online in the last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 34: France: proportion of internet users who have shopped online in the last 12 months, by major retailer, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Broad appeal of Amazon
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 35: France: retailers shopped online in the last 12 months, by age and affluence, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online competitors
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 36: France: leading online retailers – Top five other retailers shopped at in last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                      • The French show lower usage of international retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 37: Europe: comparison of usage of selected retailers, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Where they shop and what they bought
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 38: France: Amazon, relative strength by product, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 39: France: Cdiscount, relative strength by product, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 40: France: relative strength by product, hypermarkets and department stores, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online shopping behaviours
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 41: France: online shopping behaviours, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 42: France: online shopping behaviours by products purchased, deviation from the average, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Membership of Amazon Prime
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Under 20% are Prime members
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 43: France: membership of Amazon Prime, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 44: France: membership of Amazon Prime, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 45: Europe: membership of Amazon Prime, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Appendix – Data sources, abbreviations and supporting information
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Abbreviations
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Data sources
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Germany

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Overview
                                                                                                                                                                                                • What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Areas covered in this Report
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Executive summary
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The market
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online sales
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 46: Germany: online sales (incl. VAT), 2014-24
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Segmentation/what they buy online
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 47: Germany: estimated online sales by product category, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Market drivers
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Broadband access
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 48: Germany: broadband penetration as % of all households, 2011-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Device ownership
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 49: Germany: technology products personally owned, Q4 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 50: Germany: percentage saying they have bought products online in the last year, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Companies and brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Leading players
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Market shares
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 51: Germany: leading online retailers’ estimated shares of all online sales, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The consumer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What they buy online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 52: Germany: products bought online in last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Where they shop online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 53: Germany: retailers purchased from online in the last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online shopping behaviours
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 54: Germany: online shopping behaviours, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Membership of Amazon Prime
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 55: Germany: membership of Amazon Prime, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Issues and insights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • How can German online retailers boost m-commerce sales?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The facts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The implications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • How can Amazon’s rivals increase customer loyalty?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The facts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The implications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The market – What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • German economy is underperforming
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Double-digit growth for third successive year in 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Clothing still most popular online purchase
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • German consumers switching from fixed to mobile internet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Germans lag behind with device ownership
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Proportion of Germans shopping online grows again
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Market size
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 56: Germany: GDP compared with other major European nations, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 57: Germany: GDP annual growth trends, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online sales and forecasts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 58: Germany: online sales (incl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 59: Germany: forecast online sales, 2019-24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Segmentation/what they buy online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 60: Germany: percentage saying they have bought online in the last year, by product category, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 61: Germany: products bought online in the last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 62: Germany: estimated online sales by product category, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 63: Germany: estimated online share of sales, by selected sector, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Market drivers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Broadband access
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 64: Germany: broadband penetration as % all households, 2011-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Device ownership
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 65: Germany: technology products personally owned, Q4 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 66: Germany: percentage saying they have bought online in the last year, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Companies and brands – What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Amazon success driven by innovation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Otto is the biggest domestic player
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Germany still key for Zalando
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Amazon has dominant market share
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Leading players
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Amazon marches on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • eBay continues to grow but competition intensifies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Otto’s growth continues
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Germany still at the heart of Zalando’s business
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ceconomy underperforms in Germany but online still growing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Notebooksbilliger announces, then drops, merger plans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Cyberport growth boosted by acquisition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Tchibo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Conrad trials experiential/inspirational store as online complement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 67: Germany: leading online retailers, sales, 2016-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Market shares
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 68: Germany: leading online retailers’ estimated shares of all online sales, 2016-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The consumer – What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • More than nine in ten have bought online in the past year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Six in ten have bought fashion items online in the past year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Germans twice as likely to buy online from pureplay as store-based retailer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Price still the major motivator for shopping online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Prime membership is still low compared to other countries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Who shops online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 69: Germany: proportion of internet users who have shopped online, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • What they buy online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Six in ten have bought fashion items online in the past year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 70: Germany: products bought online in last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Where they shop online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Germans twice as likely to buy online from pureplay as store-based retailer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 71: Germany: type of retailer bought from online in past 12 months, store-based vs pureplayers, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 72: Germany: retailers purchased from online in the last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 73: Germany: proportion of internet users who have shopped online in the last 12 months, by major retailer, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Profile of shoppers by retailers used
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 74: Germany: profile of shoppers by retailer purchased from online in last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Where they shop and what they bought
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Amazon
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 75: Germany: Amazon, relative strength by product, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • eBay
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 76: Germany: eBay, relative strength by product, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Otto Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 77: Germany: Otto/Bonprix/Baur/Heinrich Heine, relative strength by product, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • MediaMarkt/Saturn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 78: Germany: MediaMarkt/Saturn, relative strength by product, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online competitors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 79: Germany: leading online retailers – Top five other retailers shopped at in past 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online shopping behaviours
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Price still the major motivator for shopping online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 80: Germany: online shopping behaviours, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online shopping behaviours by products bought online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Research behaviour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 81: Germany: research carried out when shopping online, by products bought online in last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Search behaviour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 82: Germany: sources used to search for products/inspiration when shopping online, by products bought online in past 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Membership of Amazon Prime
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Prime membership is still low compared to other countries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 83: Germany: membership of Amazon Prime, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Trends in Amazon Prime membership
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 84: Germany: trends in membership of Amazon Prime, 2017-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Appendix – Data sources, abbreviations and supporting information
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Abbreviations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Data sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Italy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Overview
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Areas covered in this Report
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Executive summary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online sales
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 85: Italy: online sales (incl. VAT), 2014-24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Segmentation of online sales
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 86: Italy: online sales by broad sector, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Market drivers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Broadband access
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 87: Italy: broadband penetration as % all households, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Device ownership
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 88: Italy: percentage saying they have bought online in last 12 months, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Companies and brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Market shares
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Leading players
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 89: Italy: leading online retailers’ estimated shares of all online sales, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The consumer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Internet users steadily increasing usage of online shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 90: Italy: proportion of internet users who have shopped online, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Clothing and footwear the most bought sector
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 91: Italy: products bought online in the last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Pureplayers bought from twice as much as multichannel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 92: Italy: retailer type bought from online, store-based vs pureplayers, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Amazon dominant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 93: Italy: retailers bought from online, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online shoppers very price aware
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 94: Italy: online shopping behaviours, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Two-fifths of internet users are Prime members
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 95: Italy: membership of Amazon prime, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Issues and insights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • What is inhibiting online growth?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • What we’ve seen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • What it means
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Can Amazon maintain its dominance?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • What we’ve seen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What it means
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The market – What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy weak
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online share of retailing still low
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Electricals the largest sector
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Italy lags the EU in online access…
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • …and purchasing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Smartphone ownership high
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Market size
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online sales and forecasts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 96: Italy: online sales (incl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 97: Italy: forecast online sales, 2019-24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Segmentation/what they buy online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 98: Italy: products bought online in the last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 99: Italy: online sales by sector, 2017-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 100: Italy: online sales by broad sector, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Market drivers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Broadband access
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 101: Italy: broadband penetration as % all households, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Device ownership
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 102: Italy: technology products personally owned, Q4 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 103: Italy: percentage saying they have bought online in the last year, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 104: EU, Italy, percentage saying they have bought online in last 12 months, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Companies and brands – What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Amazon is the clear market leader
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • But not all online players are performing well
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Market fragmented beyond Amazon and eBay
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Leading players
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 105: Italy: leading online retailers, sales (excl. VAT), 2016-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Market shares
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 106: Italy: leading online retailers’ estimated shares of all online sales, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The consumer – What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Internet users steadily increasing usage of online shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing and footwear the most bought sector
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Pureplayers bought from twice as much as multichannel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Amazon dominant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online shoppers very price aware
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • A quarter of shoppers are lapsed Prime members
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The research
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Who shops online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 107: Italy: proportion of internet users who have shopped online, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What they buy online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 108: Italy: products bought online in the last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Where they shop online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 109: Italy: type of retailer bought from online in last 12 months, store-based vs pureplayers, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 110: Italy: retailers purchased from online in the last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 111: Italy: proportion of internet users who have shopped online in the last 12 months, by major retailer, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Profile of shoppers by retailers used
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 112: Italy: profile of shoppers by retailer purchased from online in last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online shopping behaviours
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 113: Italy: online shopping behaviours, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Behaviours by retailer used
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Search behaviour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 114: Italy: search behaviour by retailer used, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Research behaviour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 115: Italy: research behaviour by retailer used, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Service
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 116: Italy: service checking by retailer used, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online shopping behaviours by products bought online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Search behaviour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 117: Italy: sources used to search for products/inspiration when shopping online, by products bought online in last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Research behaviour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 118: Italy: research carried out when shopping online, by products bought online in last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Service checking
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 119: Italy: service checking by product bought online, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Membership of Amazon Prime
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 120: Italy: membership of Amazon prime, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 121: Italy: profiles by membership status, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Appendix – Data sources, abbreviations and supporting information
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Abbreviations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Data sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Spain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Overview
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Areas covered in this Report
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Executive summary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online sales
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 122: Spain: online sales (incl. VAT), 2014-24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Segmentation/what they buy online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 123: Spain: estimated online sales by product category, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Market drivers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Broadband access
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 124: Spain: broadband penetration as % of all households, 2011-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Device ownership
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 125: Spain: technology products personally owned, Q4 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 126: Spain: percentage saying they have bought online in the last year, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Companies and brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Leading players
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Market shares
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 127: Spain: leading online retailers’ estimated shares of all online sales, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The consumer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • What they buy online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 128: Spain: products bought online in the last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Where they shop online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 129: Spain: retailers bought from online in the last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online shopping behaviours
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 130: Spain: online shopping behaviours, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Membership of Amazon Prime
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 131: Spain: membership of Amazon Prime, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Issues and insights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • How can m-commerce drive market growth?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The facts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The implications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Can store-based operators leverage their estates to shift focus away from price?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The facts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The implications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The market – What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Spanish growth fastest of five main economies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online sales growing fast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing and household goods most popular purchases
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Broadband access has grown rapidly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Device ownership, particularly smartphones, high
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Just over half of Spaniards have shopped online in the past year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 132: Spain: GDP compared with other major European nations, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 133: Spain: GDP annual growth, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online sales and forecasts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 134: Spain: Online sales (incl. VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 135: Spain: forecast online sales, 2019-24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Segmentation/what they buy online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 136: Spain: percentage saying they have bought online in the last 12 months, by product category, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 137: Spain: products bought online in the last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 138: Spain: estimated online sales by product category, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 139: Spain: estimated online share of sales, by sector, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Market drivers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Broadband access
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 140: Spain: broadband penetration as % of all households, 2011-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Device ownership
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 141: Spain: technology products personally owned, Q4 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 142: Spain: percentage saying they have bought online in the last year, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Companies and brands – What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Amazon is largest player
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • El Corte Inglés is the main domestic operator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Vente-privee rebrand to Veepee begins in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mercadona finally grasps the online nettle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Amazon holds a modest lead
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Leading players
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Amazon heads the field
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • El Corte Inglés is leading domestic player, partners with Alibaba
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Vente-privee rebrand to Veepee begins in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mercadona finally grasps the online nettle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Inditex aims for total integration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Zalando goes head-to-head with Veepee
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Carrefour expands online specialist presence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 143: Spain: leading online retailers, estimated sales (excluding VAT), 2016-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Market shares
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 144: Spain: leading online retailers’ estimated shares of all online sales, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The consumer – What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • More than nine out of ten have bought online in the past year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Fashion is the most popular online purchase
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Pureplay operators are preferred
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online buyers like to do their research
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Prime membership continues to grow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Who shops online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 145: Spain: proportion of internet users who have shopped online in the last 12 months, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • What they buy online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Fashion is the most popular online purchase
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 146: Spain: products bought online in the last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Where they shop online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Pureplay operators are preferred
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 147: Spain: type of retailer bought from online in the last 12 months, store-based vs pureplayers, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 148: Spain: retailers purchased from online in the last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 149: Spain: proportion of internet users who have shopped online in the last 12 months, by major retailer, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Profile of shoppers by retailers used
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 150: Spain: profile of shoppers by retailer purchased from online in last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Where they shop and what they bought
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Amazon
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 151: Spain: Amazon, relative strength by product, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • AliExpress
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 152: Spain: AliExpress, relative strength by product, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • eBay
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 153: Spain: eBay, relative strength by product, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • El Corte Inglés
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 154: Spain: El Corte Inglés, relative strength by product, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online competitors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 155: Spain: leading online retailers – Top five other retailers shopped at in past 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online shopping behaviours
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online buyers like to do their research
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 156: Spain: online shopping behaviours, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online shopping behaviours by products bought online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Research behaviour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 157: Spain: research carried out when shopping online, by products bought online in last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Search behaviour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 158: Spain: sources used to search for products/inspiration when shopping online, by products bought online in last 12 months, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Membership of Amazon Prime
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Prime membership continues to grow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 159: Spain: membership of Amazon Prime, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Trends in Amazon Prime membership
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 160: Spain: trends in membership of Amazon Prime, 2017-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Appendix – Data sources, abbreviations and supporting information
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Abbreviations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Data sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • UK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Overview
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Areas covered in this Report
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Executive Summary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Retail sales holding up despite uncertainty in the market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 161: Mintel Financial Confidence Tracker, January 2017-May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The online market grows by 14.4% in 2018…
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 162: All online sales and forecast, 2014-24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • ...meaning online claimed 18.0% of all retail sales
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 163: Online sales as a % of all retail sales (including VAT), 2014-24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Store-based retailers account for just under half of all online sales
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 164: Online pure players and store-based retailers share of all online sales, 2008-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Companies and brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Amazon the dominant market leader…
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 165: Leading retailers share of all online sales, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • …and its brand is strong
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 166: Key metrics for selected brands, September 2018-June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Larger players look to support the high-street
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 167: Amazon Clicks and Mortar Manchester, June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The consumer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Vast majority of consumers shop online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 168: Frequency of online shopping, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Fashion and hard-copy media popular categories
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 169: Products purchased online in the past year, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Smartphone purchasing now more popular among 16-34s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 170: Devices used to shop online, 2017-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Comparing prices and delivery options key in the pre-purchase journey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 171: What consumers do before shopping online, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Amazon most popular retailer online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 172: Retailers shopped with online in the last 12 months, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • 29% have a delivery pass that isn’t Amazon Prime
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 173: Retail delivery service membership, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • 29% have used PayPal Credit while 37% have used a cashback site in the past year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 174: Use of credit when shopping with retailers in the past year, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • 69% think limiting the ability to return items would make online shopping less appealing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 175: Attitudes towards shopping online, may 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Issues and Insights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Does the UK need an online sales tax?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The facts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The implications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The impact of the mobile-first generation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The facts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The implications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The opportunities for online within an aging population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The facts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The implications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Market – What You Need to Know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Retail sales holding up despite uncertainty in the market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online market grows by 14.4% in 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Store-based retailers account for just under half of all online sales
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Digital download market worth some £3.6 billion in 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Market Drivers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 95% of UK households now online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 176: UK household internet access, 2011-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Smartphone ownership hits its highest level to date in 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 177: Ownership of mobile phones, January 2012-January 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Wage growth outstripping inflation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 178: Real wage growth: average weekly earnings vs inflation, January 2016-May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A new high for Mintel’s financial confidence index
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 179: Mintel Financial Confidence Tracker, January 2015-May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Discounting boosts retail sales volume growth year-on-year in 2018, but hits value growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 180: Annual % change in all UK retail sales (excluding fuel), by value and volume, June 2016-Jun 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Market Size and Forecast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online market grows by 14.4% in 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 181: All online sales and forecast, 2014-24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 182: All online sales and forecast, at current and constant prices, 2014-24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online to account for almost a fifth of all retail in 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 183: Online sales as a % of all retail sales (including VAT), 2014-24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online’s share peaks in November in line with Black Friday
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 184: Online retail sales as a % of all retail sales, non-seasonally adjusted, January 2016-April 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 185: Average weekly value of all online retail sales, non-seasonally adjusted, January 2016-April 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Forecast methodology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Market Segmentation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Breakdown of retail sales by type of retailer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 186: Online sales by type of retailer, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 187: Online sales by type of retailer, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Store-based vs online-only retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 188: Online pure players and store-based retailers share of all online sales, 2010-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The longer term view
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 189: Total online-only retailer sales, 2014-24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 190: Total online-only retailer sales, at current and constant prices, 2014-24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 191: Total store-based retailers sales, 2014-24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 192: Total store-based retailers sales, at current and constant prices, 2014-24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Sales by product
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 193: Online estimated sales by product, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 194: Online retailing: estimated sales by product by store-based and online-only retailers, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Digital Spending
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Books – hard copy fighting back
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 195: Value of consumer print book and publisher UK sales of consumer digital books (net invoiced value), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Music – Streaming taking over
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 196: Spending on recorded music 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Video – streaming now over half of the market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 197: The video market, 2016-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Games
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The total download market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 198: Estimated digital download market, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Consumer – What You Need to Know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Vast majority of consumers shop online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Fashion and hard-copy media popular categories
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Smartphone purchasing now more popular among 16-34s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Comparing prices and delivery options key in the pre-purchase journey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Amazon most popular retailer online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 29% have a delivery pass that isn’t Amazon Prime
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • 29% have used PayPal Credit while 37% have used a cashback site in the past year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • 69% think limiting the ability to return items would make online shopping less appealing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Who Shops Online and How Frequently They Shop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online shopping ubiquitous across all demographics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 199: Usage of online retailing, by age and gender, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Over a third (36%) shop online weekly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 200: Frequency of online shopping, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • 25-34s most frequent online shoppers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 201: Frequency of online shopping, by age, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Products Purchased Online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Fashion most popular online purchase
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 202: Products purchased online in the past year, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Products purchased by age
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 203: Products purchased online in the past year, by age, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • 35-44s have the broadest repertoire online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 204: Repertoire of product categories purchased from online in the past year, by age, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • There is still some hesitancy around buying certain categories online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Devices Used to Purchase Online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Desktop/laptop purchasing still most common but smartphone shopping growing rapidly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 205: Devices used to shop online, 2017-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Younger consumers now more likely to shop via smartphone
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 206: Devices used to shop online, by age, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • More purchase via mobile site than app
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 207: How smartphone/tablet shoppers shop online, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Younger consumers want more features from apps
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 208: Attitudes to retail mobile apps, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Pre-Purchase Journey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Price and convenience are key in the decision process
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 209: What consumers do before shopping online, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Younger consumers more driven by promotional activity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 210: What consumers do before shopping online, by age, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Straight to search
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 211: Attitudes towards search, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Retailers Used
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • More shop with online-only retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 212: Types of online retailer shopped with in the past 12 months, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Amazon and eBay dominant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 213: Store-based and online-only retailers shopped with in the past year, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Argos most popular store-based player online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 214: Retailers shopped with online in the last 12 months, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online customer profiles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 215: Retailers shopped with online in the last 12 months, by age and socio-economic group, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Consumers have a wider repertoire of store-based retailers they shop with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 216: Repertoire of online-only and store-based retailers shopped with in the past year, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Subscription Delivery Services and Returns
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Away from Prime, grocery delivery passes most popular retail memberships
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 217: Retail delivery service membership, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Fast fashion retailers show highest penetration among their shopping base
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 218: Retail delivery service membership, by retailer shopper base, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The issue of returns
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 219: Attitudes to returns, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Credit and Cashback
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • 65% purchased on credit in the past year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 220: Use of credit when shopping with retailers in the past year, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Younger consumers more likely to use newer options
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 221: Use of credit when shopping with retailers in the past year, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • 43% say credit options encourage impulse purchasing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 222: Attitudes to credit options, by age, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Over a third use cashback sites
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 223: Use of cashback sites in the past year, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Over half of 25-34s have used a cashback site in the past year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 224: Use of cashback sites in the past year, by age, May 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Key Players – What You Need to Know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Amazon the dominant player
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Four retailers account for 45% of the market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Boots the most trusted brand online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Visual search and AR use on the rise
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Leading Online Retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Amazon the leading player
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 225: UK: top 30 leading online retailers, 2016/17-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Market Share
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Amazon the dominant market leader
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 226: Leading retailers share of all online sales, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 227: Leading retailers: share of all online sales, 2016-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Brand Research
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • What you need to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Brand map
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 228: Attitudes towards and usage of selected brands, September 2018-June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Key brand metrics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 229: Key metrics for selected brands, September 2018-June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Brand attitudes: Innovative ASOS, trustworthy Boots
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 230: Attitudes, by brand, September 2018-June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Brand personality: ASOS and eBay fun brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 231: Brand personality – macro image, September 2018-June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Headline: Amazon responsive and reliable, John Lewis and Ocado perceived as more expensive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 232: Brand personality – micro image, September 2018-June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Brand analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Amazon near-universal brand awareness and highest lifetime usage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • ao.com offers a reasonably good online service, but not particularly good value for money
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Argos high brand awareness and accessible, but lacks cutting edge and style
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • John Lewis pricey, but worth paying more for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • ASOS innovative and fun
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Boots trustworthy, accessible and reliable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ocado low usage and untrustworthy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • eBay innovative, good online service, value for money and highly recommended
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • JD Williams functional and basic, rather than innovative or cutting edge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Boohoo/Boohoo Man low brand awareness and low lifetime usage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Littlewoods high brand awareness but least recommended
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Very accessible and somewhat aspirational
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Launch Activity and Innovation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • eBay opens high-street concept store
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Expanded online delivery options
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Augmented reality technology to give shoppers more certainty when purchasing items online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Image-based shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Voice-activated beauty shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Amazon launches private label skincare brand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • ‘Try before you buy’ fashion service
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • New parcel postboxes scheme rolled out to make online retail easier
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Geo-targeted delivery-on-demand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Advertising and Marketing Activity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retail advertising spend up 20.9% year-on-year in 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 233: UK online retail: recorded above-the-line, online display and direct mail total advertising expenditure, 2015-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Amazon’s first real brand advertising campaign for Prime Video
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • eBay highlights hot deals and trending items
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Moonpig’s #MerrierTogether Christmas campaign
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • JD Williams first advertising since recruiting TBWA\Manchester
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Shop Direct Very’s location-based digital out of home campaign
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 234: Leading UK online retailers: recorded above-the-line, online display and direct mail total advertising expenditure, 2015-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Digital share grows, TV falls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 235: UK online retail: recorded above-the-line, online display and direct mail total advertising expenditure, by media type, 2015-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Nielsen Ad Intel coverage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • AliExpress

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • As a retailer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Where next?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 236: Alibaba: sales by division, 2017-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 237: Alibaba: group financial performance, 2015/16-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Gross merchandise volume (GMV, or total sales at retail prices)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 238: Alibaba: GMV of China marketplaces, 2015/16-2017/18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • AliExpress
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Amazon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Amazon: A Shopper’s Perspective – UK, January 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Amazon in Europe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • How has it done it?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Marketplace development
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Amazon Prime
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Dynamism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Stores and online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Food retailing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Where next?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 239: Amazon: consolidated sales by activity, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mintel estimates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • GTV vs consolidated sales
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Recent performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 240: Amazon Group: group financial performance, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 241: Amazon International: estimated retail sales performance, 2015-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Consumer profile
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Product mix
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 242: Amazon UK: estimated sales by product, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Marketing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • AO World

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • AR presents products in the home
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Rentals service aimed at cash-strapped consumers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mulling subscription fee initiative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Scaling up existing proposition with complementary services
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • New dedicated business website
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Leveraging logistics expertise to offer third-party deliveries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Last-mile solution to support planned product expansion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Collaborating with digital start-ups to make online shopping faster and easier
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 243: AO World Plc: group financial performance, 2014/15-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Argos

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Using voice recognition technology as part of the online ordering process
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • ‘See before you buy’ augmented reality tool
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Beefed up fulfilment capabilities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Accelerated technology-led ‘digital store’ concept
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 244: Argos: group financial performance, 2014/15-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 245: Argos: outlet data, 2014/15-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • ASOS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Getting tough on ‘serial returners’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Bolstering CSR credentials with charity shop initiative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Making shopping online for clothing easier
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Tailored experience for specific markets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Becomes the latest fashion retailer to introduce its own homewares collection
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 246: ASOS: group financial performance, 2013/14-2017/18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Boohoo Group

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Acquisitions transform Boohoo into a multi-brand online fashion destination
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Refreshed website design to aid customers through the decision-making process
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Fulfilment refinements to enhance convenience
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Celebrity collaborations and influencer network
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Tackling fast fashion waste
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 247: Boohoo Group plc: group financial performance, 2014/15-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Cdiscount

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ramping up geographical expansion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Diversification boosts revenues
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Loyalty programme continues to drive growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Fulfilment improvements maintain competitiveness and sharpen efficiency
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Payment improvements seek to increase range of options
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • ‘Phygital’ presence grows
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Provision for future innovation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 248: Cdiscount: group financial performance, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • eBay

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Marketplace
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What eBay adds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Is eBay mature?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Where next?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 249: eBay: group financial performance, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 250: eBay: Group revenue by stream, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 251: eBay: group Gross Merchandise Volume, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Fnac Darty

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Expanding click-and-collect geographical coverage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Cash register free experience
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Optimised online user experience
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Voice-activated shopping through Google Assistant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online sales boosted by rapid growth of "marketplaces"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Product diversification to establish a presence in new product growth categories
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 252: Fnac Darty: group financial performance, 2015-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 253: Fnac Darty: outlet data, 2015-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Missguided

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Enhanced payment option with new ‘buy now, pay later’ service
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online to offline with mixed success
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Meeting the demand for ‘see now, buy now’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Reimagining the fashion mcommerce experience with Tinder-inspired app
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Influencer marketing and celebrity tie-ups amplify the brand’s reach and engagement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Needs to do more to promote sustainable fashion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Targeting the Middle East’s youthful demographic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 254: Missguided: group financial performance, 2013/14-2017/18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • N Brown Group

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Management
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Where next?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 255: N Brown Group Plc: group financial performance, 2013/14-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 256: N Brown: sales by product, 2017/18 and 2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Next Group

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Repurposing loss-making stores into collection shops
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Speedy click-and-collect order fulfilment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Positioning itself as a one-stop shop for online fashion and homewares
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Website developments aimed at enhancing online user experience
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 257: Next Group: group financial performance, 2014/15-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 258: Next Group: outlet data, 2014/15-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 259: Next Group: average active customers, 2017/18 and 2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ocado Group

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • February 2019 – bad news, good news
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Where next?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 260: Ocado Group plc: Group financial performance, 2012/13-2017/18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Otto Group (Multichannel Retail)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Time-saving and convenient automated shopping experiences
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Faster delivery with new instant payment system
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Experimental store concept combining the advantages of bricks-and-mortar retailing with those of online shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Raising awareness of sustainability and eco-friendly credentials
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 261: Otto Group (Multichannel Retail): group sales performance, 2014/15-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 262: Otto Group: major brands within the Multichannel Retail segment, 2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Shop Direct Group

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Cost cutting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mail order into online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Where next?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 263: Shop Direct Group: group financial performance, 2013/14-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 264: Shop Direct: group product mix, 2017/18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Veepee (formerly Vente-Privée)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Name changes aims for consistency of branding and message
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Bizarre UK exit about-turn suggests lack of commitment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mobile continues to be the focus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Further synergies possible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Delivery pass impact hard to judge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 265: Vente Privée: group sales performance, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • YNAP group

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • YNAP gives a much-needed boost to Richemont’s online presence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Increased co-operation with other brands in the Richemont family
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Alibaba deal provides China boost
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Customer service enhancements focus on personalisation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Where now?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 266: YNAP group: group financial performance, 2013/14-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Zalando

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Direct delivery of goods through partnered stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Expansion of loyalty scheme to strengthen relationship with customers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Virtual stylist to aid customers through the decision making process
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Charging delivery fees to offset falling average order size and higher fulfilment costs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Combatting ‘wardrobing’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Eyeing growth through beauty
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • In-home delivery service
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Tackling the problem of packaging waste
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 267: Zalando: group financial performance, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 268: Zalando: key metrics, 2015-Q1 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Retail offering

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Online Retailing - Europe - July 2019

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      £2,895.00 (Excl.Tax)