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Rail Travel Worldwide - March 2018

“Competition in passenger rail services is set to intensify in the coming years and decades. For decades, if not centuries, most of the world's rail companies have operated as state-run monopolies. Now this is changing as markets are being liberalised to allow new entrants, in a way similar to the air transport sector where the move to deregulate began roughly 40 years ago. At the same time, there will be heightened competition from other modes of transport, notably the airlines and intercity bus operators, depending on the region.”
– Jessica Kelly, Senior Tourism Analyst

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Table of contents

  1. Introduction

    • Key Findings

      • Data Sources

        • Abbreviations

          • Issues in the Market

            • Passenger experience
              • Intermodal travel
                • Revenue management
                  • Competition with air and car travel
                    • Railway stations evolving
                      • Safety and security
                      • Global Summary

                          • Demographic outlook
                            • Figure 1: Population by broad age group, region, sub-region, 2015-40
                          • Implications for rail travel
                            • Economy
                              • US tax policy change a key factor
                                • Growth upgraded for developed world economies
                                  • Improved outlook for growth in trade
                                    • Figure 2: Overview of the World Economic Outlook projections, year-on-year (% change unless noted otherwise), 2016-19
                                  • Interest rates
                                    • Figure 3: Central bank interest rates outlook (in %), 2016-17
                                  • Long-term rates to move up
                                    • Figure 4: Outlook for 10-year government-bond yields (in %), 2016-17
                                  • Currencies
                                    • Figure 5: Outlook for exchange rates, 3-month & 12-month, 2018
                                  • Forecasted spending on travel and tourism
                                    • Figure 6: Spending on travel & tourism worldwide (US$bn), 2017 & 2027
                                  • Africa
                                    • Figure 7: Spending on travel & tourism in Africa* (US$bn), 2017 & 2027
                                  • North Africa
                                    • Figure 8: Spending on travel & tourism in North Africa* (US$bn), 2017 & 2027
                                  • Sub-Saharan Africa
                                    • Figure 9: Spending on travel & tourism in Sub-Saharan Africa* (US$bn), 2016 & 2027
                                  • Asia Pacific
                                    • Figure 10: Spending on travel & tourism in Asia Pacific* (US$bn), 2017 & 2027
                                  • North East Asia
                                    • Figure 11: Spending on travel & tourism in North East Asia* (US$bn), 2017 & 2027
                                  • Oceania
                                    • Figure 12: Spending on travel & tourism in Oceania* (US$bn), 2017 & 2027
                                  • South Asia
                                    • Figure 13: Spending on travel & tourism in South Asia* (US$bn), 2017 & 2027
                                    • Figure 14: Spending on travel & tourism in South East Asia* (US$bn), 2017 & 2027
                                  • Americas
                                    • Figure 15: Spending on travel & tourism in Americas* (US$bn), 2017 & 2027
                                  • Latin America
                                    • Figure 16: Spending on travel & tourism in Latin America* (US$bn), 2016 & 2027
                                  • North America
                                    • Figure 17: Spending on travel & tourism in North America* (US$bn), 2016 & 2027
                                  • Europe
                                    • Figure 18: Spending on travel & tourism in Europe* (€bn), 2017 & 2027
                                  • Middle East
                                    • Figure 19: Spending on travel & tourism in Middle East* (US$bn), 2017 & 2027
                                • Passenger Experience

                                    • Online passenger services
                                      • On-board services
                                        • Trainline launches voice-activated rail app
                                          • On-board entertainment
                                            • A potential source of revenue
                                              • Trolex’s Juxta suite of services
                                                • c2c offers free Wi-Fi
                                                • Intermodal Travel

                                                    • Rail/airline tie-ups
                                                      • Dedicated services
                                                        • Figure 20: Rail/air dedicated services alliances, 2018
                                                      • Entire network access
                                                        • Figure 21: Rail & Fly partnerships between rail companies & airlines, 2018
                                                      • Re-protection agreements
                                                        • Figure 22: Existing re-protection agreements, 2018
                                                    • Revenue Management

                                                        • Differences with air transport
                                                          • Overbooking easier to handle on trains
                                                            • Selling trips or time?
                                                              • Willingness to pay
                                                                • Differentiating seat prices
                                                                  • Pricing
                                                                    • Discount price classes
                                                                      • Passenger tickets
                                                                        • Rail slots
                                                                          • Forecasting
                                                                            • Diversion
                                                                              • Asset control mechanism
                                                                                • Movies on board?
                                                                                • Competition with Air & Car Travel

                                                                                    • Advantages of rail travel
                                                                                      • Train travel is more relaxing
                                                                                        • Rail passengers can bring their own food and drink
                                                                                          • The seats are usually more comfortable
                                                                                            • Trains are less polluting
                                                                                              • Lost luggage on trains is (virtually) unheard of
                                                                                                • Show up at the last minute
                                                                                                  • Trains go directly from city centre to city centre
                                                                                                    • Ouigo designed to compete with LCCs and buses
                                                                                                      • 19 destinations
                                                                                                        • Figure 23: Selection of Ouigo routes & frequencies, 2018
                                                                                                      • Fares
                                                                                                        • Customer reaction
                                                                                                          • IZY
                                                                                                            • Figure 24: Izy timetable & frequencies from 10 December 2017 to 31 March 2018
                                                                                                          • Swiss ‘Super Saver’ tickets
                                                                                                          • Railway Stations Evolving

                                                                                                              • Focus on design
                                                                                                                • Kings Cross combines old and new
                                                                                                                  • Vertical stations a design of the future?
                                                                                                                    • Growth of retail
                                                                                                                      • St Pancras offers upmarket shopping
                                                                                                                        • Utrecht Station adapted to rail environment
                                                                                                                          • Other revenue sources
                                                                                                                            • Digital signage
                                                                                                                              • Count-down signs
                                                                                                                                • Colour signage and video
                                                                                                                                  • Sustainability is the watch word
                                                                                                                                    • Zero-net energy consumption
                                                                                                                                      • Energy-efficient escalators and travelators
                                                                                                                                        • Ergonomic station design
                                                                                                                                          • Drinking fountains for rail stations
                                                                                                                                          • Safety & Security

                                                                                                                                              • Shinkansen safety questioned
                                                                                                                                                • Rail-platform safety upgraded in the UK
                                                                                                                                                  • COTS safety controllers combat cyberattacks
                                                                                                                                                    • Contract signed in Indonesia
                                                                                                                                                      • Security at rail stations
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 25: Super hard station security tools, 2017
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 26: Hard station security tools, 2017
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 27: Soft station security tools, 2017
                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 28: Super soft station security tools, 2017
                                                                                                                                                      • High-Speed Lines Worldwide

                                                                                                                                                          • Growth in high-speed lines by major country/region
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 29: High-speed passenger-km by country/region (bn passenger-km), 2010-16
                                                                                                                                                          • High-speed lines by country
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 30: High-speed lines in the world (km), as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                          • Africa
                                                                                                                                                            • Egypt
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 31: Future high-speed lines in Egypt as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                            • Morocco
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 32: Future high-speed lines in Morocco as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                            • South Africa
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 33: Future high-speed lines in South Africa as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                            • Asia
                                                                                                                                                              • Bahrain and Qatar
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 34: Planned high-speed line for Bahrain & Qatar as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                              • China
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 35: China’s HSR network, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 36: Operating high-speed lines* in China as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 37: Future high-speed lines* in China as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                              • India
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 38: Future high-speed lines* in India as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                              • Indonesia
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 39: Future high-speed lines in Indonesia as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 40: Future high-speed lines in Iran as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                • Japan
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 41: Map of Japan’s HSR network, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 42: Operating high-speed lines in Japan as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 43: Future high-speed lines* in Japan as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                • Kazakhstan
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 44: Future high-speed line in Kazakhstan as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                • Malaysia and Singapore
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 45: Future high-speed line in Malaysia & Singapore as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 46: Future high-speed line in Saudi Arabia as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                • South Korea
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 47: Operating high-speed lines in South Korea as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 48: Future high-speed lines in South Korea as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                • Taiwan
                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 49: Operating high-speed lines in Taiwan as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                • Thailand
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 50: Future high-speed lines in Thailand as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                  • Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 51: Operating high-speed lines in Turkey as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 52: Future high-speed lines in Turkey as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 53: Details of expenditure on HSR projects in Turkey in 2017
                                                                                                                                                                  • Vietnam
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 54: Future high-speed line in Vietnam as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                    • Europe
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 55: Map of Europe’s HSR network, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                    • Austria
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 56: Operating high-speed lines in Austria as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 57: Future high-speed lines in Austria as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                    • Belgium
                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 58: Operating high-speed lines in Belgium as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                    • Czech Republic
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 59: Future high-speed lines in Czech Republic as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                      • Denmark
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 60: Future high-speed lines in Denmark as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                      • Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania (Rail Baltica)
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 61: Future high-speed lines in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania (Rail Baltica) as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                      • France
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 62: Details of French high-speed lines opened in 2017
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 63: Illustration of the Virgule at Sablé-sur- Sarthe, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 64: Operating high-speed lines in France as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 65: Future high-speed lines in France as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                      • Germany
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 66: Operating high-speed lines in Germany as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 67: Future high-speed lines in Germany as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                      • Italy
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 68: Operating high-speed lines in Italy as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 69: Future high-speed lines in Italy as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                      • Norway
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 70: Future high-speed lines in Norway as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                      • Poland
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 71: Operating high-speed lines in Poland as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 72: Future high-speed lines in Poland as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                      • Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 73: HSR project in Portugal abandoned in 2012
                                                                                                                                                                        • Russia
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 74: Train service between cities in western Russia, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 75: Future high-speed lines in Russia as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                        • Spain
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 76: Operating high-speed lines in Spain as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 77: On-board amenities on AVE day trains by travel class, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 78: Future high-speed lines in Spain as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                        • Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 79: Future high-speed lines in Sweden as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                        • Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 80: Operating high-speed lines in Switzerland as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 81: Future high-speed lines in Switzerland as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                        • The Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 82: Operating high-speed lines in the Netherlands as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                        • UK
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 83: Operating high-speed lines in the UK as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 84: Future high-speed lines in UK as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                        • Oceania
                                                                                                                                                                          • Australia
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 85: Future high-speed lines in Australia as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                          • North America
                                                                                                                                                                            • Canada
                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 86: Future high-speed lines in Canada as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 87: Projected reduction in travel time on Canada’s future HSR routes, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                            • Mexico
                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 88: Future high-speed lines in Mexico as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                            • US
                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 89: Operating high-speed lines in the US as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 90: Future high-speed lines in the US as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                            • South America
                                                                                                                                                                              • Brazil
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 91: Future high-speed lines in Brazil as of 1 November 2017
                                                                                                                                                                            • The World’s Fastest Trains

                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 92: 10 fastest trains in the world, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                              • Shanghai Maglev
                                                                                                                                                                                • Harmony CRH 380A
                                                                                                                                                                                  • AGV Italo
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Siemens Velaro E/AVS 103
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Talgo 350
                                                                                                                                                                                        • E5 Series Shinkansen Hayabusa
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Alstom Euroduplex
                                                                                                                                                                                            • SNCF TGV Duplex
                                                                                                                                                                                              • ETR 500 Frecciarossa
                                                                                                                                                                                                • THSR 700T
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 93: ATOC member train-operating companies, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Has privatisation been a success?
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • A turning of the tide with the collapse of Railtrack
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Higher ticket prices than on the continent
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • East Coast rail franchise – latest privatisation flop
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Re-nationalisation on the horizon?
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Rail franchising the new ‘strategic vision for rail’
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Distribution

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Rail distribution in Europe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 94: European rail gross bookings (€bn) & online penetration (%) projections, 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mobile growing fast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 95: Trend in mobile share of rail bookings in Europe, 2012-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • GDSs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Amadeus targets rail platform for growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Merchant model for rail?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Intermodal objective
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • UK presence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • OTAs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Expedia buys into SilverRail
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • How does the deal help Expedia?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • SilverRail
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • HaCon
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Booking rail tickets on Ctrip
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 96: Chinese cities where Ctrip offers rail ticket delivery, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Trainline, a leading independent rail platform
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Loco2 acquired
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Virtual ticket agents
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Virtual ticket office on test in Essen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Greater Anglia rolls out virtual ticket agents
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Train chartering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Train Chartering Company
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Top Ten Passenger Railways in the World

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 97: Top 10 railways measured by revenue passenger kilometres, 2014-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Indian Railways (IR)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • SWOT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 98: Production of locomotives/coaches in 2015-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Extended service
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 99: New trains, runs & increased frequencies on IR’s network, FY 2015-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Trend in passenger numbers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 100: Passengers (m), FY 1980-81-FY 2014-15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Average distance travelled
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 101: Average distance travelled FY 1980-81-FY 2015-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Rail tourism
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Luxury tourist trains
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Buddhist Special Train
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bharat Darshan Trains
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Steam train
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Value-added tour packages
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Indrail passes discontinued
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • China Railway (CR)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • SWOT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • HSR feeder networks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Heilongjiang Province bus network
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Yunnan Province
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Express from Shanghai to Moscow launched
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Beijing-Shanghai HSR off to a good start
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Passenger volumes grow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Take-away meals on HS trains
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Swipe-in starts in Zhengzhou
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • East Japan Railway (EJR)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • SWOT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 102: Outlook for growth in revenue & operating income by sector, FY 2017-FY 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Initiatives for foreign tourists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Tohoku Buffet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 103: 12 optional tours in the 6 Tohoku prefectures, 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Japan Rail Cafe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Signage in foreign languages
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Train Hostel Hokutosei
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Support for the Olympic Games
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ticket to tomorrow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Russian Railways (RZD)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • SWOT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Passengers numbers rise
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • New Moscow-Berlin service achieved strong growth in first year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • World Cup works soon to be completed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Société nationale des chemins de fer français (SNCF)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • SWOT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 104: Revenue, employees & investments by SNCF business segment, 2016
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • SNCF RÉSEAU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Systra
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • SNCF VOYAGEURS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Business segments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Rail market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Keolis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Business
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • SNCF LOGISTICS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Business
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • SNCF IMMOBILIER (real estate)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Train passes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • PRO second- and first-class tickets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Espace Pro Première
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • SNCF’s loyalty scheme
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Voyageur Pro benefits
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Grand Voyageur lounges
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Door-to-door services
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • iDAVIS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Auto/Train
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • IDTGV + Coach
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • TGV Air
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • TGV Air stations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • TGV Air airlines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Pro Première iDCAB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Deutsche Bahn (DB) AG (2016)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • SWOT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 105: Key performance data for DB rail & bus transport activities, 2015-16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Arriva – a DB subsidiary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Transport for London award for London Overground
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Denmark
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Italy, Portugal and Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Czech Republik, Poland, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Protection of the environment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Central Japan Railway (CJR)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • SWOT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Chuo Shinkansen Maglev Line
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Design and construction details
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Membership reservation services
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane (FS) (2016)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • SWOT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • FS expands into Greece
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Trainose
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • FS launches Busitalia Fast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ukrainian Railways (UZ)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • SWOT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Six territorial rail companies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Donetsk Railway – Lyman
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Lvov Railway – Lvov
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Odessa Railways – Odessa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Southern Railway – Kharkiv
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • South western Railway – Kiev
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Near-Dnipro Railway – Dnipro
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Railcar fleet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 106: Ukrainian Railways’ rolling stock, 2017
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Passenger trains by category
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Daytime passenger lines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Night-time passenger trains
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • New sleeping car on Kiev-Vienna route
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • RENFE (Red Nacional de los Ferrocarriles Españoles)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • SWOT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Strengths
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Weaknesses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Opportunities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Current developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Tracks are wider but not for HSR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Renfe sales campaign with 70% discounts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • ‘La Bohème’ live
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • High definition via satellite and 4G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • More than Wi-Fi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • What Next?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Competition set to increase
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • EU-mandated market deregulation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Bus competition heating up in continental Europe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • LCCs will increase competition in some regions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • US and UK – odd men out?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • HSR to expand further
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • An HSR line between Beijing and Moscow?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Expanded intermodal links

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Rail Travel Worldwide - March 2018

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      US $2,018.70 (Excl.Tax)