2020
0
Europe Clothing Retailing Market Report 2020
2020-11-25T03:02:06+00:00
OX989522
3195
127938
[{"name":"Fashion","url":"https:\/\/store.mintel.com\/industries\/fashion"},{"name":"Retail","url":"https:\/\/store.mintel.com\/industries\/retail"}]
Report
en_GB
“Clothing, footwear and accessories is among the sectors being hit the hardest by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic across Europe, and we expect the leading five economies to experience drops in…

Europe Clothing Retailing Market Report 2020

£ 3,195 (Excl.Tax)

Report Summary

Everything you need to make the right decisions

Providing the most comprehensive and up-to-date information and analysis of the Clothing Retailing: Inc Impact of COVID-19 – Europe market including the behaviours, preferences and habits of the consumer.

Mintel has the answers you’re looking for

What are the key challenges facing the industry? Who is the consumer and what do they want? Where are the opportunities, where are the risks and what lies ahead?

Covered in this report

Historically, clothing and footwear represent the largest non-food retail sector across Europe, ranking second after food in retailing overall. As such fashion has always been a focus for development for a number of different non-specialists, from supermarkets to sports good retailers. Specialists continue to dominate spending on clothing and footwear. However, most department stores are essentially fashion stores as clothing and footwear can represent more than 70% of their sales. According to Mintel report Department Stores: Inc Impact of COVID-19 – UK, April 2020, the estimated in-store space allocation for clothing is 71.2% at Selfridges, 70.4% at Debenhams and 70.8% at M&S

Expert analysis from a specialist in the field

Written by Armando Falcao, a leading analyst in the Retail sector, his extensive knowledge delivers in-depth commentary and analysis to highlight current trends and add expert context to the numbers.

Clothing, footwear and accessories is among the sectors being hit the hardest by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic across Europe, and we expect the leading five economies to experience drops in retail specialists’ sales of between 20% and 32% in 2020. Specialist retailers continue to lose share of spending in the category due to strong competition from online pureplayers and other non-specialists. However, we continue to see changes in consumer behaviour due to the pandemic, creating opportunities for retailers to establish a stronger online presence to capitalise on the substantial rise in online demand.
Armando Falcao
European Retail Analyst

Table of Contents

  1. Overview

      • Products covered in this Report
        • Key issues covered in this Report
          • Country and company coverage
            • Consumer research coverage
              • Definitions
                • Retail sector definitions
                  • Consumer spending definitions
                    • Financial definitions
                      • Currencies
                        • Sales tax rates
                          • Figure 1: VAT rates around Europe, 2015-20
                        • Abbreviations
                        • Executive Summary – Europe – The Market

                            • Spending on clothing and footwear
                              • Figure 2: Europe: Spending on clothing and footwear, including VAT, 2013-19
                              • Figure 3: Europe: Spending on clothing, including VAT, 2013-19
                              • Figure 4: Europe: Spending on clothing and footwear as % all consumer spending, 2013-19
                              • Figure 5: Europe: Spending on clothing and footwear as % all consumer spending, 2019
                              • Figure 6: Europe: change in clothing and footwear’s share of all consumer spending, 2013-19
                              • Figure 7: Europe Big Five: Forecast change in clothing and footwear’s share of all consumer spending, 2019-20
                            • Spending per capita
                              • Figure 8: Europe: Spending on clothing and footwear per capita, including VAT, 2019
                            • Clothing and footwear specialists’ sales
                              • Figure 9: Europe: clothing and footwear specialists, sales, 2014-19
                              • Figure 10: Europe Big Five: clothing and footwear specialists, forecast sales, 2020-25
                              • Figure 11: Europe Big Five: clothing and footwear specialists, forecast sales growth, 2015-25
                            • Specialists relative to all spending
                              • Figure 12: Europe: Sales by clothing and footwear specialists as % all spending on clothing and footwear, 2019
                              • Figure 13: Europe: Change in specialist clothing and footwear retailers’ “share” of all spending on clothing and footwear, 2013 vs. 2019
                            • Online
                              • Figure 14: Europe: purchasing of clothing, footwear or sports goods online in the last 12 months, 2013-19
                              • Figure 15: Europe: purchasing of clothing, footwear or sports goods online in the last 12 months, 2019
                            • Online sales
                              • Figure 16: Europe: Top 5 economies, online sales of clothing and footwear, including VAT, 2019
                            • Leading retailers
                              • Our focus on clothing specialists
                                • The importance of online grows with COVID-19
                                  • Inditex still comfortably in the lead
                                    • Figure 17: Europe: Leading clothing specialists, sales, 2015/16-2019/20
                                    • Figure 18: Europe: Leading clothing specialists, outlets, 2015/16-2019/20
                                    • Figure 19: Europe: Leading clothing specialists, sales per outlet, 2015/16-2019/20
                                  • Market shares
                                    • Figure 20: Leading clothing specialists, share of all spending on clothing and footwear, 2015/16-2019/20
                                • Executive Summary – Europe – The Consumer

                                  • The research
                                    • Where people shop
                                      • In-store vs online
                                          • Figure 21: Europe: Channels used for buying clothes in the last 12 months, June 2020
                                          • Figure 22: Europe: Clothing shoppers who have bought online and not in-store, June 2020
                                        • Leading online pureplayers
                                            • Figure 23: Europe: All online, Amazon and Zalando shoppers for clothing, June 2020
                                          • Leading retailers
                                              • Figure 24: Europe: Top five most shopped at clothing retailers, June 2020
                                              • Figure 25: Europe: Top five most shopped at clothing retailers, June 2020
                                            • Clothes shopping behaviours relating to COVID-19
                                                • Figure 26: Europe: Changes in behaviour due to the COVID-19 pandemic, June 2020
                                                • Figure 27: Europe: Ranking of changes in behaviour due to the COVID-19 pandemic, by country, June 2020
                                            • Executive Summary – Europe – Launch Activity and Innovation

                                              • Retailers repurpose factories as part of COVID-19 relief effort
                                                • Louis Vuitton makes hand sanitisers
                                                  • Salvatore Ferragamo manufacture face masks and hand sanitisers
                                                    • Retailers help consumers shop safely
                                                      • Gucci launches virtual shopping service in Italy
                                                        • Figure 28: Gucci live shopping service, 2020
                                                      • Face mask innovation
                                                        • Adidas launches face masks in charity collaboration
                                                          • Figure 29: Adidas face mask, 2020
                                                        • Resale and rental
                                                          • Vestiaire Collective launches pre-owned deals as part of its Vestiaire Vibes campaign
                                                            • Zalando launches preowned category
                                                              • H&M launches Sellpy in Germany
                                                                • Cos launches resale platforms
                                                                  • Figure 30: Cos Resell platform, 2020
                                                                • Sustainability
                                                                  • Monki launches upcycles capsule collection
                                                                    • Figure 31: Monki upcycled capsule collection, 2020
                                                                  • Popups
                                                                    • Shoeholics opens physical store
                                                                      • Figure 32: Shoeaholics pop-up on Oxford Street, 2020
                                                                    • Dr Martens revisits its German origins with new pop-up
                                                                      • Figure 33: Dr Marten’s pop-up at German department store Breuninger, 2020
                                                                    • Jérôme Dreyfuss opens pop-up store in Paris
                                                                      • Launches and store openings
                                                                        • Salvatore Ferragamo launches new online boutique
                                                                          • Zalando expands ‘Connected retail’ to Sweden, Poland and Spain
                                                                            • Primark opens in Poland
                                                                              • Retailers expand offering online
                                                                                • Inditex launches budget brand Lefties online
                                                                                  • H&M’s Arket to launch on Zalando
                                                                                  • The Impact of COVID-19 on Clothing Retailing

                                                                                    • Short, medium and long-term impact on the sector
                                                                                      • Figure 34: Short, medium and long term impact of COVID-19 on Clothing retailing, October 2020
                                                                                    • Opportunities and threats
                                                                                      • COVID-19 brings online to the forefront
                                                                                        • Figure 35: Decathlon’s ‘scan & go’ service, 2020
                                                                                      • Providing a feeling of shopping in-store from home
                                                                                          • Figure 36: Gucci’s personalised virtual shopping, June 2020
                                                                                        • Athleisure versus formalwear
                                                                                          • How COVID-19 will reshape the industry
                                                                                            • Sustainability in fashion gains further relevance
                                                                                              • Figure 37: Zalando announces ‘Pre Owned’ category, 2020
                                                                                            • Risk of lower profitability due to discounts and promotions
                                                                                              • Discounters strengthen their position in clothing
                                                                                                • Figure 38: Aldi’s new fashion campaign in Germany, 2020
                                                                                              • The forecast for clothing retailing improving from 2021
                                                                                                  • Figure 39: Europe Big Five: Total specialist clothing retailers’ sales and forecast, 2015-25
                                                                                                  • Figure 40: Europe Big Five: Total specialist clothing retailers’ sales and forecast, by country, 2015-25
                                                                                                • The impact of COVID-19 on consumer behaviour across Europe
                                                                                                  • Concern about exposure to COVID-19 steady but showing signs of increasing
                                                                                                    • Figure 41: Europe: Those extremely worried about the risk of being exposed to COVID-19, March-October 2020*
                                                                                                  • Many cutting back on non-essential purchases
                                                                                                    • Time-limiting store visits places premium on in-store navigation
                                                                                                      • Many consumers reluctant to use cash
                                                                                                        • A big switch to online
                                                                                                          • Figure 42: Europe: Changes to shopping behaviour since the start of the COVID-19 outbreak, September/October 2020*
                                                                                                        • Clothing slips down the spending agenda
                                                                                                          • Figure 43: Europe: Net balance* of expected spending on selected items in the next month, September/October 2020**
                                                                                                        • Trying on clothing in-store remains an issue
                                                                                                          • Figure 44: Europe: people who would feel uncomfortable trying on clothing in-store, September/October 2020*
                                                                                                        • People not keen on handling/touching products in-store
                                                                                                          • Figure 45: Europe: people who would feel uncomfortable handling/touching products in-store, September/October 2020*
                                                                                                        • How the crisis is impacting on key consumer segments
                                                                                                          • Women and older age groups most concerned about the virus
                                                                                                            • Figure 46: Europe: Those extremely worried about the risk of being exposed to COVID-19, by gender and age, September/October 2020*
                                                                                                          • Women and older age groups also trying to limit time in-store
                                                                                                            • Figure 47: Europe: consumers trying to limit the time they spend in-store, by gender and age, September/October 2020*
                                                                                                          • Youngest age groups most likely to be shopping more online
                                                                                                            • Figure 48: Europe: consumers shopping more online, by age and gender, September/October 2020*
                                                                                                          • COVID-19: Market context
                                                                                                            • UK
                                                                                                              • France
                                                                                                                • Germany
                                                                                                                  • Italy
                                                                                                                    • Spain
                                                                                                                    • France

                                                                                                                      • Overview
                                                                                                                        • Key issues covered in this Report
                                                                                                                          • Areas covered in this Report
                                                                                                                            • Executive summary
                                                                                                                              • The market
                                                                                                                                • The economy
                                                                                                                                  • Consumer spending
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 49: France: Consumer spending on clothing and footwear (incl. VAT), 2015-20 (f)
                                                                                                                                  • Sector size and forecast
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 50: France: Specialist clothing retailers, sales (excluding VAT), 2014-20
                                                                                                                                  • Channels of distribution
                                                                                                                                    • Figure 51: France: Estimated distribution of spending on clothing and footwear by channel, 2019
                                                                                                                                  • Companies and brands
                                                                                                                                    • Key metrics
                                                                                                                                      • Market shares
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 52: France: Leading specialist clothing retailers, sales as % all spending on clothing and footwear, 2019
                                                                                                                                      • Online
                                                                                                                                        • The consumer
                                                                                                                                          • How they shop for clothes
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 53: France: Channels used for buying clothes in the last 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                          • Where they shop for clothing
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 54: France: retailers used for buying clothing in the last 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                          • Clothes shopping behaviours relating to COVID-19
                                                                                                                                            • Figure 55: France: clothing related behavioural changes during the Covid-19 epidemic, June 2020
                                                                                                                                          • Issues and insights
                                                                                                                                            • Sports retailers look set to gain most from COVID-19
                                                                                                                                              • How will online shape the fashion sector in the coming years?
                                                                                                                                                • The market – Key takeaways
                                                                                                                                                  • France’s economy faces a contraction of 9% in 2020
                                                                                                                                                    • Fashion spending is hit hard by COVID-19
                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing specialists may be one of the worst hit retail sectors by COVID-19
                                                                                                                                                        • Specialists in decline as online eats into their market share
                                                                                                                                                          • Consumer spending
                                                                                                                                                            • The economy
                                                                                                                                                              • Decline in clothing market looks set to continue
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 56: France: Consumer spending on clothing and footwear (including VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                              • Sector size and forecast
                                                                                                                                                                • Clothing specialists look set to be among the worst hit by COVID-19
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 57: France: Specialist clothing and footwear retailers, sales (excluding VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 58: France: Specialist clothing and footwear retailers, forecast sales (excluding VAT), 2020-25
                                                                                                                                                                  • Inflation
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 59: France: Consumer prices * of clothing and footwear, Annual % change, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 60: France: Consumer prices * of clothing and footwear, Annual % change, January 2019 –August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                  • Channels of distribution
                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 61: France: Estimated distribution of spending on clothing and footwear by channel, 2019
                                                                                                                                                                  • Companies and brands – Key takeaways
                                                                                                                                                                    • COVID-19 was the final straw for some
                                                                                                                                                                      • Inditex now the largest player after collapse of La Halle
                                                                                                                                                                        • A fragmented market
                                                                                                                                                                          • Online boosted during lockdowns
                                                                                                                                                                            • Amazon leads online but domestic retailers also popular
                                                                                                                                                                              • Leading players
                                                                                                                                                                                • Clear winners emerge
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Market leader Inditex bucks the trend
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Primark on the rise
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Zalando and other online-only players
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Old school retailers struggle
                                                                                                                                                                                          • La Halle
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Kidiliz
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Camaïeu
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Others
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 62: France: Leading specialist clothing retailers, sales (excl. VAT), 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 63: France: Leading specialist clothing retailers, outlets, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Sales per outlet
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 64: France: Leading specialist clothing retailers, sales per outlet, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Market shares
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 65: France: Leading specialist clothing retailers, sales as % all spending on clothing and footwear, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online activity
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 66: France: Broadband connections (percentage of households), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Shopping for clothing online
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 67: France: Online purchasing, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online market size
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Leading online players
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 68: France: Leading retailers’ estimated clothing and footwear sales online, 2018-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The consumer – Key takeaways
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online shopping is growing most amongst younger men
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sports retailers take pole position
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Kiabi and H&M are the leading specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Clothing purchases a low priority for most during COVID-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • How they shop for clothes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Penetration of online is growing most amongst men
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 69: France: Channels used for buying clothes in the last 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 70: France: Online shopping for clothes in the last 12 months by gender, June 2020 and June 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 71: France: Online shopping for clothes in the last 12 months by age and gender, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 72: France: Channels used for buying clothes in the last 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 73: France: device used for online clothes purchases by age and gender, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Where they shop for clothes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Store-based specialists remain dominant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 74: France: Stores used to shop for clothing, combined nets, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Clothing specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 75: France: Specialist retailers used for buying clothing in the last 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Customer profiles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 76: France: Specialist retailers used for buying clothing in the last 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Non-specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Sports retailers win first prize
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Amazon less important than in other markets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • One-third buy clothes in supermarkets and hypermarkets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Department stores on the up
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 77: France: Non-Specialist retailers used for buying clothing in the last 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Clothes shopping behaviours relating to COVID-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 78: France: clothing shopping behaviours during the COVID-19 epidemic, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 79: France: clothing shopping behaviours during the COVID-19 epidemic, by gender, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 80: France: clothing shopping behaviours during the COVID-19 epidemic amongst women, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Clothes shopping behaviours by retailer used
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 81: France: Selected clothing shopping behaviours during the COVID-19 epidemic by retailer shopped, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Appendix – Research methodology, data sources and abbreviations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Abbreviations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Data sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Italy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Overview
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Key issues covered in this Report
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Areas covered in this Report
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Executive summary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Consumer spending
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 82: Italy: annual percentage change in consumer spending on clothing and footwear, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sector size and forecast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 83: Italy: Specialist clothing retailers’ sales (excluding VAT), 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Channels of distribution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 84: Italy: Estimated distribution of spending on clothing and footwear by channel, 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Companies and brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Key metrics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Market shares
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 85: Italy: Leading specialist clothing retailers’ sales as % all spending on clothing and footwear, 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The consumer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • How they shop for clothes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 86: Italy: Channels used for buying clothes, June 2019 vs June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Retailers bought from
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 87: Italy: Specialist retailers used for buying clothes in the past 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 88: Italy: Non-specialist retailers used for buying clothes in the past 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Clothes shopping behaviours relating to COVID-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 89: Italy: clothing shopping behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Issues and insights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • What lessons can Italian clothing and footwear retailers learn from COVID-19?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • How can clothing specialists prosper when consumer confidence is weak?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The market – Key takeaways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Italian economy was weak before COVID-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Weak economy hits discretionary spending harder
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Specialists disproportionately affected by impact of COVID-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Specialists set to lose market share in 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Consumer spending
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 90: Italy: Consumer spending on clothing and footwear (incl. VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retailer and consumer confidence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 91: Italy: Consumer and retailer confidence levels, September 2019-September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Sector size and forecast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Retail sales
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 92: Italy: Specialist clothing retailers, sales (excl. VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 93: Italy: Specialist clothing retailers, forecast sales (excl. VAT), 2020-25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Inflation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 94: Italy: Consumer prices* of clothing and footwear, Annual % change, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 95: Italy: Consumer prices of clothing and footwear, Annual % change, January 2019 –August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Channels of distribution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Specialists lose out during lockdown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 96: Italy: Estimated distribution of spending on clothing and footwear by channel, 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Companies and brands – Key takeaways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Inditex leads the way
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • OVS least prepared for online growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • A fragmented market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online still small in clothing but main players are gearing up
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Leading players
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Inditex leads the way
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • OVS slow to develop online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Others
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 97: Italy: Leading specialist clothing retailers, sales (excl. VAT), 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 98: Italy: Leading specialist clothing retailers, outlets, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sales per outlet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 99: Italy: Leading specialist clothing retailers, sales per outlet, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Market shares
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 100: Italy: Leading specialist clothing retailers, sales as % all spending on clothing and footwear, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online activity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 101: Italy: Broadband connections (percentage of households), 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Shopping for clothing online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 102: Italy: Online purchasing, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online market size
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Leading online players
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 103: Italy: Leading retailers’ estimated clothing sales online, 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The consumer – Key takeaways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Most Italians still like to shop in-store
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Big jump in online buying among younger men
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • PCs and laptops still favoured device for online orders
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Strength of OVS brand comes from universality of its appeal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online-only players well-placed to capitalise on migration online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Nearly a quarter of customers are worried about visiting clothing stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • How they shop for clothes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Channels used for buying clothes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 104: Italy: Channels used for buying clothes, June 2019 vs June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Big jump in online purchasing among men, particularly younger men
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 105: Italy: Online channel used for buying clothes by gender and age, June 2019 vs June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 106: Italy: Channels and device used for buying clothes, detailed breakdown, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 107: Italy: Channels used for buying clothes, by age group, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 108: Italy: Channels and device used for buying clothes, detailed breakdown, by age, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 109: Italy: Channels used for buying clothes, by presence of children in the household, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 110: Italy: In-store versus online clothes shopping behaviour in the past 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Where they shop for clothes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 111: Italy: Specialist retailers used for buying clothes in the past 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 112: Italy: Specialist retailers used for buying clothes in the past 12 months, by gender, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 113: Italy: Specialist retailers used for buying clothes in the past 12 months, by age, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 114: Italy: Specialist retailers used for buying clothes in the past 12 months, by channels used for buying clothes, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 115: Italy: Specialist retailers used for buying clothes in the past 12 months, by specialist retailers used for buying clothes, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Non-specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 116: Italy: Non-specialist retailers used for buying clothes in the past 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 117: Italy: Non-specialist retailers used for buying clothes in the past 12 months, by gender, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 118: Italy: Non-specialist retailers used for buying clothes in the past 12 months, by age, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 119: Italy: Non-specialist retailers used for buying clothes in the past 12 months, by channels used for buying clothes, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 120: Italy: Customer profile by clothing specialist and non-specialist shopped at, by age and income, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Clothes shopping behaviours relating to COVID-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 121: Italy: clothing shopping behaviours relating to COVID-19, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 122: Italy: clothing shopping behaviours relating to COVID-19, by age, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 123: Italy: clothing shopping behaviours relating to COVID-19, by age, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 124: Italy: clothing shopping behaviours relating to COVID-19, by specialist clothing retailers shopped at, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Appendix – Data sources, Aabbreviations and supporting information
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Abbreviations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Data sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Spain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Overview
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Key issues covered in this Report
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Areas covered in this Report
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Executive summary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Consumer spending
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 125: Spain: Consumer spending on clothing and footwear (incl. VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sector size and forecast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Channels of distribution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 126: Spain: Estimated distribution of spending on clothing and footwear by channel, 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Companies and brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Key metrics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Market shares
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 127: Spain: Leading specialist clothing retailers, sales as % all spending on clothing and footwear, 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The consumer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • How they shop for clothing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 128: Spain: Channels used for buying clothes in the last 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Where they shop for clothing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 129: Spain: retailers used for buying clothing in the last 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Clothes shopping behaviours relating to COVID-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 130: Spain: clothing shopping behaviour during the COVID-19 epidemic, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Issues and insights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The impact of COVID-19 on Spanish clothing retail
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Value will be increasingly relevant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Clothing needs are changing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Digital is imperative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sustainability in fashion could be a by-product of the pandemic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The market – Key takeaways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The hit to Spain’s economy from COVID-19 is the worst of the Eurozone
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Fashion spending will be hit hard by COVID-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online will not offset lost store-based sales for most specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Fashion specialists capture 70% of clothing and footwear spending
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Consumer spending
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Steep decline in spending on fashion expected for 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 131: Spain: Consumer spending on clothing and footwear (including VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sector size and forecast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Clothing retailers look set to among the worst hit by COVID-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 132: Spain: Specialist clothing retailers, sales (excluding VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 133: Spain: Specialist clothing retailers, forecast sales (excluding VAT), 2020-25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Inflation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 134: Spain: Consumer prices * of clothing and footwear, Annual % change, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 135: Spain: Consumer prices of clothing and footwear, Annual % change, January 2019 –July 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Channels of distribution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 136: Spain: Estimated distribution of spending on clothing and footwear by channel, 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Companies and brands – Key takeaways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Inditex’s agile business model helps it retain its leading position
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Inditex and foreign retailers are growing fastest as market consolidates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Leading retailers are well established online and investing in its growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Leading players
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Inditex’s business model helps it maintain its lead
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • UK’s Primark continues to thrive despite no online presence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Winners and losers in 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 137: Spain: Leading specialist clothing retailers, sales (excl. VAT), 2016-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 138: Spain: Leading specialist clothing retailers, outlets, 2016-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 139: Spain: Leading specialist clothing retailers, sales per outlet, 2016-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Market shares
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 140: Spain: Leading specialist clothing retailers, sales as % all spending on clothing and footwear, 2016-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Internet usage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 141: Spain: Broadband connections (percentage of households), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online market size
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Leading online players
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 142: Spain: Leading retailers’ estimated clothing and footwear sales online, 2016-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The consumer – Key takeaways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online gaining momentum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • M-commerce important for younger shoppers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Store-based specialists and sports stores most popular shopping destination
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Primark’s popularity suggests shift towards budget-priced clothes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Amazon now the most popular non-specialist clothing destination
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Fashion buyers prioritise essential items over clothing since COVID-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • How they shop for clothes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online gaining share
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 143: Spain: Channels used for buying clothes in the last 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Men accelerate shift to buying fashion online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 144: Spain: Online shopping for clothes in the last 12 months by age and gender, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Purchasing on a laptop/desktop most popular, but younger buyers like m-commerce
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 145: Spain: Channels and device used for buying clothes in the last 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Where they shop for clothes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Store-based specialists the most popular destination, but buyers migrating online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 146: Spain: Stores used to shop for clothing, combined nets, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Clothing specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 147: Spain: Specialist retailers used for buying clothing in the last 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Customer profiles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 148: Spain: Specialist retailers used for buying clothing in the last 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Non-specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Usage of Amazon skyrockets on back of boosted fashion appeal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Sports good retailers well positioned to capitalise on growing popularity of athleisure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • El Corte Inglés turbocharges online order fulfilment proposition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 149: Spain: Non-Specialist retailers used for buying clothing in the last 12 months, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothes shopping behaviours relating to COVID-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 150: Spain: clothing shopping behaviour during the COVID-19 epidemic, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 151: Spain: clothing shopping behaviour during the COVID-19 epidemic, by gender, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 152: Spain: clothing shopping behaviour during the COVID-19 epidemic amongst women, by age, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothes shopping behaviours by retailer used
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 153: Spain: Selected clothing shopping behaviours during the COVID-19 epidemic by retailer shopped, June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Appendix – Data sources, abbreviations and supporting information
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Abbreviations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Data sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • UK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Overview
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Key issues covered in this Report
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • COVID-19: market context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economic and other assumptions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Products covered in this Report
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Executive Summary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Impact of COVID-19 on clothing category
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 154: Short, medium and long-term impact of COVID-19 on clothing, 3 November 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Appetite for clothing declines dramatically
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 155: Consumer spending on clothing and accessories, 2015-25 (prepared on 5 November 2020)*
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Specialists see deepest declines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 156: Retail sales through specialist clothing retailers, 2015-25 (prepared on 3 November 2020)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online clothing sales jump in 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 157: Online sales of clothing and accessories, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Companies and brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Next remains leading specialist
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 158: Leading specialist retailers: compound annual growth in revenues, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • M&S loses trust, while Next and Primark seen as innovative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 159: Attitudes towards and usage of selected clothing brands, February-September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Adspend revives following lockdown slump
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The consumer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • People feel uncomfortable trying on clothes in-store
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 160: Changing priorities since COVID-19, 10-17 September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Surge in sportswear purchasing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 161: Outerwear items purchased in the last three months, June 2019-September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Consumers more likely to have bought online than in-store
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 162: How consumers have bought clothes for themselves in the last 12 months, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Amazon competes for lead with M&S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 163: Retailers used to purchase clothing in the last 12 months, net of retailers used to purchase in-store and/or online, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Buying new clothes becomes less of a priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 164: Changes in clothes shopping behaviour since COVID-19, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Value for money dominates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 165: Most important factors when choosing which clothes to buy, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Young prefer to buy from brands that promote diversity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 166: Clothes shopping behaviour, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Adapting stores in a time of COVID
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 167: Clothes shopping behaviour in-store once clothes stores have reopened following COVID-19 lockdown, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Issues and Insights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Impact of COVID-19 on the clothing market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Who are the winners and losers in clothing?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Adapting to a new fashion retail reality
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Market – Key Takeaways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Dramatic decline in clothing sales in 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Gradual recovery
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Specialists see deepest declines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Consumer confidence remains volatile
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Market Size and Forecast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • COVID-19 leads to a drop in appetite for clothing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 168: Short, medium and long-term impact of COVID-19 on clothing, 3 November 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lockdown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Re-emergence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Recovery
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Dramatic decline in clothing sales in 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 169: Consumer spending on clothing and accessories, 2015-25 (prepared on 5 November 2020)*
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 170: Consumer spending on clothing and accessories, at current prices, 2015-25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Continued anxiety impacts footfall
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Gradual recovery
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Market drivers and assumptions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Learnings from the last recession
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 171: Consumer spending on clothing and accessories, 2008-12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Forecast methodology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Market Segmentation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Underwear market gains share
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 172: Estimated breakdown of consumer spending on clothing and accessories, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 173: Estimated % breakdown of consumer spending on clothing and accessories, 2018-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Sector Size and Forecast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Specialists see deepest declines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 174: Retail sales through specialist clothing retailers, 2015-25 (prepared on 3 November 2020)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 175: Retail sales through specialist clothing retailers, at current prices, 2015-25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Polarised recovery
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Market drivers and assumptions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Clothing sales through specialist clothing retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 176: Sales of clothing and accessories through clothing retailers, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 177: Clothing specialists’ share of consumer spending on clothing and accessories, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Channels of Distribution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • COVID-19 increases shifts in where people shop for clothing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Specialists hardest-hit sector of COVID-19 pandemic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Department stores also underperforming
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Growing sectors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 178: Estimated distribution of consumer spending on clothing, by type of retailer, 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 179: Estimated distribution of consumer spending on clothing, by type of retailer, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Market Drivers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Clothing falls into deflation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 180: Consumer price inflation, 2009-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Footwear inflation drops further in September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 181: Consumer price inflation, August 2019-September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Real wage growth falling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 182: Real wages growth: wages growth vs inflation, January 2016-August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Consumer confidence remains volatile
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 183: Mintel financial confidence tracker, January 2018-August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Consumers saving more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 184: Trends in what extra money is spent on, September 2019 and September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Rates of obesity high among women
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 185: Overweight and obesity prevalence in UK population, by gender, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Increase in young will benefit clothing market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 186: Trends in the age structure of the UK population, 2019-29
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Consumers spending more time online due to COVID-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 187: Online activities done in the last three months on any device, June 2019 and June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online clothing sales grow by 26% in 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 188: Online sales of clothing and accessories, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Where they shop online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 189: Retailers used to purchase clothing online in the last 12 months, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Companies and Brands – Key Takeaways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Next remains leading specialist but Primark surpasses M&S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online players benefit from shift online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Face masks present new category for retailer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • ASOS stands out as the most trusted pureplay
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Leading Specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Next remains leading specialist but Primark surpasses M&S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 190: Leading specialist retailers: net revenues, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Clothing specialists show polarised performance over the past five years
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 191: Leading specialist retailers: compound annual growth in revenues, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • COVID-19 forced struggling retailers to close stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 192: Leading specialist retailers: Outlet numbers, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sales per outlet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 193: Leading specialist retailers: estimated annual sales per outlet, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sales area and sales densities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 194: Leading specialist retailers: total sales area, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 195: Leading specialist retailers: estimated annual sales per square metre, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Operating profit and margins
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 196: Leading specialist retailers: operating profits, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 197: Leading specialist retailers: operating margins, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Leading Non-specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Sports retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Supermarkets are major players
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 198: Leading non-specialists: estimated clothing and footwear revenues, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Market Shares
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 199: Leading retailers’ estimated share of spending on clothing and footwear, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Change in market shares
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 200: Leading clothing retailers, change in share of clothing spending, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Launch Activity and Innovation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Retailers strengthen ecommerce
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hush reveals new ecommerce website with mobile-first design
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mango launches virtual chatbot
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Morrisons launches dedicated website for own clothing brand Nutmeg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retailers help consumers shop safely
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Missguided teams up with InPost UK to offer contact-free click-and-collect service
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Phase Eight offers in-store personal styling appointments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • ASOS accelerates AR clothes fitting service
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Diesel unveils digital showroom Hyperoom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 201: Diesel’s digital selling platform and showroom, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sustainability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Timberland’s first sustainability concept store
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 202: Timberland’s sustainability store on Carnaby Street, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Selfridges launches Project Earth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 203: The Restory at Selfridges, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Connolly launches upcycled collection pop-up at Portobello Market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Puma unveils new Dope Dye Technology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 204: The Puma X CSM collection, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Resale and rental fashion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Liberty enters rental market in collaboration with My Wardrobe HQ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 205: My Wardrobe HQ pop-up at Liberty, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Selfridges partners with HURR Collective in first designer fashion rental collection
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Oxfam opens second-hand shop in Selfridges for #SecondHandSeptember
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 206: Oxfam pop-up at Selfridges, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Pop-ups
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Lone Design Club reveals shoppable window
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 207: Lone Design Club shoppable window, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Burberry launches digital and in-store ‘Animal Kingdom’ pop-ups
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 208: Burberry’s Animal Kingdom collection, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Ted Baker teams up with Creative Mentor Network to celebrate store reopening
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 209: Ted Baker ‘Nice To See You, To See You Nice’ slogan, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Face-covering launches
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Burberry to launch luxury face masks costing £90
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 210: Burberry’s face masks, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Sainsbury’s Tu sells face coverings for adults and children
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 211: Sainsbury’s Tu family pack of face masks, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Christopher Kane launches free face mask craft packs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 212: Christopher Kane free face masks, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Brands launch matching masks for outfits
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 213: Designer Samantha Cameron’s matching dress and face mask for brand Cefinn, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Retailers repurpose factories as part of COVID-19 relief effort
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Mulberry delivers PPE to hospitals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Reiss repurposes supply chain to produce face masks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mackintosh uses factory in Nelson to produce nurse uniforms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Primark donates to NHS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • M&S providing pyjamas for NHS workers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Kurt Geiger donates shoes to NHS staff and first month of store profits from 15 June
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Net-A-Porter helps deliver essentials to those in need
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Launches and store openings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Morrisons opens Nutmeg clothing standalone store
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Morrisons launches website for Nutmeg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 214: Morrisons Nutmeg store, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Forever 21 enters UK with online store
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Missguided launches lockdown-inspired range
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 215: Missguided lockdown-inspired range, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Advertising and Marketing Activity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Sector advertising spend down 8.5% year-on-year in 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 216: Total recorded above-the-line advertising expenditure on clothing and accessories, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Advertising spend back to pre-pandemic level following COVID-19 lockdown slump
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 217: Total recorded above-the-line advertising expenditure on clothing and accessories, by month, January-July 2019 and 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Shein is the biggest spender despite spending half of what it did in 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 218: Total recorded above-the-line, online, display and direct mail total advertising expenditure on clothing and accessories, by leading spenders, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Outdoor and TV share of advertising spend increasing as dominant digital begins to decline
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 219: Total recorded above-the-line advertising expenditure percentage on clothing, by media type, total market, 2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 2020 campaign highlights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Shein’s first out-of-home advertising campaign
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Marks & Spencer digitally focused athleisure campaign and first ever denim TV advert
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Matalan new brand positioning campaign
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Freemans’ new website, app and exclusive clothing collection
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • John Lewis advertises its spring/summer season on TV for the first time ever
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Brand Research
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Brand map
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 220: Attitudes towards and usage of selected brands, February-September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Key brand metrics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 221: Key metrics for selected brands, February-September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Brand attitudes: ASOS seen as innovative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 222: Attitudes, by brand, February-September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Supermarket clothing brands seen as accessible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 223: Brand personality – Macro image, February-September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • JD Sports viewed as stylish and responsive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 224: Brand personality – Micro image, February-September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Brand analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • M&S loses trust, while Next and Primark seen as innovative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Supermarket clothing brands seen as offering good value
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • ASOS stands out as the most trusted pureplay
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Gap seen as overrated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Consumer – Key Takeaways
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • People are spending less on fashion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Younger generations favour buying online, but also visit stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Amazon competes for lead with M&S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • New clothes and fashion trends become less of a priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Value for money dominates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Impact of COVID-19 on Consumer Behaviour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Over a quarter are worse off since COVID-19…
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 225: Change in financial situation since COVID-19 outbreak, 25 June-7 August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • …with women most concerned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 226: Fears around the negative impact COVID-19 will have on people’s lives, by gender, 18-24 June 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • People are spending less on fashion…
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 227: Consumer spending habits since COVID-19, 10-17 September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • …but there has been a notable increase in online purchases
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 228: People shopping more online since COVID-19, 16 April-17 September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • People feel uncomfortable trying on clothes in-store
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 229: Changing priorities since COVID-19, 10-17 September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Growing usage of face masks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 230: Face masks and scrunchies, September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 231: Agreement with usage of face masks/coverings in different situations, 10-17 September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • What They Buy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Appetite for fashion falls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 232: Fashion items purchased in the last three months, June 2019-September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Surge in sportswear purchasing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 233: Outerwear items purchased in the last three months, June 2019-September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Most consumers only buy one or two items
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 234: Number of clothing items purchased on most recent shopping trip, June 2019-September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Big decline in consumers spending £75 and over
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 235: Trends in amount spent on clothing, June 2019-September 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • How They Shop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Consumers more likely to have bought online than in-store
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 236: How consumers have bought clothes for themselves in the last 12 months, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Younger generations favour buying online, but also visit stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 237: How consumers have bought clothes for themselves in the last 12 months, by generation, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Young women continue to shop, while young men cut back
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 238: People who have bought clothes for themselves in-store and/or online or have not bought clothes in the last 12 months, by gender and age, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Where They Shop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Specialists most popular, but pureplays growing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 239: Types of retailers used to purchase clothing in the last 12 months, by channel, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Amazon competes for lead with M&S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 240: Retailers used to purchase clothing in the last 12 months, net of retailers used to purchase in-store and/or online, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Primark retains popularity despite lack of online site
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 241: Retailers used to purchase clothing in the last 12 months, by channel, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • People shop at fewer retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 242: Repertoire of retailers used to purchase clothing in the last 12 months, by channel, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Customer Profiles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Next sees increase in male customer base
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 243: Retailer customer profile, by gender, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • ASOS loses youngest shoppers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 244: Retailer customer profile, by age, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 245: Retailer customer profile, by socio-economic group, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Changes to Clothes Shopping since COVID-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Buying new clothes becomes less of a priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 246: Changes in clothes shopping behaviour since COVID-19, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Younger Millennials shun trendy fashion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 247: Changes in clothes shopping behaviour since COVID-19, by generation, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Baby Boomers worry about visiting stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 248: Changes in clothes shopping behaviour since COVID-19, by generation, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Most Important Factors when Buying Clothes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Value for money dominates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 249: Most important factors when choosing which clothes to buy, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Young online shoppers want more inclusive and diverse models
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 250: Most important factors when choosing which clothes to buy, by how people have bought clothes in the last 12 months, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Clothes Shopping Behaviour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Younger generations cut back the most…
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 251: Clothes shopping behaviour, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 252: Agreement with statement ‘Concerns about money in the last 12 months have caused me to cut back on buying clothes’, by generation, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • …but prefer to buy from brands that support causes and promote diversity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 253: Agreement with statements ‘I prefer to buy clothes from brands that support important causes than those that don’t’ and ‘I would be put off buying clothes from a retailer that doesn’t promote diversity’, by generation, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Young buy clothes to look good online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Parents of under-18s buy more clothes on discount
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 254: Clothing Retailing – CHAID – Tree output, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Methodology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 255: Clothing retailing – CHAID – Table output, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Clothes Shopping In-store at a Time of COVID-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Comfort with in-store shopping depends on age
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 256: Clothes shopping behaviour in-store once clothes stores have reopened following COVID-19 lockdown, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Adapting stores in a time of COVID
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 257: Agreement with statements ‘I have visited a clothing store’, ‘I feel comfortable going shopping for clothes in-store’ and ‘I think social distancing is being done properly in stores’ now that stores have reopened, by age, August 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Women think it is pointless to visit stores without fitting rooms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Appendix – Data Sources, Abbreviations and Supporting Information
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Abbreviations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Consumer research methodology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Appendix – Market/Sector Size and Forecast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Forecast methodology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Arcadia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Arcadia closes more stores and plans restructure post-COVID-19…
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • …Westfield Stratford is to close after lease expires…
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • …but Topshop on Oxford Street to remain open after £310 million refinancing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Arcadia furloughs 14,500 staff and execs face 50% pay cuts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Snapchat teams up with adidas and Topshop in new ecommerce initiative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 258: Arcadia Group: Group financial performance, 2014/15-2018/2019
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 259: Arcadia: Outlet data, 2014/15-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • C&A

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • New store concept to tempt customers through the door
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • New concession format to replace no longer sustainable standalone stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • A leader in fashion sustainability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 260: C&A: Estimated group sales performance, 2015/16-2019/20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 261: C&A: Estimated outlet data, 2015/16-2019/20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • H&M Hennes & Mauritz

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • New hyper-local store concept
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Custom-made perfect fit jeans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online expansion giving more customers more options to access its brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Livestreaming shopping events
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Fashion rental and re-sale point towards an increased focus on sustainability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 262: H&M Hennes & Mauritz: Group financial performance, 2014/15-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 263: H&M Hennes & Mauritz: Outlet data, 2014/15-2018/19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Grupo Inditex

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A global business
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Upsizing stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online a big opportunity for growth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Technology at the heart of the business
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Flexible and responsive approach to production helped it cope with COVID
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Sustainability is key to future
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Where now?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 264: Grupo Inditex: Group financial performance, 2015/16-2019/20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 265: Grupo Inditex: Sales by brand, 2019/20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 266: Grupo Inditex: Outlet data, 2015/16-2019/20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 267: Grupo Inditex: Outlet numbers by brand, 2019/20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Marks & Spencer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Clothing delivered with groceries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Drive-through fashion service
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online instalment payment option to help spread the cost of buying fashion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Wider choice of brands to broaden customer appeal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Shifting focus away from formalwear range to contemporary everyday fashions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Eradicates alpaca wool from products
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 268: Marks & Spencer: Group financial performance, 2015/16-2019/20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 269: Marks & Spencer: Outlet data, 2015/16-2019/20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Next Group

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Location of stores has been key
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Greater shift towards online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Product mix benefited from bias to sports and loungewear
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Growing focus on beauty
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Next ups its ante on underwear
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Where next
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 270: Next Group: Group financial performance, 2014/15-2019/20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 271: Next Group: Outlet data, 2014/15-2019/20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Primark/Penneys

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Missing out on online sales costs the brand millions in lost revenue
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • A must-visit destination for consumers shopping for clothes in-store
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Cut-price fashion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • New eco-conscious fashion, homeware and beauty collection
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • First ever sportswear collaboration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 272: Primark/Penneys: Group financial performance, 2015/16-2019/20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 273: Primark/Penneys: Outlet data, 2015/16-2019/20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • River Island

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • ‘Buy now, pay later’ online option
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Needs to do more to get customers back through the door
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Commits to being more transparent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Exclusive childrenswear collaboration with TV star and personality Samantha Faiers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Own-brand beauty offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 274: River Island Holdings Limited: Group financial performance, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 275: River Island Holdings Limited: Outlet data, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • TJX International (TK Maxx Europe)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Turbocharging the in-store experience to better compete with online
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Discounted brands and designer labels to tempt value-conscious fashionistas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Tapping into the flourishing Russian off-price retail market
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • A sustainable business model of sorts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 276: TJX International (TK Maxx Europe): Group financial performance, 2015/16-2019/20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 277: TJX International (TK Maxx Europe): Outlet data, 2015/16-2019/20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Retail offering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Zalando

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • What we think
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Taking the guesswork out of size and fit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Customers can now tailor their experience by following their favourite brands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Boosting sustainability credentials with eco-friendly offering and second-hand platform
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Expanding luxury ranges to meet demand among younger consumers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Company background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Company performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 278: Zalando: Group financial performance, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 279: Zalando: key metrics, 2017-H1 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Retail offering

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