2021
0
European Retail Handbook 2021
2021-11-04T03:09:32+00:00
OX1050017
2195
144149
[{"name":"Retail","url":"https:\/\/store.mintel.com\/industries\/retail"}]
Report
en_GB
"In 2020, European countries’ combined retail sales value growth slowed down, however, it still recorded a positive performance of +0.5% year on year, which is welcome news considering the challenges…

European Retail Handbook 2021

£ 2,195 (Excl.Tax)

Report Summary

“In 2020, European countries’ combined retail sales value growth slowed down, however, it still recorded a positive performance of +0.5% year on year, which is welcome news considering the challenges caused by the pandemic. The combined value of retail sales for the 36 major economies reached €3.54 trillion in 2020. Germany has the largest retail market and France is second. In 2020, the UK was third, overtaking Russia. In 2020, Turkey led in terms of retail sales growth as the total rose by nearly a fifth. At the other end of the spectrum, is Spain where retail sales fell 17.2%, North Macedonia at -7.1% and Bulgaria at -6.7%.”
– Utku Tansel, Research Analyst

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction

      • Definitions
      • Pan-European Comparisons

        • Population
          • Figure 1: Europe: population by major country, 2020/21
          • Figure 2: Europe: population by major country, 2020/21
        • Gross domestic product
          • Figure 3: Europe: GDP and GDP per capita, 2020
          • Figure 4: Europe: GDP per capita, 2020
        • Consumer spending
          • Figure 5: Europe: consumer spending and consumer spending per capita, 2020
          • Figure 6: Europe: consumer spending per capita, 2020
        • Retail sales
          • Figure 7: Europe: retail sales and retail sales per capita, 2020
          • Figure 8: Europe: retail sales per capita, 2020
        • Impact of COVID-19 on retail sales
          • Figure 9: Europe: estimated retail sales percentage change, in local currencies, 2020
        • Online retailing
          • Figure 10: Europe: percentage of adults who have made a purchase online in the last three months, 2020
          • Figure 11: Europe: percentage of adults who have made a purchase online in the last three months, 2020
        • Rankings
          • Figure 12: Europe: country rankings by population and economic measures, 2020
        • Currencies
          • Figure 13: Europe: annual average exchange rates, 2020
      • Albania

          • The Albanian retail scene
            • Albania: COVID-19 context
              • Albania in figures
                • Population
                  • Figure 14: Albania: population, by gender, 2017-21
                  • Figure 15: Albania: population, by age group, 2017-21
                  • Figure 16: Albania: population, by prefecture, 2017-21
                • Economy
                  • Figure 17: Albania: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                  • Figure 18: Albania: Harmonised Indices of Consumer Prices (HICP), % change on previous year, 2016-20
                  • Figure 19: Albania: household consumption expenditure, 2010-20
                  • Figure 20: Albania: detailed breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2015-19
                • Albanian retailing in figures
                  • Figure 21: Albania: retail sales (excluding. VAT), 2016-21
                • Major retailers in Albania
                  • Food retailers
                    • Figure 22: Albania: leading food retailers, 2020
                  • Non-food retailers
                    • Figure 23: Albania: leading non-food retailers, 2020
                  • Contacts and sources
                  • Austria

                      • The Austrian retail scene
                        • Austria: COVID-19 context
                          • Austria in figures
                            • Population
                              • Figure 24: Austria: population, by gender, 2017-21
                              • Figure 25: Austria: population, by age group, 2017-21
                              • Figure 26: Austria: population, by region, 2017-21
                            • Economy
                              • Figure 27: Austria: Gross domestic product, 2011-20
                              • Figure 28: Austria: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2016-20
                              • Figure 29: Austria: final consumption expenditure of households, 2011-20
                              • Figure 30: Austria: final consumption expenditure breakdown, 2015-19
                            • Austrian retailing in figures
                              • Figure 31: Austria: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                              • Figure 32: Austria: detailed breakdown of retail sales (excluding VAT), 2015-20
                            • Online retailing in Austria
                              • Figure 33: Austria: percentage of households with broadband internet access, 2016-20
                              • Figure 34: Austria: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2016-20
                            • Major retailers in Austria
                              • Food retailers
                                • Figure 35: Austria: leading food retailers, 2020
                              • Mixed goods and department stores
                                • Figure 36: Austria: leading mixed goods retailers and department stores, 2020
                              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                  • Figure 37: Austria: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2020
                                • DIY specialists
                                  • Figure 38: Austria: leading DIY specialists, 2020
                                • Furniture specialists
                                  • Figure 39: Austria: leading furniture specialists, 2020
                                • Electrical specialists
                                    • Figure 40: Austria: leading electrical goods specialists, 2020
                                  • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                    • Figure 41: Austria: leading beauty and personal care specialists, 2020
                                  • Miscellaneous specialists
                                    • Figure 42: Austria: Leading miscellaneous goods retailers, 2020
                                  • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                    • Figure 43: Austria: leading online retailers, 2020
                                  • Contacts and sources
                                  • Belarus

                                      • The Belarussian retail scene
                                        • Belarus: COVID-19 context
                                          • Belarus in figures
                                            • Population
                                              • Figure 44: Belarus: population, by gender, 2017-21
                                              • Figure 45: Belarus: population, by age group, 2017-21
                                              • Figure 46: Population, by region and city of Minsk, 2017-21
                                            • Economy
                                              • Figure 47: Belarus: gross domestic product, 2011-20
                                              • Figure 48: Belarus: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2016-20
                                              • Figure 49: Belarus: household consumption expenditure, 2011-20
                                              • Figure 50: Belarus: pattern of consumption expenditure of households, % of total, 2015-19
                                            • Belarussian retailing in figures
                                              • Figure 51: Belarus: retail sales, 2016-21
                                              • Figure 52: Belarus: number of stores, by region, 2015-19
                                            • Major retailers in Belarus
                                                • Figure 53: Belarus: major retailers, 2020
                                              • Contacts and sources
                                              • Belgium

                                                  • The Belgian retail scene
                                                    • Belgium: COVID-19 context
                                                      • Belgium in figures
                                                        • Population
                                                          • Figure 54: Belgium: population, by gender, 2017-21
                                                          • Figure 55: Belgium: population, by gender, 2017-21
                                                          • Figure 56: Belgium: population, by region, 2017-21
                                                        • Economy
                                                          • Figure 57: Belgium: gross domestic product, 2011-20
                                                          • Figure 58: Belgium: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2016-20
                                                          • Figure 59: Belgium: households’ consumption expenditure, 2011-20
                                                          • Figure 60: Belgium: breakdown of consumer spending, by category, 2015-19
                                                        • Belgian retailing in figures
                                                          • Figure 61: Belgium: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                                          • Figure 62: Belgium: retail sales breakdown (excluding VAT), 2016-20
                                                        • Online retailing in Belgium
                                                          • Figure 63: Belgium: percentage of households with broadband internet access, 2016-20
                                                          • Figure 64: Belgium: online purchases in the past 3/12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2015-20
                                                        • Major retailers in Belgium
                                                          • Food retailers
                                                              • Figure 65: Belgium: Leading food retailers, 2020
                                                            • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                • Figure 66: Belgium: leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2020
                                                              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                • Figure 67: Belgium: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2020
                                                              • DIY specialists
                                                                • Figure 68: Belgium: leading DIY specialists, 2020
                                                              • Furniture specialists
                                                                • Figure 69: Belgium: leading furniture specialists, 2020
                                                              • Electrical specialists
                                                                  • Figure 70: Belgium: leading electrical specialists, 2020
                                                                • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                  • Figure 71: Belgium: leading beauty and personal care specialists, 2020
                                                                • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                  • Figure 72: Belgium: leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2020
                                                                • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                    • Figure 73: Belgium: leading home shopping retailers, 2020
                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                  • Bulgaria

                                                                      • The Bulgarian retail scene
                                                                        • Bulgaria: COVID-19 context
                                                                          • Bulgaria in figures
                                                                            • Population
                                                                              • Figure 74: Bulgaria: population, by gender, 2015-21
                                                                              • Figure 75: Bulgaria: population, by age group, 2015-20
                                                                              • Figure 76: Bulgaria: population, by region, 2015-20
                                                                            • Economy
                                                                              • Figure 77: Bulgaria: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                              • Figure 78: Bulgaria: consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2015-20
                                                                              • Figure 79: Bulgaria: household consumption expenditures, 2010-20
                                                                              • Figure 80: Bulgaria: breakdown of consumer expenditure, by detailed category, 2014-19
                                                                            • Bulgarian retailing in figures
                                                                              • Figure 81: Bulgaria: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2015-21
                                                                              • Figure 82: Bulgaria: breakdown of retail sales (excluding VAT), 2015-20
                                                                            • Online retailing in Bulgaria
                                                                              • Figure 83: Bulgaria: percentage of all households with broadband, 2014-20
                                                                              • Figure 84: Bulgaria: online purchases, % of all individuals, 2014-20
                                                                            • Major retailers in Bulgaria
                                                                                • Figure 85: Bulgaria: leading retailers, 2020
                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                              • Croatia

                                                                                  • The Croatian retail scene
                                                                                    • Croatia: COVID-19 context
                                                                                      • Croatia in figures
                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                          • Figure 86: Croatia: population, by gender, 2015-21
                                                                                          • Figure 87: Croatia: population, by age group and gender, 2020
                                                                                          • Figure 88: Croatia: population, by districts, 2014-19
                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                          • Figure 89: Croatia: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                          • Figure 90: Croatia: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2014-20
                                                                                          • Figure 91: Croatia: households consumption expenditure, 2010-20
                                                                                        • Croatian retailing in figures
                                                                                          • Figure 92: Croatia: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                          • Figure 93: Croatia: retail sales breakdown, 2015-20
                                                                                        • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                          • Figure 94: Croatia: retail businesses and employment, 2014-19
                                                                                        • Online retailing in Croatia
                                                                                          • Figure 95: Croatia: percentage of all households with broadband access, 2015-20
                                                                                          • Figure 96: Croatia: online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-20
                                                                                        • Major retailers in Croatia
                                                                                          • Food retailers
                                                                                            • Figure 97: Croatia: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                          • Non-food retailers
                                                                                              • Figure 98: Croatia: leading non-food retailers, 2020
                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                            • Czechia

                                                                                                • The Czech retail scene
                                                                                                  • Czechia: COVID context
                                                                                                    • Czechia in figures
                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                        • Figure 99: Czechia: population, by gender, 2016-21
                                                                                                        • Figure 100: Czechia: population, by age group, 2016-21
                                                                                                        • Figure 101: Czechia: population, by region, 2015-20
                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                        • Figure 102: Czechia: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                        • Figure 103: Czechia: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-20
                                                                                                        • Figure 104: Czechia: households consumption expenditures, 2010-20
                                                                                                        • Figure 105: Czechia: breakdown of household consumption expenditures, 2015-20
                                                                                                      • Czech retailing in figures
                                                                                                        • Figure 106: Czechia: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2015-21
                                                                                                        • Figure 107: Czechia: breakdown of retail sales (excluding VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Czechia
                                                                                                        • Figure 108: Czechia: percentage of all households with broadband access, 2014-20
                                                                                                        • Figure 109: Czechia: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-19
                                                                                                      • Major retailers in Czechia
                                                                                                        • Food retailers
                                                                                                          • Figure 110: Czechia: leading food retailers,2020
                                                                                                        • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                          • Figure 111: Czechia: leading non-food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                        • Denmark

                                                                                                            • The Danish retail scene
                                                                                                              • Denmark: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                • Denmark in figures
                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                    • Figure 112: Denmark: population, by gender, 2016-21
                                                                                                                    • Figure 113: Denmark: population, by age, 2016-21
                                                                                                                    • Figure 114: Denmark: population, by region, 2016-21
                                                                                                                    • Figure 115: Denmark: households by size, 2017-21
                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                    • Figure 116: Denmark: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                    • Figure 117: Denmark: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2014-20
                                                                                                                    • Figure 118: Denmark: consumer expenditure (including VAT), 2010-20
                                                                                                                    • Figure 119: Denmark: breakdown of consumer spending by category (incl VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                  • Danish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                    • Figure 120: Denmark: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2014-21
                                                                                                                    • Figure 121: Denmark: retail sales breakdown (excluding VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Denmark
                                                                                                                    • Figure 122: Denmark: percentage of all households with broadband access, 2014-20
                                                                                                                    • Figure 123: Denmark: online purchases in the past 3/12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2015-20
                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Denmark
                                                                                                                    • Food retailers
                                                                                                                        • Figure 124: Denmark: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                        • Figure 125: Denmark: major mixed goods retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                      • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                        • Figure 126: Denmark: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                      • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                        • Figure 127: Denmark: leading DIY specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                      • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                        • Figure 128: Denmark: leading furniture specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                      • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                        • Figure 129: Denmark: leading electrical goods specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                      • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                        • Figure 130: Denmark: leading health & beauty specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                      • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                        • Figure 131: Denmark: leading health & beauty specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                      • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                        • Figure 132: Denmark: selected home shopping retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                      • Estonia

                                                                                                                          • The Estonian retail scene
                                                                                                                            • Estonia: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                              • Estonia in figures
                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 133: Estonia: population, by gender, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 134: Estonia: population, by age group, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 135: Estonia: population by region, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 136: Estonia: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 137: Estonia: consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2014-20
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 138: Estonia: final consumption expenditure of households, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 139: Estonia: detailed breakdown of final household consumption expenditure, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                • Estonia retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 140: Estonia: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 141: Estonia: detailed breakdown of retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-20
                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Estonia
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 142: Estonia: percentage of all households with broadband, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 143: Estonia: online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                • Major retailers in Estonia
                                                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                      • Figure 144: Estonia: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                    • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 145: Estonia: leading non-food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                      • Finland

                                                                                                                                          • The Finnish retail scene
                                                                                                                                            • Finland: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 146: Finland: population, by gender, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 147: Finland: population by age group, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 148: Finland: population by region, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 149: Finland: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 150: Finland: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 151: Finland: consumer expenditure (including VAT), 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 152: Finland: final breakdown of private consumer expenditure, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                              • Finnish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 153: Finland: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2015-21
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 154: Finland: retail sales breakdown (excluding VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Finland
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 155: Finland: percentage of all households with broadband access, 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                • Figure 156: Finland: online purchases in the past 3/12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Finland
                                                                                                                                                • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 157: Finland: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                • Department stores and mixed goods
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 158: Finland: leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 159: Finland: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 160: Finland: leading DIY specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 161: Finland: leading furniture specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 162: Finland: leading electrical specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 163: Finland: major beauty and personal care specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 164: Finland: major leisure and other specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 165: Finland: selected online and home shopping retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                • France

                                                                                                                                                    • The French retail scene
                                                                                                                                                      • France: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                        • France in figures
                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 166: France: population, by gender, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 167: France: population, by age bracket and gender, 2021
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 168: France: population, by region, 2021
                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 169: France: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 170: France: consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 171: France: household consumer expenditure, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 172: France: breakdown of consumer expenditure, by detailed category (including VAT), 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                          • French retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 173: France: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 174: France: retail sales breakdown (excl VAT), 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                          • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 175: France: retail enterprises and employment, 2018
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 176: France: retail outlets by sector, 2018
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 177: Retail outlets by sector and size, 2017
                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in France
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 178: France: percentage of all households with broadband access, 2013-20
                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 179: France: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in France
                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 180: France: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                              • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 181: France: leading department store and mixed goods retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 182: France: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                              • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 183: France: leading DIY specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                              • Electrical goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 184: France: leading electricals specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                              • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 185: France: leading furniture specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                              • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 186: France: leading beauty specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                              • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 187: France: leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                              • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 188: France: leading online and home shopping retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                              • Germany

                                                                                                                                                                  • The German retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                    • Germany: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                      • Germany in figures
                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 189: Germany: population, by gender, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 190: Germany: population, by age group, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 191: Germany: population: by region, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 192: Germany: number of households, by size, 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 193: Germany: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 194: Germany: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 195: Germany: household consumption expenditures, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 196: Germany: breakdown of household consumption expenditures, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                        • German retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 197: Germany: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2014-21
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 198: Germany: detailed retail sales breakdown (excluding VAT), 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                                        • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 199: Germany: number of retail enterprises, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 200: Germany: number of people employed in retail, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in Germany
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 201: Germany: percentage of all households with broadband, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 202: Germany: online purchases, % of all individuals, 2013-19
                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 203: Germany: online sales by product category (including VAT), 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                        • Major retailers in Germany
                                                                                                                                                                          • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 204: Germany: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                          • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 205: Germany: leading department stores and mixed goods retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                          • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 206: Germany: leading clothing specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 207: Germany: leading footwear specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                            • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 208: Germany: leading DIY specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                              • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 209: Germany: leading furniture specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 210: Germany: leading electrical goods specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 211: Germany: leading beauty and personal care specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 212: Germany: leading miscellaneous specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 213: Germany: leading non-store retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                • Greece

                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Greek retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Greece: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Greece in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 214: Greece: population, by gender, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 215: Greece: population, by age group, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 216: Greece: population, by region, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 217: Greece: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 218: Greece: consumer prices inflation*, % change on previous year, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 219: Greece: household consumption expenditure (incl VAT), 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 220: Greece: household consumption expenditure by category (incl VAT), 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Greek retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 221: Greece: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 222: Greece: retail sales breakdown, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 223: Greece: retail businesses and employment, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Greece
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 224: Greece: percentage of all households with broadband, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 225: Greece: online purchases in the last 3 months* – Percentage of all individuals, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in Greece
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 226: Greece: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 227: Greece: leading non-food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Hungary

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Hungarian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Retail tax
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Leading retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Hungary: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Hungary in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 228: Hungary: population, by gender, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 229: Hungary: population, by age group and gender, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 230: Hungary: population, by region, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 231: Hungary: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 232: Hungary: harmonised consumer prices index, % change on previous year, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 233: Hungary: household consumer expenditure, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 234: Hungary: breakdown of household consumer expenditure, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Hungarian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 235: Hungary: retail sales, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 236: Hungary: retail sales breakdown, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Retail enterprises and outlets
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 237: Hungary: enterprise and outlet data, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 238: Hungary: percentage of all households with broadband, 2013-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 239: Hungary: online purchases in the last 12 months, 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Major retailers in Hungary
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 240: Hungary: major retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ireland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Irish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ireland: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ireland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 241: Ireland: population, by gender, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 242: Ireland: population, by age, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 243: Ireland: population, by regional authority area, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 244: Ireland: gross domestic product, 2011-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 245: Ireland: consumer price inflation, % change on previous year, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 246: Ireland: final consumption expenditure of households, 2011-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 247: Ireland: final consumption expenditure of households by consumption purpose, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Irish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 248: Ireland: retail sales (excl VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 249: Ireland: retail sales breakdown (excluding VAT), 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 250: Ireland: percentage of households with broadband internet access, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 251: Ireland: online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Major retailers in Ireland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 252: Ireland: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 253: Ireland: leading mixed and department store retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 254: Ireland: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 255: Ireland: leading DIY specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 256: Ireland: leading furniture specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 257: Ireland: leading electrical specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 258: Ireland: leading health & beauty specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 259: Ireland: leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online and other home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 260: Ireland: leading online-only and home shopping retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Italy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Italian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Italy: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Italy in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 261: Italy: population, by gender, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 262: Italy: population, by age group and gender, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 263: Italy: population, by region, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 264: Italy: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 265: Italy: consumer prices inflation*, % change on previous year, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 266: Italy: household consumption* expenditure, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 267: Italy: household consumption* expenditure by category, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Italian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 268: Italy: retail sales (excl VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 269: Italy: retail sales breakdown, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 270: Italy: retail businesses and employment, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 271: Italy: percentage of all households with broadband, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 272: Italy: online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Major retailers in Italy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 273: Italy: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 274: Italy: leading mixed goods retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 275: Italy: leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 276: Italy: DIY retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Electrical, furniture and household goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 277: Italy: leading electrical, furniture and household goods retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 278: Italy: leading beauty and personal care retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Sporting goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 279: Italy: leading sports goods retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online-only and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 280: Italy: leading home shopping retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Latvia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Latvian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Latvia: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Latvia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 281: Latvia: population, by gender, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 282: Latvia: population, by age group, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 283: Latvia: population, by region, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 284: Latvia: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 285: Latvia: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 286: Latvia: households consumption expenditure, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 287: Latvia: detailed breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Latvian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 288: Latvia: Retail sales (excluding VAT), 2015-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 289: Latvia: detailed retail sales breakdown, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 290: Latvia: retail businesses and employment, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in Latvia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 291: Latvia: percentage of all households with broadband, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 292: Estonia: online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Major retailers in Latvia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 293: Latvia: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 294: Latvia: leading non-food retailers by turnover, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Lithuania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Lithuanian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Lithuania: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Lithuania in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 295: Lithuania: population, by gender, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 296: Lithuania: population, by age group, 2019-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 297: Lithuania: population, by region, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 298: Lithuania: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 299: Lithuania: consumer prices inflation*, % change on previous year, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 300: Lithuania: household consumption expenditure, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 301: Lithuania: breakdown of consumer spending* by category (incl VAT), 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Lithuanian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 302: Lithuania: retail sales (excl VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 303: Lithuania: retail sales breakdown, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 304: Lithuania: retail businesses and employment, 2013-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 305: Lithuania: percentage of all households with broadband, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 306: Lithuania: online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Major retailers in Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 307: Lithuania: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 308: Lithuania: leading non-food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Luxembourg

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Luxembourg retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Luxembourg: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Luxembourg in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 309: Luxembourg: population, by gender, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 310: Luxembourg: population, by age group, 2019-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 311: Luxembourg: population, by region, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 312: Luxembourg: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 313: Luxembourg: consumer prices inflation*, % change on previous year, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 314: Luxembourg: household consumption expenditure, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 315: Luxembourg: household consumption expenditure by category, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Luxembourg retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 316: Luxembourg: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 317: Luxembourg: retail sales breakdown, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 318: Luxembourg: retail businesses and employment, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 319: Luxembourg: percentage of all households with broadband, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 320: Luxembourg: online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 321: Luxembourg: leading retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Moldova

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Moldovan retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Moldova: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Moldova in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 322: Moldova: usual resident population, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 323: Moldova: usual resident population, by age group, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 324: Moldova: gross domestic product, 2011-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 325: Moldova: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 326: Moldova: final consumption of households, 2011-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Moldovan retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 327: Moldova: retail sales (excluding motor vehicles and motorcycles), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Major retailers in Moldova
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 328: Moldova: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 329: Moldova: leading non-food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Netherlands

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Dutch retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Netherlands: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Netherlands in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 330: The Netherlands: population, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 331: The Netherlands: population, by age group, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 332: The Netherlands: population, by region, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 333: The Netherlands: number of households, by household size, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 334: The Netherlands: gross domestic product, 2011-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 335: The Netherlands: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 336: The Netherlands: total consumption of households, 2011-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 337: The Netherlands: total consumption of households breakdown, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Dutch retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 338: The Netherlands: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 339: The Netherlands: retail sales breakdown (excl VAT), 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in the Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 340: The Netherlands: percentage of households with broadband internet access, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 341: The Netherlands: online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Major retailers in the Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 342: The Netherlands: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 343: The Netherlands: leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 344: The Netherlands: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 345: The Netherlands: leading DIY specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 346: The Netherlands: leading furniture and carpet specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 347: The Netherlands: leading electrical specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 348: The Netherlands: leading health and beauty specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 349: The Netherlands: leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 350: The Netherlands: leading online and home shopping retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Republic of North Macedonia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Republic of North Macedonian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Republic of North Macedonia: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Republic of North Macedonia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 351: Republic of North Macedonia: population, by gender, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 352: Republic of North Macedonia: population, by age group, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 353: Republic of North Macedonia: population, by region, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 354: Republic of North Macedonia: gross domestic product, 2011-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 355: Republic of North Macedonia: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 356: Republic of North Macedonia: final household consumption expenditure, 2009-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 357: Republic of North Macedonia: detailed breakdown of final household consumption expenditure, 2014-18
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Republic of North Macedonia retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 358: The Republic of North Macedonia: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2015-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 359: The Republic of North Macedonia: detailed breakdown of retail sales (excl VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in the Republic of North Macedonia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 360: The Republic of North Macedonia: percentage of households with broadband internet access, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 361: The Republic of North Macedonia: pnline purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in the Republic of North Macedonia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 362: The Republic of North Macedonia: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 363: The Republic of North Macedonia: leading non-food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Norway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • The Norwegian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Norway: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Norway in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 364: Norway: population trends, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 365: Norway: population, by age group and gender, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 366: Norway: population by county, 2018-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 367: Norway: gross domestic product, 2011-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 368: Norway: consumer prices inflation (HICP), % change on previous year, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 369: Norway: consumer expenditure (incl VAT), 2011-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 370: Norway: breakdown of consumer spending by category (including VAT), 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Norwegian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 371: Norway: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 372: Norway: breakdown of retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 373: Norway: percentage of all households with broadband, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 374: Norway: online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Major retailers in Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 375: Norway: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 376: Norway: leading mixed goods retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 377: Norway: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 378: Norway: leading DIY specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 379: Norway: leading furniture specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 380: Norway: leading electrical goods specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 381: Norway: leading health & beauty specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Miscellaneous retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 382: Norway: leading cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online and other home-shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 383: Norway: selected home-shopping retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Poland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Polish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Poland: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Poland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 384: Poland: population, by gender, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 385: Poland: population, by age group, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 386: Poland: population by region, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 387: Poland: gross domestic product, 2011-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 388: Poland: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 389: Poland: household consumption expenditure, 2011-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 390: Poland: detailed breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Polish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 391: Poland: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 392: Poland: retail sales breakdown, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 393: Poland: selected outlet numbers, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 394: Poland: percentage of all households with broadband, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 395: Poland: online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Major retailers in Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 396: Poland: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Clothing and footwear
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Health and beauty
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • DIY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Other homewares
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 397: Poland: leading non-food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Portugal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Portuguese retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Portugal: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Portugal in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 398: Portugal: population, by gender, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 399: Portugal: population, by age group, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 400: Portugal: population, by region, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 401: Portugal: gross domestic product, 2011-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 402: Portugal: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 403: Portugal: households consumption expenditures, 2011-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 404: Portugal: breakdown of households consumption expenditure, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Portuguese retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 405: Portugal: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 406: Portugal: breakdown of retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 407: Portugal: percentage of all households with broadband, 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 408: Portugal: online purchases, % of all individuals, 2013-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 409: Portugal: leading food retailers, in sales, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 410: Portugal: leading non-food retailers, by sales, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Romania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Romanian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Romania: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Romania in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 411: Romania: population, by gender, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 412: Romania: population, by age group, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 413: Romania: population, by region, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 414: Romania: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 415: Romania: consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 416: Romania: household consumption expenditures, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 417: Romania: breakdown of consumer expenditure, by detailed category, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Romanian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 418: Romania: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2015-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 419: Romania: breakdown of retail sales (excluding VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 420: Romania: percentage of all households with broadband access, 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 421: Romania: online purchases, % of all individuals, 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 422: Romania: leading retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Russia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Russian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Russia: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Russia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 423: Russia: population, by gender, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 424: Russia: population, by age group, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 425: Russia: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 426: Russia: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 427: Russia: households consumption expenditure, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Russian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 428: Russia: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2015-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 429: Russia: retail sales, by broad sector (excluding VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 430: Russia: total estimated ecommerce market size, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 431: Russia: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 432: Russia: leading non-food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Serbia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Serbian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Serbia: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Serbia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 433: Serbia: population, by gender, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 434: Serbia: population, by age group, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 435: Serbia: population, by region, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 436: Serbia: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 437: Serbia: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 438: Serbia: household consumption expenditure, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 439: Serbia: breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Serbian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 440: Serbia: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2015-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Serbia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 441: Serbia: percentage of households with broadband internet access, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 442: Serbia: online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in Serbia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 443: Serbia: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 444: Serbia: leading non-food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Slovakia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Slovakian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Slovakia: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Slovakia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 445: Slovakia: population, by gender, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 446: Slovakia: population by age group and gender, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 447: Slovakia: population, by region, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 448: Slovakia: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 449: Slovakia: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 450: Slovakia: final consumption of households, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 451: Slovakia: breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Slovakian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 452: Slovakia: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 453: Slovakia: retail sales breakdown, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Slovakia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 454: Slovakia: percentage of all households with broadband, 2012-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 455: Slovakia: online purchases, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in Slovakia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 456: Slovakia: selected retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Slovenia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Slovenian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Slovenia: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Slovenia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 457: Slovenia: population, by gender, 2015-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 458: Slovenia: population, by age, 2015-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 459: Slovenia: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 460: Slovenia: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2013-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 461: Slovenia: household consumption expenditures, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 462: Slovenia: detailed breakdown of household consumption expenditures, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Slovenian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 463: Slovenia: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2014-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 464: Slovenia: breakdown of retail sales (excluding VAT), 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Slovenia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 465: Slovenia: percentage of all households with broadband access, 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 466: Slovenia: online purchases in the past 3/12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major retailers in Slovenia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 467: Slovenia: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 468: Slovenia: leading non-food retailers,2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Spain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Spanish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Spain: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Spain in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 469: Spain: population, by gender, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 470: Spain: population, by age group, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 471: Spain: population, by region, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 472: Spain: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 473: Spain: consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 475: Spain: breakdown of consumer expenditure, by detailed category (including VAT), 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Spanish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 476: Spain: Retail sales (excluding VAT), 2015-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 477: Spain: retail sales breakdown (excluding VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Enterprises and employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 478: Spain: number of retail companies (excl VAT), 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 479: Spain: number of people employed by retail companies, 2015-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 480: Spain: percentage of all households with broadband access, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 481: Spain: online purchases in the past 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 482: Spain: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 483: Spain: leading department store and mixed goods retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 484: Spain: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 485: Spain: leading DIY specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Electrical, furniture and household goods retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 486: Spain: leading electrical, furniture and household goods retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 487: Spain: leading beauty specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Miscellaneous/other non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 488: Spain: leading miscellaneous/other non-food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 489: Spain: leading online retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sweden

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Swedish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Sweden: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sweden in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 490: Sweden: population, by gender, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 491: Sweden: population, by age group and gender, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 492: Sweden: households by size, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 493: Sweden: population by county, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 494: Sweden: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 495: Sweden: consumer prices inflation, % change on year, 2012-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 496: Sweden: consumer expenditure (incl VAT), 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 497: Sweden: breakdown of consumer spending by category (including VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Swedish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 498: Sweden: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2014-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 499: Sweden: breakdown of retail sales (excluding VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 500: Sweden: percentage of all households with broadband access, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 501: Sweden: online purchases in the past 3/12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Major retailers in Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 502: Sweden: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 503: Sweden: leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 504: Sweden: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 505: Sweden: leading DIY specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 506: Sweden: leading furniture specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 507: Sweden: leading electrical specialist retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 508: Sweden: leading beauty and personal care specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 509: Sweden: major leisure, cultural and other specialist retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online and other home shopping retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 510: Sweden: leading home shopping retailers,2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Switzerland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Swiss retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Switzerland: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Switzerland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 511: Switzerland: total population, by gender, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 512: Switzerland: total population, by age group, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 513: Switzerland: total population, by canton, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 514: Switzerland: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 515: Switzerland: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 516: Switzerland: households consumption expenditure, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Swiss retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 517: Switzerland: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 518: Switzerland: detailed retail sales breakdown, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 519: Switzerland: percentage of all households with broadband, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 520: Switzerland: online purchases in the last 12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Major retailers in Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 521: Switzerland: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Department stores and clothing retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 522: Switzerland: leading department stores and clothing specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Household goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 523: Switzerland: leading household goods specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 524: Switzerland: leading health & beauty specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 525: Switzerland: leading miscellaneous specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online and other home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 526: Switzerland: leading online and home shopping retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Turkey

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Turkish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Turkey: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Turkey in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 527: Turkey: population, by gender, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 528: Turkey: population, by age group, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 529: Turkey: population, by region, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 530: Turkey: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 531: Turkey: consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 532: Turkey: household consumption expenditures, 2009-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 533: Turkey: breakdown of consumer expenditure, by detailed category, 2014-19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Turkish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 534: Turkey: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 535: Turkey: breakdown of retail sales (excluding VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 536: Turkey: percentage of all households with broadband access, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 537: Turkey: online purchases, % of all individuals, 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major retailers in Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 538: Turkey: leading retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • UK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The UK retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • UK: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The UK in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 539: UK: population by gender, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 540: UK: population by age group, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 541: UK: population by region, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 542: UK: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 543: UK: gross domestic product percentage change year-on-year and unemployment rate, 2015-25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 544: UK: consumer price inflation (CPIH), % increase on previous year, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 545: UK: households consumption expenditure, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 546: UK: breakdown of consumer spending, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • UK retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 547: UK: retail sales, excl VAT, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 548: UK: retail sales (excl VAT), detailed sales breakdown, 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in the UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 549: UK: household broadband access, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 550: UK: online purchases in the past 3/12 months – Percentage of all individuals, 2014-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in the UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 551: UK: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 552: UK: leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 553: UK: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 554: UK: leading DIY specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Home goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 555: UK: leading furniture and carpets specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 556: Leading electricals specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 557: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 558: UK: leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online and other home shopping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 559: UK: leading home shopping retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Ukraine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Ukrainian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Ukraine: COVID-19 context
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Ukraine in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Population
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 560: Ukraine: population, by gender, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 561: Ukraine: population, by age group, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 562: Ukraine: population, by region, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 563: Ukraine: gross domestic product, 2010-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 564: Ukraine: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 565: Ukraine: households consumption expenditures, 2012-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 566: Ukraine: breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ukrainian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 567: Ukraine: retail sales (excl VAT), 2015-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Ukraine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 568: Ukraine: leading food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 569: Ukraine: leading non-food retailers, 2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources

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