2022
0
European Retail Handbook 2022
2022-11-19T03:03:35+00:00
OX1129935
1495
157673
[{"name":"Retail","url":"https:\/\/store.mintel.com\/industries\/retail"}]
Report
en_GB
In 2021, the combined value of retail sales for the 30 major economies in Europe exceeded €4,028 billion. Germany remains the largest retail market in 2021, followed by the UK…

European Retail Handbook 2022

£ 1,495 (Excl.Tax)

Report Summary

In 2021, the combined value of retail sales for the 30 major economies in Europe exceeded €4,028 billion. Germany remains the largest retail market in 2021, followed by the UK and France. When it comes to retail sales per capita, however, Switzerland continues to lead, followed by Norway and Belgium. In recent times retail sales performance has followed a similar trajectory across most markets with the 2020 COVID-induced slump, particularly in retailers’ sales in a number of non-food sectors, followed by recovery in 2021 as restrictions eased and stores reopened. However, 2022 has presented widespread challenges in the face of the cost of living crisis.

Utku Tansel, Retail Analyst

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction

      • Definitions
      • Pan-European Comparisons

        • Gross domestic product
          • Figure 1: Europe: GDP and GDP per capita, 2021
          • Figure 2: Europe: GDP per capita, 2021
        • Consumer spending
          • Figure 3: Europe: consumer spending and consumer spending per capita, 2021
          • Figure 4: Europe: consumer spending per capita, 2021
        • Retail sales
          • Figure 5: Europe: retail sales and retail sales per capita, 2021
          • Figure 6: Europe: retail sales per capita, 2021
        • Online retailing
          • Figure 7: Europe: percentage of adults who have made a purchase online in the last three months, 2021
          • Figure 8: Europe: percentage of adults who have made a purchase online in the last three months, 2021
        • Currencies
          • Figure 9: Europe: annual average exchange rates, 2021
      • Austria

          • The Austrian retail scene
            • Economy
              • Figure 10: Austria: gross domestic product, 2012-21
              • Figure 11: Austria: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2017-21
              • Figure 12: Austria: total consumption of households, 2012-21
              • Figure 13: Austria: total consumption of households breakdown, 2017-21
            • Austrian retailing in figures
              • Figure 14: Austria: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2017-22
              • Figure 15: Austria: retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2017-21
            • Online retailing in Austria
              • Figure 16: Austria: percentage of households with broadband internet access, 2017-21
              • Figure 17: Austria: online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2020-21
            • Major retailers in Austria
              • Food retailers
                • Figure 18: Austria: Leading food retailers, 2021
              • Mixed goods and department stores
                • Figure 19: Austria: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2021
              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                • Figure 20: Austria: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2021
              • DIY specialists
                • Figure 21: Austria: Leading DIY specialists, 2021
              • Furniture specialists
                • Figure 22: Austria: Leading furniture specialists, 2021
              • Electrical specialists
                • Figure 23: Austria: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2021
              • Beauty and personal care specialists
                • Figure 24: Austria: leading beauty and personal care specialists, 2021
              • Miscellaneous specialists
                • Figure 25: Austria: Leading miscellaneous goods retailers, 2021
              • Contacts and sources
              • Belarus

                  • The Belarussian retail scene
                    • Belarus in figures
                      • Economy
                        • Figure 26: Belarus: gross domestic product, 2011-21
                        • Figure 27: Belarus: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2017-21
                        • Figure 28: Belarus: household consumption expenditure, 2011-21
                        • Figure 29: Belarus: pattern of consumption expenditure of households, % of total, 2017-21
                      • Belarussian retailing in figures
                        • Figure 30: Belarus: retail sales, 2016-22
                      • Major retailers in Belarus
                          • Figure 31: Belarus: major retailers, 2021
                        • Contacts and sources
                        • Belgium

                            • The Belgian retail scene
                              • Economy
                                • Figure 32: Belgium: gross domestic product, 2012-21
                                • Figure 33: Belgium: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2017-21
                                • Figure 34: Belgium: total consumption of households, 2012-21
                                • Figure 35: Belgium: total consumption of households breakdown, 2016-20
                              • Belgian retailing in figures
                                • Figure 36: Belgium: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2017-22
                                • Figure 37: Belgium: retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2017-21
                              • Online retailing in Belgium
                                • Figure 38: Belgium: percentage of households with broadband internet access, 2017-21
                                • Figure 39: Belgium: online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2020-21
                              • Major retailers in Belgium
                                • Food retailers
                                    • Figure 40: Belgium: Leading food retailers, 2021
                                  • Mixed goods and department stores
                                      • Figure 41: Belgium: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2021
                                    • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                      • Figure 42: Belgium: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2021
                                    • DIY specialists
                                      • Figure 43: Belgium: Leading DIY specialists, 2021
                                    • Furniture specialists
                                      • Figure 44: Belgium: leading furniture specialists, 2021
                                    • Electrical specialists
                                      • Figure 45: Belgium: leading electrical specialists, 2021
                                    • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                      • Figure 46: Belgium: leading beauty and personal care specialists, 2021
                                    • Miscellaneous specialists
                                      • Figure 47: Belgium: Leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2021
                                    • Contacts and sources
                                    • Bulgaria

                                        • The Bulgarian retail scene
                                          • Bulgaria in figures
                                            • Economy
                                              • Figure 48: Bulgaria: Gross domestic product, 2010-21
                                              • Figure 49: Bulgaria: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2016-21
                                              • Figure 50: Bulgaria: Household consumption expenditures, 2010-21
                                              • Figure 51: Bulgaria: Breakdown of household consumption, by category, 2016-21
                                            • Bulgarian retailing in figures
                                              • Figure 52: Bulgaria: Retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-22
                                              • Figure 53: Bulgaria: Breakdown of retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                            • Online retailing in Bulgaria
                                              • Figure 54: Bulgaria: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2015-21
                                              • Figure 55: Bulgaria: Online purchases, % of all individuals, 2020-21
                                            • Major retailers in Bulgaria
                                                • Figure 56: Bulgaria: Leading retailers, 2021
                                              • Contacts and sources
                                              • Croatia

                                                  • The Croatian retail scene
                                                    • Croatia in figures
                                                      • Economy
                                                        • Figure 57: Croatia: Gross domestic product, 2010-21
                                                        • Figure 58: Croatia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2015-21
                                                        • Figure 59: Croatia: Households consumption expenditure, 2010-21
                                                      • Croatian retailing in figures
                                                        • Figure 60: Croatia: Retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-22
                                                        • Figure 61: Croatia: Retail sales breakdown, 2016-21
                                                      • Online retailing in Croatia
                                                        • Figure 62: Croatia: Percentage of all households with broadband access, 2015-21
                                                        • Figure 63: Croatia: Online purchases in the last 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2020-21
                                                      • Major retailers in Croatia
                                                          • Figure 64: Croatia: Leading retailers, 2021
                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                        • Czechia

                                                            • The Czechia retail scene
                                                              • Economy
                                                                • Figure 65: Czechia: Gross domestic product, 2012-21
                                                                • Figure 66: Czechia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2017-21
                                                                • Figure 67: Czechia: Total consumption of households, 2012-21
                                                                • Figure 68: Czechia: total consumption of households breakdown, 2017-21
                                                              • Czech retailing in figures
                                                                • Figure 69: Czechia: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2017-22
                                                                • Figure 70: Czechia: retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2017-21
                                                              • Online retailing in Czechia
                                                                • Figure 71: Czechia: Percentage of households with broadband internet access, 2017-21
                                                                • Figure 72: Czechia: Online purchases in the last 3 months – percentage of all individuals, 2020-21
                                                              • Major retailers in Czechia
                                                                • Food retailers
                                                                    • Figure 73: Czechia: leading food retailers, 2021
                                                                  • Non-food retailers
                                                                      • Figure 74: Czechia: Leading non-food retailers, 2021
                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                    • Denmark

                                                                        • The Danish retail scene
                                                                          • Economy
                                                                            • Figure 75: Denmark: gross domestic product, 2011-21
                                                                            • Figure 76: Denmark: Consumer prices inflation (HICP), % change on previous year, 2016-21
                                                                            • Figure 77: Denmark: consumer expenditure (including VAT), 2012-21
                                                                            • Figure 78: Denmark: Breakdown of consumer spending by category (including VAT), 2017-21
                                                                          • Online retailing in Denmark
                                                                            • Figure 79: Denmark: Online purchases in the last three months – percentage of all individuals, 2020-2021
                                                                          • Danish retailing in figures
                                                                            • Figure 80: Denmark: Retail sales (excluding VAT), 2017-22
                                                                            • Figure 81: Denmark: Breakdown of retail sales (excluding VAT), 2017-21
                                                                          • Major retailers in Denmark
                                                                            • Food retailers
                                                                              • Figure 82: Denmark: leading food retailers, 2021
                                                                            • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                              • Figure 83: Denmark: major mixed goods retailers, 2021
                                                                            • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                              • Figure 84: Denmark: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2021
                                                                            • DIY, electrical, furniture and household goods specialists
                                                                              • Figure 85: Denmark: leading home goods retailers, 2021
                                                                            • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                              • Figure 86: Denmark: miscellaneous retail specialists, 2021
                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                            • Finland

                                                                                • The Finnish retail scene
                                                                                  • Finland in figures
                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                      • Figure 87: Finland: Gross domestic product, 2012-21
                                                                                      • Figure 88: Finland: Consumer prices inflation (HICP), % change on previous year, 2016-21
                                                                                      • Figure 89: Finland: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2012-21
                                                                                      • Figure 90: Finland: Breakdown of consumer spending by category (including VAT), 2017-21
                                                                                    • Finnish retailing in figures
                                                                                      • Figure 91: Finland: Retail sales (excluding VAT), 2017-22
                                                                                      • Figure 92: Finland: Breakdown of retail sales (excluding VAT), 2017-21
                                                                                    • Online retailing in Finland
                                                                                      • Figure 93: Finland: Online purchases in the last three months, Percentage of all individuals, 2020-21
                                                                                    • Major retailers in Finland
                                                                                      • Food retailers
                                                                                          • Figure 94: Finland: leading food retailers, 2021
                                                                                        • Department stores and mixed goods
                                                                                          • Figure 95: Finland: leading department stores and mixed-goods retailers, 2021
                                                                                        • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                          • Figure 96: Finland: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2021
                                                                                        • DIY specialists
                                                                                          • Figure 97: Finland: leading DIY specialists, 2021
                                                                                        • Furniture specialists
                                                                                          • Figure 98: Finland: leading furniture specialists, 2021
                                                                                        • Electrical specialists
                                                                                          • Figure 99: Finland: leading electrical specialists, 2021
                                                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                          • Figure 100: Finland: major leisure and other specialists, 2021
                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                        • France

                                                                                            • The French retail scene
                                                                                              • France in figures
                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                  • Figure 101: France: Gross domestic product, 2012-21
                                                                                                  • Figure 102: France: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2016-21
                                                                                                  • Figure 103: France: Household consumer expenditure, 2012-21
                                                                                                  • Figure 104: France: Breakdown of consumer spending by category (including VAT), 2017-21
                                                                                                • French retailing in figures
                                                                                                  • Figure 105: France: Retail sales (excluding VAT), 2017-22
                                                                                                  • Figure 106: France: Retail sales breakdown (ex. VAT), 2017-21
                                                                                                • Online retailing in France
                                                                                                  • Figure 107: France: Online purchases in the last three months, Percentage of all individuals, 2021
                                                                                                • Major retailers in France
                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                    • Figure 108: France: leading food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                  • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                      • Figure 109: France: Leading department store and mixed goods retailers, 2021
                                                                                                    • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                      • Figure 110: France: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2021
                                                                                                    • DIY specialists
                                                                                                      • Figure 111: France: Leading DIY specialists, 2021
                                                                                                    • Electrical goods specialists
                                                                                                      • Figure 112: France: Leading electricals specialists, 2021
                                                                                                    • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                      • Figure 113: France: Leading furniture specialists, 2021
                                                                                                    • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                      • Figure 114: France: Leading beauty specialists, 2021
                                                                                                    • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                      • Figure 115: France: Leading Miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2021
                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                    • Germany

                                                                                                        • The German retail scene
                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                            • Figure 116: Germany: Gross domestic product, 2011-21
                                                                                                            • Figure 117: Germany: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2015-21
                                                                                                            • Figure 118: Germany: Final consumption expenditure of households, 2011-21
                                                                                                            • Figure 119: Germany: Detailed breakdown of household consumption, 2016-21
                                                                                                          • German retailing in figures
                                                                                                            • Figure 120: Germany: Retail sales (excluding VAT), 2015-22
                                                                                                            • Figure 121: Germany: Retail sales breakdown, 2015-21
                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Germany
                                                                                                            • Figure 122: Germany: Broadband penetration, 2016-21
                                                                                                            • Figure 123: Germany: Online purchases in the last three months – Percentage of all individuals 2020-21
                                                                                                          • Major retailers in Germany
                                                                                                            • Food retailers
                                                                                                              • Figure 124: Germany: leading food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                            • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                              • Figure 125: Germany: Leading mixed goods retailers, 2021
                                                                                                            • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                              • Figure 126: Germany: Leading clothes specialists, 2021
                                                                                                              • Figure 127: Germany: Leading footwear specialists, 2021
                                                                                                            • DIY specialists
                                                                                                              • Figure 128: Germany: leading DIY specialists, 2021
                                                                                                            • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                              • Figure 129: Germany: leading furniture specialists, 2021
                                                                                                            • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                              • Figure 130: Germany: Leading electricals specialists, 2021
                                                                                                            • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                              • Figure 131: Germany: Leading beauty and personal care specialists, 2021
                                                                                                            • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                              • Figure 132: Germany: leading miscellaneous specialists, 2021
                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                            • Greece

                                                                                                                • The Greek retail scene
                                                                                                                  • Greece in figures
                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                      • Figure 133: Greece: Gross domestic product, 2011-21
                                                                                                                      • Figure 134: Greece: Consumer prices inflation*, % change on previous year, 2017-21
                                                                                                                      • Figure 135: Greece: Household consumption expenditure (Incl. VAT), 2011-21
                                                                                                                      • Figure 136: Greece: Household consumption expenditure by category (incl. VAT), 2016-20
                                                                                                                    • Greek retailing in figures
                                                                                                                      • Figure 137: Greece: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2017-22
                                                                                                                      • Figure 138: Greece: Retail sales breakdown, 2017-21
                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Greece
                                                                                                                      • Figure 139: Greece: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2017-21
                                                                                                                      • Figure 140: Greece: Online purchases in the last 3 months – percentage of all individuals, 2020-21
                                                                                                                    • Major retailers in Greece
                                                                                                                      • Food retailers
                                                                                                                          • Figure 141: Greece: Leading food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                        • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                            • Figure 142: Greece: Leading non-food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                          • Hungary

                                                                                                                              • The Hungarian retail scene
                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 143: Hungary: Gross domestic product, 2012-21
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 144: Hungary: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 145: Hungary: Total consumption of households, 2012-21
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 146: Hungary: breakdown of household consumer expenditure, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                • Hungarian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 147: Hungary: Retail sales, 2017-22
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 148: Hungary: Retail sales breakdown, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Hungary
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 149: Hungary: Percentage of households with broadband internet access, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                  • Figure 150: Hungary: Online purchases in the last three months – Percentage of all individuals, 2020-21
                                                                                                                                • Major retailers in Hungary
                                                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                    • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                        • Figure 151: Hungary: Leading retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                      • Ireland

                                                                                                                                          • The Irish retail scene
                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 152: Ireland: gross domestic product, 2012-21
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 153: Ireland: consumer price inflation, % change on previous year, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 154: Ireland: final consumption expenditure of households, 2012-21
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 155: Ireland: final consumption expenditure of households by consumption purpose, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                            • Irish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 156: Ireland: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2017-22
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 157: Ireland: retail sales breakdown (excluding VAT), 2017-21
                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Ireland
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 158: Ireland: percentage of households with broadband internet access, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                              • Figure 159: Ireland: online purchases in the last three months – Percentage of all individuals, 2020-21
                                                                                                                                            • Major retailers in Ireland
                                                                                                                                              • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 160: Ireland: Leading food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 161: Ireland: leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 162: Ireland: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                  • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 163: Ireland: leading DIY specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                    • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 164: Ireland: leading furniture specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                    • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 165: Ireland: leading electrical specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                    • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 166: Ireland: leading health & beauty specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                    • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 167: Ireland: leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                    • Italy

                                                                                                                                                        • The Italian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                          • Italy in figures
                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 168: Italy: Gross domestic product, 2011-21
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 169: Italy: Consumer prices inflation*, % change on previous year, 2017-22
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 170: Italy: Household consumption* expenditure, 2011-21
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 171: Italy: Household consumption* expenditure by category, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                            • Italian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 172: Italy: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2016-22
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 173: Italy: Retail sales breakdown, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Italy
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 174: Italy: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 175: Italy: Online purchases in the last 3 months – percentage of all individuals, 2020-21
                                                                                                                                                            • Major retailers in Italy
                                                                                                                                                              • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 176: Italy: Leading food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                              • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 177: Italy: Leading mixed goods retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                              • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 178: Italy: Leading clothing and footwear retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                              • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 179: Italy: leading DIY retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                              • Electrical, furniture and household goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 180: Italy: leading electrical, furniture and household goods retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                              • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 181: Italy: leading beauty and personal care retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                              • Sporting goods specialists
                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 182: Italy: leading sports goods retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                              • Lithuania

                                                                                                                                                                  • The Lithuanian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                    • Lithuania in figures
                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 183: Lithuania: Gross domestic product, 2011-21
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 184: Lithuania: Consumer prices inflation*, % change on previous year, 2017-22
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 185: Lithuania: Household consumption expenditure, 2011-21
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 186: Lithuania: breakdown of consumer spending* by category (incl. VAT), 2016-20
                                                                                                                                                                      • Lithuanian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 187: Lithuania: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2017-22
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 188: Lithuania: Retail sales breakdown, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 189: Lithuania: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 190: Lithuania: Online purchases in the last 3 months – percentage of all individuals, 2020 and 2021
                                                                                                                                                                      • Major retailers in Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                                        • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 191: Lithuania: Leading food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                          • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 192: Lithuania: Leading non-food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and Sources
                                                                                                                                                                          • Netherlands

                                                                                                                                                                              • The Dutch retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 193: The Netherlands: gross domestic product, 2012-21
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 194: The Netherlands: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 195: The Netherlands: total consumption of households, 2012-21
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 196: The Netherlands: total consumption of households breakdown, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                • Dutch retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 197: The Netherlands: retail sales (excl. VAT), 2017-22
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 198: The Netherlands: retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in the Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 199: The Netherlands: percentage of households with broadband internet access, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 200: The Netherlands: online purchases – Percentage of all individuals, 2020-21
                                                                                                                                                                                • Major retailers in the Netherlands
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 201: The Netherlands: leading food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 202: The Netherlands: leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 203: The Netherlands: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                        • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 204: The Netherlands: leading DIY specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 205: The Netherlands: leading furniture and carpet specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 206: The Netherlands: leading electrical specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 207: The Netherlands: leading health and beauty specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 208: The Netherlands: leading miscellaneous specialist retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Norway

                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Norwegian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Norway in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 209: Norway: Gross domestic product, 2011-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 210: Norway: Consumer prices inflation (HICP), % change on previous year, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 211: Norway: Consumer expenditure (incl. VAT), 2011-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 212: Norway: Breakdown of consumer spending by category (including VAT), 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Norwegian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 213: Norway: Retail sales (excluding VAT), 2017-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 214: Norway: Breakdown of retail sales (excluding VAT), 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 215: Norway: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 216: Norway: Online purchases in the last three months – percentage of all individuals, 2020-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Leading retailers in Norway
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 217: Norway: Leading food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 218: Norway: Leading mixed goods retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 219: Norway: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 220: Norway: Leading DIY specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 221: Norway: Leading furniture specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Electricals specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 222: Norway: Leading electrical goods specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 223: Norway: Leading health & beauty specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Miscellaneous retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 224: Norway: Leading cultural, leisure and other specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Poland

                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Polish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 225: Poland: Gross domestic product, 2012-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 226: Poland: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 227: Poland: Total consumption of households, 2012-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 228: Poland: total consumption of households breakdown, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Polish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 229: Poland: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2017-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 230: Poland: retail sales breakdown, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online retailing in Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 231: Poland: Percentage of households with broadband internet access, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 232: Poland: Online purchases in the last three months – Percentage of all individuals, 2020-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Major retailers in Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 233: Poland: Leading food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • DIY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Health and beauty specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Furniture and homewares
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Online and home shopping specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 234: Poland: leading non-food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Portugal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The Portuguese retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Portugal in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 235: Portugal: Gross domestic product, 2011-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 236: Portugal: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2015-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 237: Portugal: Households consumption expenditures, 2011-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 238: Portugal: Breakdown of households consumption expenditure, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Portuguese retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 239: Portugal: Retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 240: Portugal: Breakdown of retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 241: Portugal: Percentage of all households with broadband, 2015-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 242: Portugal: Online purchases, % of all individuals, 2020-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in Portugal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 243: Portugal: Leading retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Romania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • The Romanian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Romania in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 244: Romania: Gross domestic product, 2010-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 245: Romania: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 246: Romania: Household consumption expenditures, 2010-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 247: Romania: Breakdown of consumer expenditure, by detailed category, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Romanian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 248: Romania: Retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 249: Romania: Breakdown of retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 250: Romania: Percentage of all households with broadband access, 2015-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 251: Romania: Online purchases, % of all individuals, 2020-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Major retailers in Romania
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 252: Romania: Leading retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Russia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Russian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Russia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 253: Russia: gross domestic product, 2011-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 254: Russia: consumer price inflation, % change on previous year, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 255: Russia households consumption expenditure, at current prices 2011-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Russian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 256: Russia: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 257: Russia: retail sales by broad sector (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Online retailing in Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 258: Russia: total estimated ecommerce market size, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Major retailers in Russia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 259: Russia: Select leading grocery retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 260: Russia: leading non-food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • A note about the ongoing conflict in Ukraine:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Serbia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Serbian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Serbia in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 261: Serbia: gross domestic product, 2012-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 262: Serbia: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 263: Serbia: household consumption expenditure, 2012-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 264: Serbia: Breakdown of consumer spending by category (including VAT), 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Serbian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 265: Serbia: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Serbia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 266: Serbia: Online purchases in the last three months, Percentage of all individuals, 2020-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Major retailers in Serbia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 267: Serbia: leading retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Slovakia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Slovakian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 268: Slovakia: Gross domestic product, 2011-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 269: Slovakia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 270: Slovakia: Total consumption of households, 2011-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 271: Slovakia: Total consumption of households breakdown, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Slovakian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 272: Slovakia: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2017-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 273: Slovakia: retail sales breakdown, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Online retailing in Slovakia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 274: Slovakia: Percentage of households with broadband internet access, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 275: Slovakia: Online purchases in the last three months, Percentage of all individuals, 2020-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Major retailers in Slovakia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 276: Slovakia: Leading retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Slovenia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • The Slovenian retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 277: Slovenia: Gross domestic product, 2012-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 278: Slovenia: Consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 279: Slovenia: Total consumption of households, 2012-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 280: Slovenia: total consumption of households breakdown, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Slovenian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 281: Slovenia: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2017-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 282: Slovenia: retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Slovenia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 283: Slovenia: Percentage of households with broadband internet access, 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 284: Slovenia: Online purchases in the last three months – Percentage of all individuals, 2020-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Major retailers in Slovenia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 285: Slovenia: leading food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 286: Slovenia: Leading non-food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Spain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Spanish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Spain in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 287: Spain: Gross domestic product, 2011-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 288: Spain: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 290: Spain: Breakdown of consumer expenditure, by detailed category (including VAT), 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Spanish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 291: Spain: Retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 292: Spain: retail sales breakdown (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Online retailing in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 293: Spain: Percentage of all households with broadband access, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 294: Spain: Online purchases in the past 12 months – percentage of all individuals, 2020-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Major retailers in Spain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 295: Spain: leading food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 296: Spain: Leading department store and mixed goods retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 297: Spain: Leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 298: Spain: Leading DIY specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Electrical, furniture and household goods retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 299: Leading electrical, furniture and household goods retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 300: Spain: Leading beauty specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Miscellaneous/other non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Figure 301: Spain: Leading miscellaneous/other non-food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sweden

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The Swedish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sweden in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 302: Sweden: gross domestic product, 2012-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 303: Sweden: consumer prices inflation, % change on year, 2012-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 304: Sweden: consumer expenditure (incl VAT), 2010-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 305: Sweden: breakdown of consumer spending by category (including VAT), 2015-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Swedish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 306: Sweden: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 307: Sweden: breakdown of retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Online retailing in Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 308: Sweden: percentage of all households with broadband access, 2015-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Figure 309: Sweden: online purchases in the past three months – Percentage of all individuals, 2020-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Major retailers in Sweden
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 310: Sweden: leading food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 311: Sweden: leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 312: Sweden: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 313: Sweden: leading DIY specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Furniture specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 314: Sweden: leading furniture specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 315: Sweden: leading electrical specialist retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 316: Sweden: leading beauty and personal care specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 317: Sweden: major leisure, cultural and other specialist retailers,2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Switzerland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • The Swiss retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Switzerland in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 318: Switzerland: gross domestic product, 2012-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 319: Switzerland: consumer prices inflation, % change on previous year, 2015-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 320: Switzerland: households consumption expenditure, 2012-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Swiss retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 321: Switzerland: retail sales (excluding VAT), 2017-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 322: Switzerland: detailed retail sales breakdown, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Online retailing in Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Figure 323: Switzerland: Online purchases in the last three months, Percentage of all individuals, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Major retailers in Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 324: Switzerland: leading retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Turkey

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • The Turkish retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Turkey in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 325: Turkey Gross Domestics Product, 2012-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 326: Turkey: Consumer prices, % change on previous year, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 327: Turkey: Household consumption expenditures, 2009-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 328: Turkey: Breakdown of consumer expenditure, by detailed category, 2015-20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Turkish retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 329: Turkey: Retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 330: Turkey: Breakdown of retail sales (excluding VAT), 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Online retailing in Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 331: Turkey: Percentage of all households with broadband access, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 332: Turkey: Online purchases, % of all individuals, 2020-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Major retailers in Turkey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Figure 333: Turkey: Leading retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Contacts and sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • UK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • The UK retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • The UK in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 334: UK: Gross domestic product, 2011-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 335: UK: Consumer price inflation (CPIH), % increase on previous year, 2011-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 336: UK: Domestic H=household consumption expenditure, 2011-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 337: UK: breakdown of consumer spending, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • UK retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 338: UK: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2017-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 339: UK: Retail sales breakdown (excl. VAT), 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Online retailing in the UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 340: UK: Online retail sales (inc. VAT) and share of total retail sales by online, 2017-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 341: UK: Products purchased online in the past 12 months, 2019-22
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Major retailers in the UK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Figure 342: UK: leading food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Mixed goods and department stores
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 343: UK: Leading mixed goods and department store retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Clothing and footwear specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 344: UK: leading clothing and footwear specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • DIY specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 345: UK: Leading DIY specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Home and electrical specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 346: UK: Leading furniture, homewares and electrical goods specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Beauty and personal care specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 347: UK: leading health and beauty specialists, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Miscellaneous specialists
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Figure 348: UK: leading miscellaneous specialists retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Contacts and Sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ukraine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • The Ukraine retail scene
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Ukraine in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 349: Ukraine: gross domestic product, 2011-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 350: Ukraine: consumer price inflation, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 351: Ukraine: household consumption expenditure, 2012-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 352: Ukraine: breakdown of household consumption expenditure, 2016-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Ukrainian retailing in figures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Figure 353: Ukraine: Retail sales (excl. VAT), 2017-21
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Major retailers in Ukraine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 354: Ukraine: leading food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Non-food retailers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Figure 355: Ukraine: leading non-food retailers, 2021
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Contacts and Sources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • A note about the ongoing conflict in Ukraine:

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