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Tourism and the Arab Spring Effect - March 2013

The Arab Spring was essentially an awakening of political consciousness throughout the Middle East, which began at the tail end of 2010 and continues today. Definitions of the Middle East vary; for the purpose of this report it is a collective term used to describe specific countries in South West Asia and extended to include some North African countries.
It begins by providing a broad overview of tourism and its context (including economy, politics and population) in the Middle East. It also examines arrivals in the region and the effect of the Arab uprisings on these, paying particular attention to Bahrain, Syria and the Yemen – countries where demonstrators wanted regime change, but where this has not occurred. The events in Morocco are also considered here.
If defined by revolutionary change, the Arab Spring has been most keenly experienced in Egypt, Libya and Tunisia, where the protests did achieve regime change. This report gives an in-depth assessment of how the Arab Spring has affected the tourism industries in these countries, including its impact on international arrivals and tourism expenditure, as well as any opportunities created by the Arab Spring.
There are also examples of destinations that have benefited from the downturn in the number of arrivals to some destinations in the MENA region. Finally, it considers the longer-term prognosis for tourism in the region.

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Table of contents

  1. Introduction

    • Data Sources

      • Overview

          • Defining the Middle East
            • Figure 1: Defining the Middle East, 2013
          • Political and economic context
            • Population trends
              • Figure 2: Mid-year population estimates in the Middle East, by country and year, 1950-2050
            • Economy
              • Figure 3: GDP in the Middle East, by country, 2008-13
            • Politics
              • Religion
                • Ethnicity
                • Tourism and the Arab Spring Effect

                    • Figure 4: International tourist arrivals to the Middle East & North Africa, 2008-13
                    • Figure 5: International tourist arrivals in the Middle East by country, 2008-13
                    • Figure 6: Contribution of tourism to GDP in the Middle East, by country, 2008-13
                    • Figure 7: Tourism & employment in the Middle East by country, 2008-13
                  • The cases of Bahrain, Morocco, Syria and Yemen
                    • Bahrain
                      • Morocco
                        • Syria
                          • Yemen
                            • Egypt and the Arab Spring
                              • Tourism in Egypt
                                • Turbulent times
                                  • Key events in the Arab Spring
                                    • Egyptian tourism and the Arab Spring
                                      • Figure 8: International tourism in Egypt, 2008-13
                                    • Moving on
                                      • Rebranding Egypt
                                        • New attractions and developments
                                          • Opportunities for tourism in post-revolutionary Egypt
                                              • Figure 9: Domestic travel & tourism spending in Egypt, 2008-13
                                            • Tourism recovery
                                              • Industry insight: how the current wave of unrest is affecting tourism recovery in Egypt
                                                • Libya and the Arab Spring
                                                  • Tourism in Libya
                                                    • Key events
                                                      • Tourist arrivals
                                                        • Figure 10: International tourism in Libya, 2008-13
                                                      • Moving on
                                                        • Challenges for tourism development
                                                          • Opportunities for tourism development
                                                            • Domestic tourism
                                                              • Figure 11: Domestic travel & tourism spending in Libya, 2008-13
                                                            • Industry insight: a fledgling tourism industry
                                                              • Tunisia and the Arab Spring
                                                                • Tourism in Tunisia
                                                                  • Key events
                                                                    • Tourist arrivals
                                                                      • Figure 12: International tourism in Tunisia, 2008-13
                                                                    • Moving on
                                                                      • Proactive approach to tourism recovery
                                                                        • The role of domestic tourism
                                                                          • Figure 13: Domestic travel & tourism spending in Tunisia, 2008-13
                                                                        • Opportunities for tourism development
                                                                          • Prognosis for tourism development
                                                                            • Industry insight: the Jasmine Revolution and tourism demand in Tunisia
                                                                            • Destinations That Benefited from the Arab Spring

                                                                                • Canary Islands
                                                                                  • Figure 14: International tourist arrivals in the Canary Islands, 2008-13
                                                                                • Industry insight
                                                                                  • Dubai
                                                                                    • Figure 15: International tourist arrivals in Dubai, 2008-13
                                                                                    • Figure 16: Tourism & the economy in the UAE, 2008-13
                                                                                  • Turkey
                                                                                    • Figure 17: International tourism in Turkey, 2008-13
                                                                                    • Figure 18: Arrivals to Turkey from Africa & West Asia, by nationality, 2010-12
                                                                                    • Figure 19: Arrivals to Turkey from its key European source markets, 2010-12
                                                                                • What Next?

                                                                                      • Figure 20: Middle East arrivals forecast, by country, 2014-22
                                                                                      • Figure 21: Visitor exports forecast for the Middle East, by country, 2014-22

                                                                                  Tourism and the Arab Spring Effect - March 2013

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